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THE^dURNALOFTHE 

ALABAMA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 



Qll 
• J 68 
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VOLUME 


JANUARY,'198.9 



























COVER PHOTOGRAPH: Hydraulic powered ichthoplankton trawl used by the 
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) to collect larval fishes on main¬ 
stream Tennessee River reservoirs. This gear was one of several used 
to collect early life phases of skipjack herring, Alosa chrysoahlovis 
(Rafinesque) in Alabama and Tennessee waters. For further informa¬ 
tion see article on page 39. Photograph courtesy of TVA. 

Robert Wallus is a fisheries biologist for TVA's Aquatic Biology 
Department. Larry Kay is a radiochemical analyst at TVA's Western 
Area Radiological Laboratory in Muscle Shoals, Alabama. 



THE JOURNAL 


OF THE 

ALABAMA ACADEMY 
OF SCIENCE 

AFFILIATED WITH THE 


LIBRARY 

AM Y 2 4 jg&y 

A ° m * N. H. 


AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE 


ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 


VOLUME 60 JANUARY, 1989 NO. 1 


EDITOR: 

W. H. Mason, Extension Cottage, Auburn University, AL 36849 
ARCHIVIST: 

C. M. Peterson, Department of Botany, and Microbiology, Auburn University, 
AL 36849 

EDITORIAL BOARD: 

J. T. Bradley, Chairman, Department of Zoology-Entomology, Auburn 
University, AL 36849 

Charles Baugh, 1005 Medical Science Building, University of South Alabama, 
Mobile, AL 36688 

J. W. Sulentic, P.O. Box 1921, University of Alabama, University, AL 35486 
Publication and Subscription Policies 

Submission of Manuscripts: Submit all manuscripts and pertinent 
correspondence to the EDITOR. Each manuscript will receive two simultaneous 
reviews. For style details, follow instructions to Authors (see inside back cover). 

Reprints: Requests for reprints must be addressed to authors. 

Subscriptions and Journal Exchanges: Address all correspondence to the 
CHAIRMAN OF THE EDITORIAL BOARD 


ISSN 002-4112 



BENEFACTORS OF THE 
JOURNAL OF THE 
ALABAMA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 


The following have provided financial support 
to partially defray publication costs of the Journal. 


AUBURN UNIVERSITY 
BIRMINGHAM - SOUTHERN COLLEGE 
UNIVERSITY OF MONTEVALLO 
AUBURN UNIVERSITY AT MONTGOMERY 
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA 
TROY STATE UNIVERSITY 
UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA AT BIRMINGHAM 
JACKSONVILLE STATE UNIVERSITY 
TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY 
UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA 
UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA AT HUNTSVILLE 
TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY 
MOBILE COLLEGE 
UNIVERSITY OF NORTH ALABAMA 







CONTENTS 




ARTICLES 


Distribution and Status of Rare or Environmentally 
Sensitive Fishes in the Lower Cahaba River, Alabama 
J. Malcolm Pierson, R. Stephen Krotzer, 

and Stephanie G. Puleo... 1 

Spiroplasma floriaola Isolated from Flowers in Alabama 

Clauzell Stevens, Algem Patterson, Reynolds M. Cody, 

and Robert T. Gudauskas.11 

Alabama's Grain Marketing System in the 1980's 

James L. Stallings ..16 

Strategic Planning as a Management Development Tool 

William I. Sauser, Jr.29 

Descriptions of Young Skipjack Herring, with Notes on 
Early Life Ecology 

Robert Wallus and Larry K. Kay.39 


REVIEW 

Davenport Larry J., 1988. Charles Mohr } Botanist in Alabama 
Heritage . 

Reviewed by: Norton L. Marshall . 48 

































































Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 60, No. 1, January 1989. 


DISTRIBUTION AND STATUS OF RARE OR ENVIRONMENTALLY SENSITIVE 
FISHES IN THE LOWER CAHABA RIVER, ALABAMA 1 

J. Malcolm Pierson, R. Stephen Krotzer, and Stephanie G. Puleo 2 
Department of Environmental Affairs 
Alabama Power Company 
P.O. Box 2641 
Birmingham, AL 35291 


ABSTRACT 

Eighty-four collections were made in the lower Cahaba River drain¬ 
age, a major tributary of the Alabama River in central Alabama, with 
seine, gill nets, and electrofishing equipment from May 1981 to June 
1986. Over 32,000 specimens were collected representing 20 families and 
104 species. Distribution records are presented for 13 rare or environ¬ 
mentally sensitive fishes that occupy the main channel Cahaba River or a 
few of its larger tributaries; five of the species have been assigned 
some form of conservation status. Range extensions were discovered for 
Notropis sp. cf. voluoellus (undescribed Cahaba shiner), Percina auro- 
lineata (goldline darter), and Percina sp. cf. copelandi (undescribed 
channel darter) . Notropis candidus (silverside shiner) is reported from 
the Cahaba River for the first time. Many Alabama rivers have undergone 
various degrees of environmental stress; populations of many species 
have been reduced or eliminated in these systems. While the upper 
Cahaba River has apparently been impacted by some of these same 
stresses, it appears that the lower section of the Cahaba River could be 
serving as a refugium for several vulnerable riverine species. 

INTRODUCTION 

The Cahaba River, located within the Mobile Bay Drainage, is a ma¬ 
jor tributary of the Alabama River in central Alabama. The headwaters 
of the Cahaba are located northeast of Birmingham in St. Clair County, 
within the Ridge and Valley physiographic region. The river flows for 
307 kilometers in a southwestern and then southern direction through the 
Fall Line Hills and the Black Belt, respectively, before it joins the 
Alabama River in Dallas County near Selma. Above the Fall Line, the 
Cahaba River can be classified as a small to medium stream consisting of 
long pools interrupted by whitewater shoals of varying lengths. These 
shoals are made up of bedrock, vertical rock slabs, boulders, cobble, 
and some gravel and sand. Below the drops of the Fall Line, near Cen- 
treville, the river deepens and begins to meander. Shoals in this sec¬ 
tion consist of large gravel bars or islands that constrict the flow of 
the river, creating gravel and cobble riffles and swift runs. Further 
downstream the coarse gravel and cobble substrate is replaced by fine 


1 Manuscript received 14 September 1988; accepted 21 October 1988. 

2 Address: Route 2, Box 722, Calera, AL 35040 


1 





Pierson, Krotzer, and Puleo 


gravel, sand, and silt. In this lower section the current slows, ex¬ 
posed sand or gravel bars become less frequent, and pools increase in 
length. The river is noticeably deeper and more entrenched in this 
section. 

The first report of fishes from the Gahaba system was based on an 
1889 seine sample at Helena by Gilbert (1891). The next was a study of 
the genus Notropis in Alabama by Howell (1957). Notropis uranoscopus 
(skygazer shiner) was described from the Cahaba by Suttkus in 1959, and 
Peraina lentiaula (freckled darter) was described by Richards and Knapp 
in 1964. The first faunal survey of Cahaba fishes was accomplished in 
1963 by May; she reported on 36 collections from the Cahaba drainage. 
Hackney et al. (1968) studied the life history of Moxostoma carinatum 
(river redhorse) in the Cahaba River. Suttkus and Ramsey (1967), in 
their description of Peraina aurolineata, the goldline darter, reported 
on collections of main channel fishes between Helena and Centreville. 
Freeman (1974) conducted a survey of fishes in the Little Cahaba system. 
Seehorn (1976) included collection data from the Cahaba system provided 
by Boschung and Mettee (1974). Ramsey compiled a list of Cahaba 
drainage fishes for a U.S. Forest Service Report by Kaufmann and Wise 
(1978). Ramsey (1978) also compiled a list of unusual fishes and their 
distribution in the Cahaba. In the same year, Stiles reported on the 
status of the goldline darter and Notropis sp. cf. volucellus 
(undescribed Cahaba shiner) in the Cahaba and Little Cahaba rivers. 
Ramsey et al. (1980) reported on sampling rare fishes in the Cahaba. 
Howell et al. (1982) and Ramsey (1982) conducted independent surveys in 
the Cahaba to determine the status, distribution, and habitat 
requirements of the Cahaba shiner and the goldline darter. 

Most of the upper Cahaba River, from just above the Fall Line in 
Bibb County (River Bend) to Trussville in northeastern Jefferson County, 
has been heavily collected; the lower Cahaba River ichthyofauna, how¬ 
ever, has not been well documented. This study adds substantially to 
the existing knowledge of the occurrence, distribution, and abundance of 
rare or environmentally sensitive fishes in the lower Cahaba River. 

MATERIAL AND METHODS 

Eighty-four collections were made in the lower Cahaba drainage with 
seines, gill nets, backpack electrofisher, and boat-mounted electrofish¬ 
ing equipment. Collections were made from May 1981 to June 1986 in the 
main channel and major tributaries from approximately 20 kilometers 
above the Fall Line to the confluence with the Alabama River, a distance 
of about 150 river kilometers (Figure 1). This is a remote section of 
the Cahaba River; collection sites suitable for seining were usually not 
accessible by state highway or county road crossings. Canoes or small 
johnboats were often used on day trips or overnight floats in an attempt 
to access and sample all habitat types. 

RESULTS 

Over 32,000 fishes were collected representing 20 families and 104 
species. Several of the riverine species collected have been assigned 


2 


Environmentally Sensitive Fishes in the Lower Cahaba River 



Figure 1. Sample stations from the lower 
Cahaba River system, Alabama. 


some form of conservation status. The Cahaba shiner, the goldline dar¬ 
ter, Scaphirhynehus sp. cf. platorynahus (undescribed Alabama shovelnose 
sturgeon), Noturus munitus (frecklebelly madtom), and the freckled dar¬ 
ter are currently under status review by the United States Fish and 
Wildlife Service Office of Endangered Species. The State of Alabama 


3 









Pierson, Krotzer, and Puleo 


lists the Alabama shovelnose sturgeon and the frecklebelly madtom as 
endangered and Ammocrypta asprella (crystal darter) and the freckled 
darter as threatened (Ramsey 1976). The American Fisheries Society 
Endangered Species Committee lists the Alabama shovelnose sturgeon and 
the Cahaba shiner as endangered; the frecklebelly madtom, goldline 
darter, and freckled darter are listed as threatened and the crystal 
darter as of special concern (Deacon et al.. 1979). In a recent publica¬ 
tion (Mount 1986), the Cahaba shiner was considered endangered, the 
goldline darter threatened, and the frecklebelly madtom and crystal 
darter of special concern; the Alabama shovelnose sturgeon was listed as 
status poorly known. 

One Alabama shovelnose sturgeon was sighted while boat electrofish¬ 
ing in the lower reach of the Cahaba River (station 5) . An additional 
confirmed specimen was caught by trotline fishermen at station 7. A 
status survey report by Burke and Ramsey (1985) documents seven occur¬ 
rences of this sturgeon in the Cahaba River since 1969; the authors 
indicated that the shovelnose sturgeon has occurred in much reduced 
numbers since the closing of Miller's Ferry Dam on the Alabama River in 
1969. Sixty specimens of Noturus munitus were collected from 11 main 
channel sites in a 57 km section of the Cahaba (stations 23, 29, 32, 33, 
34, 35, 36, 40, 41, 42, and 45). This madtom was usually collected in 
low numbers over stable gravel or sand/gravel riffles. Seventy speci¬ 
mens of Ammocrypta asprella were collected from 9 main channel locations 
in a 79 km stretch of the Cahaba (stations 5, 7, 19, 24, 26, 29, 34, 36, 
and 41). Crystal darters were usually collected at night over stable 
gravel in moderate to fast current. At the lower collection sites, 
crystal darters were occasional to common over sand or a sand/gravel 
combination. Eight specimens of Percina lenticula were collected from 
four widely separated sites (stations 20, 31, 48, and 54). Two sites 
were above the Fall Line in the lower reaches of major tributaries, and 
two sites were well below the Fall Line in the main channel of the 
river. The freckled darter was always collected in heavy cover such as 
Justicia beds, treetops, or logs in moderate to fast current. 

Range extensions are noted for four species. Eleven specimens of 
Notropis candidus (silverside shiner) were collected at three locations 
in the main channel of the Cahaba River as far as 40 km upstream from 
its confluence with the Alabama River (stations 3, 4, and 24). This is 
the first report of N. candidus from the Cahaba. This Mobile Basin 
endemic was collected in slow to moderate current over a substrate of 
sand with scattered patches of silt and leaf litter. Fifty-six speci¬ 
mens of the undescribed Cahaba shiner were collected at seven locations 
(stations 32, 36, 40, 42, 45, 50, and 51); four of these sites were well 
below the Fall Line. These records extend the known range of the Cahaba 
shiner 37 km downstream of the Fall Line. Cahaba shiners were most of¬ 
ten collected over a sand substrate in slow current, but specimens were 
occasionally taken in shallow gravel riffles. Fifteen specimens of Per¬ 
cina aurolineata were collected from seven stations in a 14 km section 
of the main channel of the Cahaba River above the Fall Line and in the 
lower 12 km of the Little Cahaba River (stations 45, 46, 48, 49, 51, 54, 
and 55). One individual was collected from Schultz Creek 3 km upstream 
from its confluence with the Cahaba (station 48). The goldline darter 


4 



Environmentally Sensitive Fishes in the Lower Cahaba River 


was previously thought to be restricted to the main channel of the Caha¬ 
ba and Little Cahaba rivers. Adults and juveniles were usually found in 
moderate to fast current over small boulders, cobble, or coarse gravel, 
but were also observed in patches of Justiaia in moderate current. Sev¬ 
en specimens of Pereina sp, cf. copelandi (undescribed channel darter) 
were collected at seven locations (stations 33, 34, 36, 45, 47, 49, and 
58). These collections extend the range of this undescribed form 28 km 
downstream onto the Coastal Plain. This darter was collected over sand 
or fine gravel in moderate current. 

Several other riverine forms that were collected are being impacted 
over much of their historical range. Suttkus and Clemmer (1968) report¬ 
ed Notropis edwardraneyi (fluvial shiner) from the main channel of the 
river upstream as far as 14 km above the Fall Line and from the lower 
section of Oakmulgee Creek. During the present study, N. edwardraneyi 
was collected only at stations 3, 4, 5, and 19. This represents a con¬ 
siderable reduction of its former range in the Cahaba drainage. Notrop¬ 
is uranoscopus was commonly collected in the main channel of the Cahaba 
River (33 of 36 stations) , and it occurred in low numbers in several 
large tributaries (stations 8, 52, 54, and 55). Moxostoma earinatum was 
collected from seven stations in the main channel of the Cahaba, from 
its confluence with the Alabama River upstream to the first Fall Line 
shoals (stations 1, 5, 24, 26, 34, 36, and 45); one adult was collected 
in Schultz Creek, a medium-sized tributary, 3 km upstream from its con¬ 
fluence with the Cahaba (station 48) . Etheostoma histrio (harlequin 
darter) was collected at two main channel sites, one above and one below 
the Fall Line (stations 36 and 45); this species is mentioned because 
the Cahaba River is near the eastern limit of its range. Pereina vigil 
(saddleback darter) occupies approximately the same range and habitat in 
the Cahaba as Noturus munitus . The saddleback darter was collected at 
13 locations in stable cobble or gravel runs and riffles (stations 24, 
26, 29, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 41, 42, 45, 46, and 51). 

Fishes that were documented prior to this study in the lower Cahaba 
River but were not collected in the present study include: Acipenser 
oxyrhynchus (Atlantic sturgeon), Alosa alabamae (Alabama shad), Hybo- 
gnatkus nuahalis (Mississippi silvery minnow), Notropis oaeruleus (blue 
shiner), Cycleptus elongatus (blue sucker), Fundulus stellifer (southern 
studf ish), and Mugil aephalus (striped mullet). Acipenser oxyrhynchus 
was last documented from the Cahaba River at Centreville in Bibb County 
in 1941 by newspaper accounts and photographs. Alosa alabamae, Hybo- 
gnathus nuahalis t Fundulus stellifer 3 and Mugil aephalus were last col¬ 
lected from the Cahaba in 1969. Notropis oaeruleus was last collected 
in the Cahaba by Suttkus in 1971. 

Miller’s Ferry Dam, on the Alabama River near Camden, was closed in 
1969, creating Dannelly Reservoir. This impoundment affects flows in 
the lower 20 km of the Cahaba River, creating a lentic habitat with mud 
and silt substrate. The dam presents a physical barrier to upstream 
movement from the Alabama River Into the Cahaba, which could explain the 
absence of the Atlantic sturgeon, Alabama shad, and striped mullet. In¬ 
creased siltation and organic enrichment from upstream development in 
Jefferson and Shelby counties could account for the apparent extirpation 


5 




Pierson, Krotzer, and Puleo 


of the blue shiner from the Cahaba River. The Mississippi silvery min¬ 
now possibly depended on a free-flowing Alabama River for some portion 
of its life history. This hypothesis was first presented by Etnier et 
al. (1979) with regard to the disappearance of the Mississippi silvery 
minnow from the Tennessee River system since the early 1940's. Cyclep- 
tus elongatus was taken from the Cahaba River by Burke and Ramsey (1985) 
during their Alabama shovelnose sturgeon survey. 

In summary, the Cahaba system has been stressed by a variety of 
upstream disturbances that have apparently contributed to the reduction 
and/or absence of several forms that historically occurred here. Other 
obligate riverine species have, however, maintained stable populations 
in the lower section of the main channel of the Cahaba River, which 
continues to support a diverse and unique assemblage of Mobile Basin 
freshwater fishes. 


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

Others contributing to this study were John Burke, Frank Crane, 
Jr., Jack Turner, Jim Williams, Werner Wieland, David Nieland, Bob 
Stiles, Mike Paessun, Ed Tyberghein, Larry Overstreet, and several 
members of the Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. 
David Etnier provided University of Tennessee field collection data from 
the lower Cahaba River at U.S. Highway 80. Herbert Boschung and John 
Ramsey allowed us to examine records at the University of Alabama 
Ichthyological Collection and the Auburn University fish collection, 
respectively. 


LOCATION OF COLLECTION SITES IN THE 
LOWER CAHABA RIVER SYSTEM, ALABAMA 


1. Cahaba River near confluence with the Alabama River, Dallas County, 
T16N R10E sec29 

2. Cahaba River 11.2 km WSW of Selma, Dallas County, T16N R9E secll 

3. Cahaba River 11.0 km WSW of Selma, Dallas County, T16N R9E sec02 

4. Cahaba River 5.1 km ESE of Marion Junction, Dallas County, T17N R9E 

sec28 

5. Cahaba River 7.2 km ENE of Marion Junction, Dallas County, T17N R9E 
seclO 

6. Cahaba River 8.0 km ENE of Marion Junction, Dallas County, T17N R9E 
seclO 

7. Cahaba River 9.1 km NE of Marion Junction, Dallas County, T17N R9E 
sec03 

8. Oakmulgee Creek at the confluence with the Cahaba River, 8.3 km ENE 
of Marion Junction, Dallas County, T17N R9E seclO 


6 







9. 

10 . 

11 . 


12 . 

13. 

14. 

15. 

16. 

17. 

18. 

19. 

20 . 
21 . 
22 . 

23. 

24. 

25. 

26. 

27. 

28. 

29. 

30. 

31. 

32. 

33. 


Environmentally Sensitive Fishes in the Lower Cahaba River 


Oakmulgee Creek 10.9 km NW of Selma, Alabama Highway 14, Dallas 
County, T17N R9E secOl 

Oakmulgee Creek 7.7 km SE of Suttle, Perry County, T18N R10E sec30 
Oakmulgee Creek 4.8 km W of Summerfield, Dallas County, T18N R10E 
sec20 

Oakmulgee Creek 8.3 km E of Suttle, Alabama Highway 219, Perry/ 
Dallas County, T18N R10E secl7 

Little Oakmulgee Creek 8.0 km N of Summerfield, Dallas County, T19N 
R10E sec26 

Oakmulgee Creek 8.8 km NNE of Perryville, Perry County, T20N R10E 
sec20 

Unnamed tributary to Beaverdam Creek at the confluence with 
Beaverdam Creek, Alabama Highway 219, Perry County, T21N R10E sec07 
Silver Creek 8.0 km SSE of Radford, Alabama Highway 14, Perry 
County, T18N R9E sec21 

Cahaba River 11.8 km SE of Marion, Perry County, T18N R8E secl2 

Cahaba River 10.7 km SE of Marion, Perry County, T18N R8E sec02 

Cahaba River 3.7 km SW of Radford, Perry County, T18N R8E secOl 

Cahaba River 2.6 km WSW of Radford, Perry County, T19N R8E sec36 
Cahaba River 5.4 km SSW of Sprott, Perry County, T19N R8E secll 

Waters Creek 8.3 km SE of Sprott, County Route 10, Perry County, 

T19N R9E secl5 


Cahaba River 3.4 km SW of Sprott, Perry County, T19N R8E sec02 

Cahaba River 1.9 km SW of Sprott, Perry County, T20N R8E sec35 

Goose Creek 1.4 km SSE of Sprott, Perry County, T20N R9E sec31 
Cahaba River 10.4 km NE of Marion, Perry County, T20N R8E sec23 
Cahaba River 5.4 km NNW of Sprott, Perry County, T20N R8E seclO 
Cahaba River 11.2 km NNE of Marion, Perry County, T20N R8E seclO 
Cahaba River 11.0 km NNE of Marion, Perry County, T20N R8E seclO 
Cahaba River 3.2 km SE of Heiberger, Perry County, T21N R8E sec34 

Cahaba River 2.1 km NE of Heiberger, Perry County, T21N R8E sec28 

Cahaba River 4.8 km NE of Heiberger, Perry County, T21N R8E sec!5 

Cahaba River 6.9 km SSW of Harrisburg, Perry County, T21N R8E secll 


7 





Pierson, Krotzer, and Puleo 


34. Cahaba River 13.3 km SW of Centreville, Bibb County, T22N R9E sec31 

35. Cahaba River 12.6 km SW of Centreville, Bibb County, T22N R9E sec31 

36. Cahaba River at the confluence with Affonee Creek 11.7 km SW of 
Centreville, Bibb County, T22N R9E sec29 

37. Cahaba River 12.0 km SW of Centreville, Bibb County, T22N R9E sec29 

38. Blue Girth Creek and unnamed tributary to Blue Girth Creek 1.8 km 
SE of Pondville, Bibb County, T22N R8E sec08 

39. Affonee Creek 8.3 km WSW of Brent, unpaved county road, Bibb 
County, T23N R8E sec35 

40. Cahaba River 9.6 km SSW of Centreville, Bibb County, T22N R9E sec21 

41. Cahaba River 8.0 km SSW of Centreville, Bibb County, T22N R9E sec22 

42. Cahaba River 4.8 km S of Centreville, Bibb County, T22N R9E secll 

43. Haysop Creek and tributary to Haysop Creek 1.6 km SW of Brent, 
Alabama Highway 5, Bibb County, T23N R9E sec33 

44. Cahaba River 1.1 km S of Centreville, Bibb County, T23N R9E sec35 

45. Cahaba River at Centreville, upstream of U.S. Highway 82, Bibb 
County, T23N R9E sec26 

46. Cahaba River 2.4 km N of Centreville, Bibb County, T23N R9E secl4 

47. Schultz Creek at confluence with Cahaba River 8.8 km NNE of 
Centreville, Bibb County, T24N R9E secl2 

48. Schultz Creek 6.4 km NNW of Centreville, Alabama Highway 219, Bibb 
County, T23N R9E sec02 

49. Cahaba River 7.2 km NNE of Centreville, Bibb County, T24N R10E 
sec32 

50. Cahaba River 9.3 km NE of Centreville, Bibb County, T24N R10E sec33 

51. Cahaba River 9.9 km NE of Centreville, County Road 27, Bibb County, 
T24N R10E sec33 

52. Sixmile Creek 6.1 km NW of Sixmile, near confluence with Little 
Cahaba River, Bibb County, T24N R10E sec23 

53. Sixmile Creek 4.0 km NW of Sixmile, Bibb County, T24N R10E sec25 

54. Little Cahaba River 10.4 km SE of West Blocton, Bibb County, T24N 
R10E sec23 

55. Little Cahaba River 11.7 km SE of West Blocton, County Road 65 
(Bulldog Bend), Bibb County, T24N R10E secl3 

56. Copperas Creek 4.2 km SE of Sixmile, unnumbered county road, Bibb 
County, T23N R11E secl6 


8 




Enviromentally Sensitive Fishes in the Lower Cahaba River 

57. Sixmile Creek 6.4 km N of Randolph, Alabama Highway 139, Bibb 
County, T23N R12E secl9 

58. Cahaba River 6.7 km SE of West Blocton, Bibb County, T24N R10E 
secl6 

LITERATURE CITED 

Boschung, H. T. and M. F. Mettee. 1974. A study of the fishes of the 
national forests of Alabama: U.S. Forest Service Contract No. 
38-2568, 358 pp. 

Burke, J. S. and J. S. Ramsey. 1985. Status survey on the Alabama 

shovelnose sturgeon ( Scaphirhynchus sp. cf. platorynchus ) in the 
Mobile Bay drainage. Report to U.S. Fish and Wild. Serv., Jackson, 
MS. 61 pp. 

Deacon, J. E., G. Kobetich, J. D. Williams and S. Contreras. 1979. 
Fishes of North America endangered, threatened, or of special 
concern: 1979. Fisheries 4(2):29-44. 

Etnier, D. A., W. C. Starnes and B. H. Bauer. 1979. Whatever happened 
to the silvery minnow ( Hybognathus nuchalis ) in the Tennessee 
River? Southeastern Fishes Council Proc. 2(3):1-3. 

Freeman, B. J. 1974. Studies on the fishes of the Little Cahaba River 
system in Alabama. M.S. thesis, Samford University, Birmingham, 
Alabama. 41 pp. 

Gilbert, C. H. 1891. Report of explorations made in Alabama during 
1889, with notes on the fishes of the Tennessee, Alabama, and 
Escambia rivers. Bull. U.S. Fish Comm. 9(1889):143-159, pi. XLIII. 

Hackney, P. A., W. M. Tatum and S. L. Spencer. 1968. Life history 
study of the river redhorse, Moxostoma carinatum (Cope), in the 
Cahaba River, Alabama, with notes on the management of the species 
as a sport fish. Southeast. Game and Fish Comm. 21st Ann. Proc., 
pp. 324-332. 

I Howell, H. H. 1957. A taxonomic and distributional study of the genus 
Notropis in Alabama. M.S. thesis, University of Alabama, 
Tuscaloosa. 288 pp. 

Howell, W. M. t R. A. Stiles and J. S. Brown. 1982. Status survey of 
the Cahaba shiner ( Notropis sp.) and the goldline darter (Percina 
auvolineata) in the Cahaba River from Trussville to Booth Ford, 
Alabama. Report to U.S. Fish and Wild. Serv., Jackson, MS. 

148 pp. 

Kaufmann, T. R. and R. D. Wise. 1978. Wild and scenic river report, 

Cahaba River, Alabama. U. S. Forest Service, Atlanta, GA. 209 pp. 


9 








Pierson, Krotzer, and Puleo 


May, M. M. 1963. A study of the fishes of the Cahaba River drainage 
system. M.S. thesis, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa. 47 pp. 

Mount, R. H. (ed.). 1986. Vertebrate animals of Alabama in need of 
special attention. Ala. Agr. Expt. Sta., Auburn Univ. 124 pp. 

Ramsey, J. S. 1976. Freshwater fishes. Pages 53-71 in H. Boschung, 

ed. Endangered and threatened plants and animals of Alabama. Bull. 
Alabama Mus. Nat. Hist. 2. 

Ramsey, J. S. 1978. Unusual fishes and their distribution in the 

Cahaba River, Alabama. Pages 22-30 in J. Randolph, ed. Citizens' 
study for a national wild and scenic Cahaba River. Alabama 
Conservancy, Birmingham. 

Ramsey, J. S. 1982. Habitat and distribution of the Cahaba shiner and 
appraisal of methods for its capture. Report to U.S. Fish and 
Wild. Serv. Division of Federal Assistance, Atlanta, GA. 75 pp. 

Ramsey, J. S., W. Wieland, R. K. Wallace and T. J. Timmons. 1980. 
Sampling rare fishes in the Cahaba River, Alabama. Assoc. 
Southeast. Biol. Bull. 27(2) : 58 . 

Richards, W. J. and L. W. Knapp. 1964. Peraina lenticula, a new percid 
fish, with a redescription of the subgenus Hadropterus . Copeia 
(4):690-701. 

Seehorn, M. E. 1976. Fishes of the southeastern national forests. 

Proc. Southeast. Assoc. Game Fish Comm. 29(1975):10-27. 

Stiles, R. A. 1978. A report on the status of the goldline darter, 
Peraina aurolineata, and the Cahaba shiner, Notropis sp., in the 
Cahaba River system of Alabama. Birmingham Area Chamber of 
Commerce, Birmingham. 6 pp., 2 maps + Appendix. 

Suttkus, R. D. 1959. Notropis uranosaopus , a new cyprinid fish from 
the Alabama River system. Copeia (1):7—11. 

Suttkus, R. D. and G. H. Clemmer. 1968. Notropis edwardraneyi, a new 
cyprinid fish from the Alabama and Tombigbee River systems and a 
discussion of related species. Tulane Stud, in Zool. 15(1):18-39. 

Suttkus, R. D. and J. S. Ramsey. 1967. Percina aurolineata, a new 
percid fish from the Alabama River system and a discussion of 
ecology, distribution, and hybridization of darters of the subgenus 
Hadropterus. Tulane Stud, in Zool. 13(4): 129-145. 


10 





Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 60, No. 1, January 1989. 


SPIROPLASMA FLORICOLA ISOLATED FROM FLOWERS IN ALABAMA 1 

Clauzell Stevens and Algem Patterson 
Department of Agricultural Sciences 
Tuskegee University _, AL 26088 

Reynolds M. Cody 

Department of Botany and Microbiology 
Ala. Agric. Exp. Sta. 

Auburn University, AL 26849 

and 

Robert T. Gudauskas 

Department of Plant Pathology 
Ala. Agric. Exp. Sta. 

Auburn University } AL 26849 

ABSTRACT 

Spiroplasma floricola was isolated from surfaces of flowers col¬ 
lected from Prunus angustifolia in Autauga County and from P. persica 
and Magnolia soulangeana in Lee County, Alabama. 

INTRODUCTION 

Spiroplasmas are helical, motile, wall-less prokaryotes in the fam¬ 
ily Spiroplasmataceae of the class Mollicutes (13, 16). Some spiroplas¬ 
mas are pathogens of plants (1, 7, 19), others are lethal to honeybees 
(2), and one isolated from ticks is lethal to chick embryos and causes 
cataracts and death in suckling rats (14). Recently, spiroplasmas have 
been isolated from surfaces of flowers of several plants in the United 
States and southern Europe (3, 5, 9, 10, 15, 18), and evidence suggests 
that these spiroplasmas may be deposited on flowers by insects (4). 

In this paper, we report the isolation of Spiroplasma floricola 
from flowers collected in Alabama. A preliminary report, the first of 
an isolation of spiroplasmas in this state (12), has been published. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

Flowers were collected during May and June from plum trees ( Prunus 
angustifolia Marsh.) in Autauga County and from peach (P. persica (L.) 
Batsch.) and Japanese magnolia ( Magnolia soulangeana Soul.) trees on the 
campus of Auburn University in Lee County. Spiroplasmas were isolated 
from floral surfaces according to the procedures outlined by Davis et 
al. (6). Growth of the organisms was indicated by a change from red to 
yellow of the phenol red indicator in the DMS4 isolation medium (6), and 


Manuscript received 10 June 1988; accepted 29 August 1988. 


11 




Stevens, Cody, Gudauskas, and Patterson 


confirmed by darkfield microscopy. Uninoculated medium was used as a 
control in all isolations. 

T 

Isolated spiroplasmas were compared with 5. floricola strain 23-6 
for substrate (arginine, urea, and sugars) utilization in D187C medium, 
reversion to bacterial forms, cellular and colonial morphology, and 
temperature requirements for growth (6) . Serological relationships of 
the isolated spiroplasmas to groups I-VIII spiroplasmas were determined 
by R. F. Whitcomb, USDA, AR, Beltsville, MD 20705, using the deforma¬ 
tion test (20) . 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

Spiroplasmas isolated from flowers of plum, peach, and magnolia 
were triply filter-cloned on DMS4 medium containing agar, and the resul¬ 
tant cultures were filtered through a 0.45 ym pore size filter and 
designated as DPRCL3 (plum), PEA60 (peach), and AUCL3 (magnolia). All 
three isolates were readily subcultured in DMS4 medium, producing an 
acid reaction (yellow color) in the medium in 18-20 hr. On DMS4 medium 
with 1% agar, colonies of all the isolates were spreading and diffuse, 
resembling those of S. floricola (5) but larger than those of S. citri 
(7). On medium with 2% agar, the three isolates produced colonies that 
were distinct with granular centers surrounded by small surface satel¬ 
lite colonies. No reversion to bacterial forms occurred in the three 
isolates after five passages on penicillin-free medium, nor did any of 
them grow on agar medium without serum. Broth cultures of all three 
isolates developed marked turbidity and produced large numbers of 
helical, motile cells after several passages; generation time for the 
three isolates was 1.9 hr. 

The three isolates grew at temperatures ranging from 25 to 37°C, 
with maximal growth occurring at 34°C. No growth occurred at 40°C, as 
has been observed with most floral spiroplasmas (5, 9, 10, 15). 

All three isolates utilized all sugars tested except galactose, and 
none utilized urea (Table 1). The utilization of trehalose, which is 
the principal sugar in most insects (11), supports the possibility that 
the isolates were deposited on the flowers by insects. The isolates 
closely resembled S. floricola strain 23-6 in substrate utilization. 

The three isolates were typed serologically by the deformation test 
against representative strains of groups and subgroups recognized by 
Junca et al. (8) and in the revised classification of Whitcomb et al. 
(17). The isolates did not react with any representatives of groups 
I-VIII, except group III (S’, floricola strain OBMG) (R. F. Whitcomb, 
personal communication). 

Based on these results, isolates DPRCL3, PEA60, and AUCL3 were 
identified as S. floricola. The three isolates have been deposited in 
the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) as ATCC 35006 (AUCL3), ATCC 
35007 (DPRCL3), and ATCC 35008 (PEA60). 


I: 






Spiroplasma florioola Isolated from Flowers in Alabama 


Table 1. Substrate Utilization 2 by Spiroplasmas 3 


Substrate * 1 2 3 4 5 * 

5. floricola 23-6 T 

DPRCL3 

PEA60 

AUCL3 

Sucrose 

+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 

Galactose 

- 

- 

- 

- 

Glucose 

+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 

Mannose 

+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 

Fructose 

+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 

Trehalose 

+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 

Arginine 

+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 

Urea 

— 

— 

— 

— 


2 For sugars + = an acid (yellow) reaction of the phenol 
red indicator in the medium, - = no acid reaction. For 
arginine and urea, 4- = purple red (darker than control) 
change in phenol red indicator in the medium, - = no 
change. 

3 DPRCL3, PEA60, and AUCL3 were isolated from flowers of 
plum, peach, and jjjagnolia, respectively, in Alabama; 

S. floricola 23-6 is a known reference strain. 

4 At a final concentration of 1% in the test medium. 


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 

The authors are grateful to Dr. R. F. Whitcomb for conducting the 
serological tests on the spiroplasmas isolated in Alabama. 


LITERATURE CITED 

1. Chen, T. A., and Liao, C. H. 1975. Corn stunt spiroplasma: 
isolation, cultivation and proof of pathogenicity. Science 
188:1015-1017. 

2. Clark, T. B. 1977. Spiroplasma sp., a new pathogen in honey bees. 
J. Invertebr. Pathol. 29:112-113. 

3. Clark, T. B. 1978. Honey bee spiroplasmosis. A new problem for 
beekeepers. Am. Bee J. 118:18,19,23. 

4. Clark, T. B. 1982. Spiroplasmas: diversity of arthropod 
reservoirs and host-parasite relationships. Science 217:57-59. 

5. Davis, R. E. 1978. Spiroplasma associated with flowers of the 
tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). Can. J. Microbiol. 
24:954-959. 


13 








Stevens, Cody, Gudauskas, and Patterson 


6. Davis, R. E., Lee, I. M., and Worley, J. F. 1981. Spiroplasma 
flovicola, a new species isolated from surfaces of flowers of the 
tulip tree. Liriodendron tulipifera L. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 

31:456-464. 

7. Fudl-Allah, A. E.-S. E., Calavan, E. C., and Igwegbe, E. C. K. 

1972. Culture of a mycoplasmalike organism associated with 
stubborn disease of citrus. Phytopathology 62:729-731. 

8. Junca, P., Saillard, C., Tully, J., Garcia-Jurado, 0., Degorce- 
Dumas, J., Mouches, C., Vignault, J. C., Vogel, R., McCoy, R., 
Whitcomb, R., Williamson, D., Latrille, J., and Bove, J. M. 1980. 
Characterisation de spiroplasmes isoles d'insectes et de fleurs de 
France Continentale, de Corse et du Maroc. Proposition pour une 
classification des spiroplasmes. C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. D 
290:1209-1212. 

9. McCoy, R. E., Williams, D. S., and Thomas, D. L. 1979. Isolation 
of mycoplasmas from flowers. Pages 75-80 in: Proc. R. 0. C.-U. S. 
CoopScience Seminar. Mycoplasma Diseases of Plants. NSC Symposium 
Series I. Taipai: National Science Council. 

10. Raju, B. C., Nyland, G., Meikle, T., and Purcell, A. H. 1981. 
Helical, motile mycoplasmas associated with flowers and honey bees 
in California. Can. J. Microbiol. 27:249-253. 

11. Saglio, P. H. M., and Whitcomb, R. F. 1979. Diversity of wall¬ 
less prokaryotes in plant vascular tissue, fungi, and invertebrate 
animals. Pages 1-36 in: The Mycoplasmas III. Plant and Insect 
Mycoplasmas. R. F. Whitcomb and J. G. Tully, eds. Academic Press, 
New York. 

12. Stevens, C., Cody, R. M., Gudauskas, R. T., and Patterson, A. 

1984. Isolation of Spiroplasma flovicola from flowers in Alabama 
(Abstr.). J. Ala. Acad. Sci. 55:143. 

13. Subcommittee on the Taxonomy of Mollicutes . 1979. Proposal of 

minimal standards for description of new species of the class 
Mollicutes. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 29:172-180. 

14. Tully, J. G., Whitcomb, R. F, Clark, H. F., and Williamson, D. L. 
1977. Pathogenic mycoplasmas: Cultivation and vertebrate 
pathogenicity of a new spiroplasma. Science 195:892-894. 

15. Vignault, J. C., Bove, J. M., Saillard, C., Vogel, R., Farro, A., 
Venegas, L., Stemmer, W., Aoiki, S., McCoy, R., AlBeldawi, A. S., 
Larue, M., Tuzcu, 0., Ozsan, M., Nhami, A., Abassi, M., Bonfils, 

J., Moutous, G., Fos, A., Poutiers, F., and Viennot-Bourgin, G. 
1980. Mise en culture de spiroplasmes a partir de materiel vegetal 
et d'insectes provenant de pays circum-mediterraneens et du 
Proche-Orient. C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. D. 290:775-778. 


14 




Spiroplasma floricola Isolated from Flowers in Alabama 


16. Whitcomb, R. F. 1980. The genus Spiroplasma. Annu. Rev. 
Microbiol. 34:677-709. 

17. Whitcomb, R. F., Tully, J. G., Clark, T. B., Williamson, D. L., and 
Bove, J. M. 1982. Revised serological classification of 
spiroplasmas, new provisional groups and recommendations for 
serotyping of isolates. Curr. Microbiol. 7:291-296. 

18. Whitcomb, R. F., Tully, J. G., Rose, D. L., Stephens, E. B., 

Barile, M. F. , Smith, A., and McCoy, R. E. 1982. Wall-less 
prokaryotes from fall flowers in Central United States and 
Maryland. Curr. Microbiol. 7:285-290. 

19. Williamson, D. L., and Whitcomb, R. F. 1975. Plant mycoplasmas. 

A cultivable spiroplasma causes corn stunt disease. Science 
188:1018-1020. 

20. Williamson, D. L., Whitcomb, R. F., and Tully, J. G. 1978. The 
spiroplasma deformation test, a new serological method. Curr. 
Microbiol. 1:203-207. 


15 






Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 60, No. 1, January 1989. 


1 

ALABAMA'S GRAIN MARKETING SYSTEM IN THE 1980’S 
James L. Stallings 

Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology 
Auburn University, AL 36849-5406 


INTRODUCTION 

History of Alabama's Grain Marketing System 

Over the last 20 years or more the grain marketing system of Ala¬ 
bama has changed from mostly family-owned country elevators and feed 
mills to collection stations and feed manufacturers for large vertically 
integrated poultry and other operations (4,5,6). Two large soybean pro¬ 
cessing plants in the northern part of the State provide the protein 
ingredient for poultry operations. These two soybean processors recent¬ 
ly have processed more soybeans than are currently produced in Alabama, 
necessitating importing soybeans into the State. In addition, a corn 
processing plant was established in Decatur in 1976, necessitating im¬ 
porting more corn than would have been the case for only grain-consuming 
animals and a few other minor uses for corn. A comparison of numbers of 
grain-handling firms in Alabama, by type, in 1970, 1977, and 1985 is 
given in Table 1. Note that the biggest changes have been an increase 
in country elevators, especially from 1970 to 1977, and a decrease in 
feed mills or processors over the whole period. The country elevator 
increase was due partly from new river elevators constructed by the 
State of Alabama and by an increase in satellite elevators to collect 
grain from large vertically integrated firms. The decrease in feed 
mills and processors was due mainly to the going out of business of 
small family feed mills. 

Even without the corn processing plant, Alabama has been a deficit 
state for most grains for many years, especially with the advent of the 
poultry industry which uses large amounts of feed grains. Research on 
production and utilization of different grains has indicated that Ala¬ 
bama has averaged producing about 30 percent of the feed grains, mostly 
corn, needed in recent years (3). Most of the imported feed grains came 
from Illinois and Indiana, with lesser amounts from other areas. 

The Public Grain Elevator in Mobile, owned by the State of Alabama, 
has played a part in the Alabama grain marketing system during this time 
also. However, even though providing an additional market for Alabama 
grains, it has mostly exported grain coming in from outside Alabama. 
Alabama grains exported through Mobile mostly come from the southern 
half of the State, necessitating replacing it, and more, with imported 
grains for local processing and other uses from out-of-state. The 
northern half of Alabama typically exports little grain through Mobile 
and requires large imports of feed grains and soybeans to supply its 
poultry industry and the soybean and corn processing plants which are 


^Manuscript received 5 July 1988; accepted 20 October 1988. 


16 






^ Stallings 


Table 1, Number of Grain-Handling Firms in Alabama by 
Type of Firm and Selected Years 


Type of Firm 

1970 a 

b 

1977 

198. 

Country Elevators 

26 

51 

55 

Feed Mills or Processors 

182 

100 

80 

Terminal Elevators 

10 

13 

8 

Processors (S.B., corn, etc.) 

3 

5 

3 

Integrated Poultry Operations 

25 

25 

24 

Public Grain Elevator 

1 

1 

1 


247 

195 

180 


3 

Cavanaugh, Jon E. and James L. Stalling, 1972. The Feed 
Market for Alabama. Ala. Agr. Exp. Sta., Auburn Univ., 
b Auburn, AL, Bulletin 425, January. 

Headley, Leo M. and James L. Stallings. 1980. Grain Firms 
and Grain Movements in Alabama in 1977. Ala. Agr. Exp. Sta., 
Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL, Bulletin 523, October. 


located in the northern part of the State. So far, the newly completed 
Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway has played little part in the grain market¬ 
ing system of Alabama or in the volume of grain business through the 

Port of Mobile. 

Procedure 

The nature of Alabama’s grain marketing system in the 1980's was 
mostly determined from responses to a two-page questionnaire mailed to 
grain firms in Alabama as required by a regional project in which Ala¬ 
bama participated. This questionnaire covered the calendar year 1985 
and included such information as the type of firm, some measures of firm 
size, grains received by mode of transportation and origin, and other 
information. 

Three criteria were used in selecting the sample: storage capaci¬ 
ty, total grains handled, and tons of feed produced. A current directo¬ 
ry of grain-handling firms, in which these three characteristics are 
kept up-to-date, provided a basis for choosing a sample. Firms were 
first arrayed from largest to smallest based on those criteria, and 
cumulative percentages were computed for each. Firms representing 50 
percent of each criteria were chosen as a mandatory 100 percent sample, 
which included 17 of the 180 firms In Alabama that handled grain (cer¬ 
tain other firms such as brokers and home offices were not included) . 
This indicated a concentration of 50 percent of the grain handling 
activity in less than 10 percent of the firms. Information from these 
17 firms was considered absolutely essential and was obtained by several 


17 














Alabama's Grain Marketing System 


means including mailed questionnaires, phone contacts, and personal 
contacts. Some data were estimated from previous surveys and other 
grain industry contacts when answers to certain questions were not 
given. All other firms were mailed questionnaires, with the remainder 
of the sample consisting of whatever number was returned. The multi¬ 
plier (expansion factor to estimate State totals) for the 17 large firms 
representing over 50 percent of the activity.was 1 (100 percent) while 
the multiplier for the remainder of firms was 4 (25% of the remaining 
firms were returned). Table 2 indicates the total number of firms 
included in the sample by type of firm. 


Table 2. Number of Grain Handling Firms in Alabama 
and Sample by Types, 1985 


Type of Firm 


Est. No. 

In Ala. 

No. In 
Sample 

Feed Manufacturer or 

Feed Mill 

80 

20 

Country Elevators 


55 

20 

Integrated Poultry or 

Livestock 

24 

8 

Terminal Elevators 


8 

4 

Soybean Processors 


2 

2 

State Docks 


1 

1 

Other or Misc. 


10 

_4 


Total 

180 

59 


Source: 1985 Survey 

PRODUCTION-UTILIZATION BALANCES 

Of interest to users and to those in the marketing system over time 
is how much of each type of grain can be obtained locally and how much 
will have to be imported form out-of-state. Except for soybeans during 
the later 1970's and early 1980's, and grain sorghum in recent years, 
Alabama has been in the past, is now, and will probably continue to be a 
deficit state in almost all the grains used within the State (3). Ex¬ 
cept for describing trends, no attempt will be made in this paper to 
explore the reasons for this continued deficit situation. Table 3 pre¬ 
sents some detail of Alabama's 1985 deficit situation for five major 
grains. 

Com 


Note that for 1985, domestic production of 24.4 million bushels of 
corn in Alabama represented only 27.0 percent of domestic use for feed 
manufacturing and use, seed use, and processing. This is very close to 
the 29-30 percent average over a recent 20 years period reported in 


18 











Stallings 


Table 3. Production and Utilization of Corn, Soybeans, Wheat, 
Grain Sorghum, and Oats, Alabama, 1985 


Item 

Corn 

Wheat 

Soybeans 

Grain 

Sorghum 

Oats 



(000 Bu.) 



Carry-In Jan. 1, 1985 a 

9,864 

3,350 

15,787 

2,543 

414 

Production, 1985 a 

24,375 

12,800 

27,810 

12,650 

1,435 

Imports From Out-of-State 

72,947 

8,180 

31,560 

2,213 

1,873 

Total Supply, 1985 

107,186 

24,330 

75,157 

17,406 

3,722 

Feed Mfg^ and Use b 

76,350 

10,342 

_ 

11,270 

2,025 

Seed Use 

84 

635 

1,090 

87 

224 

Processing 

13,642 

5,869 

40,931 

141 

82 

Shipments to Ports 

3,118 

3,382 

10,181 

485 

— 

Shipments to Other States 

3,314 

2,178 

4,590 

176 

635 

Estimated Disappearance 1985 

96,508 

22,406 

56,792 

12,159 

2,966 

Carry-Out, Jan. 1, 1986 a 

10,678 

1,924 

18,365 

5,247 

756 

Production/domestic use 

27.1 

76.0 

66.2 

110.0 

61.6 


*USDA figures (1) (2) (7) 

Estimated from Auburn University Survey and USDA figures (1) (2) (7) 


previous 5-year projects. While feed for the poultry industry accounts 
for a large part of domestic use, a corn processing plant in Decatur in 
recent years has also taken an increasing amount (13.6 million bushels 
or 14.1% in 1985) of corn, causing the deficit to be larger than it 
would be for livestock and poultry use alone. Shipment of Alabama 
produced corn to ports for foreign export amounted to only 3.1 million 
bushels (3.2%) of the total 96.7 million bushel disappearance in 1985 
and some of this represents trans-shipments of out-of-state corn which 
is difficult to identify. Also, shipments to out-of-state points from 
Alabama was only 3.3 million bushels (3.4%) of total disappearance and 
this is more than offset by similar amounts coming in from these same 
states. 

Wheat 


While wheat production in Alabama in 1985 was down from its peak of 
15.2 million bushels in 1983, it still represented a large increase from 
the 1 to 2 million bushel annual production figures of the 1960's and 
1970' s. This is soft red winter wheat, which is often used as a feed 
ingredient. In spite of increased production in recent years, produc¬ 
tion in 1985 still represented only 76 percent of domestic use, with 
over 8 million bushels imported from out-of-state. 


19 





















Alabama's Grain Marketing System 


Soybeans 

Like wheat production in Alabama, soybean production was down in 
1985 to 27.8 million bushels from its peak year of 53.75 million bushels 
in 1979. Production has dropped even further since the 1985 survey year 
to 14.5 and 11.5 million bushels in 1986 and 1987 (estimated), respec¬ 
tively (2). The major use of soybeans is for crushing into meal (a feed 
ingredient) and oil. In 1985, almost 41 million bushels were crushed, a 
quantity greater than the State's total production (Table 3). The meal 
is used in an expanding poultry industry, especially broilers, thus, the 
deficit is likely to continue and expand. 

Shipments of soybeans to ports for export in 1985 were 10.2 million 
bushels or 17.9% of the estimated disappearance of 56.8 million bushels 
in 1985. However, these mostly came from south Alabama and, as with 
corn, some of these could represent trans-shipments which came from 
out-of-state. 

As with wheat, grain sorghum production has increased dramatically 
in the last 20 years from 0.3 million bushels in 1965 to 12.6 million in 
1985. Unlike other grains, however, domestic use has virtually equaled 
production, with most of it utilized locally in Alabama as a substitute 
for corn in feed manufacturing. 

Oats 


Oats are primarily required as an ingredient in certain kinds of 
feed manufacturing, especially horse feed, and have not been an impor¬ 
tant crop produced in Alabama. While 1.4 million bushels were produced 
in Alabama in 1985 and 1.9 million imported from out-of-state, much of 
the domestic production was used locally while that used by feed manu¬ 
facturers was mainly imported from out-of-state. Alabama is a deficit 
state in oats and will probably continue to be. 

ORIGIN-DESTINATION PATTERNS 

Because the Southeast, including Alabama, is generally a deficit 
area in most grains, especially feed grains, there has always been a 
concern with the origin of needed imports of the different grains. Most 
previous surveys in Alabama have attempted to identify the origins of 
each grain by state and mode of transportation. Some studies have even 
tried to detail out-of-state receipts by month and by sub-regions of 
specific Corn Belt states. The 1985 two-page survey, on which the data 
in this article are based, was relatively simple, involving mostly ori¬ 
gin by states and mode of transportation. However, it was also possible 
to provide receipts by type of firm within Alabama for different states 
of origin and destination and by mode of transportation. 

General Origins 

Because of the unique relationship between the Southeastern deficit 
states and the surplus "Corn Belt" states, the several five-year region¬ 
al projects previous to this one usually included two or three of the 


20 



Table 4. Grain Receipts by Alabama Firms, By Kind of Grain and Origin, 1985 


Stallings 




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21 

















Alabama's Grain Marketing System 


Corn Belt states (Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio) and seven to nine of the 
Southeastern states which includes Alabama. 

As can be seen from Table 4, 67.1 million bushels (54.5%) of the 
total of five out-of-state grains coming to Alabama in 1985 came from 
Illinois and Indiana. Corn comprised 54.7 million bushels or 81.5 per¬ 
cent of this 67.1 million bushels. Soybeans were the primary import 
into Alabama from the surrounding states of Mississippi, Tennessee, 
Kentucky, and Georgia, accounting for 19.7 million bushels or 62.3 per¬ 
cent of the 31.6 million bushels of soybeans imported. Minnesota was an 
important oats supplier, accounting for 1.2 million bushels or 63.0 
percent of all oats imported. 

The Public Grain Elevator at Mobile 

To this point, neither receipts by nor shipments from the Port of 
Mobile have been included. For analysis purposes, the Port was not con¬ 
sidered part of the Alabama grain marketing system. This was adopted 
for all participants in the regional project which had exported over¬ 
seas. This makes sense for analysis purposes for Alabama, as only 16.0 
million bushels or 35.0 percent of the 45.8 million bushels of the five 
grains shipped through Mobile in 1985 came from Alabama, Table 5. 


Table 5. 

Grain Receipts By Public Grain Elevator, 
By Kind of Grain and Origin, 1985 

Port of 

Mobile, 

Origin 

Corn 

Soybeans 

Grain Receipt 

Wheat 

s 

Grain 

Sorghum 

Total 




(000 Bu.) 



Alabama 

3,118 

9,029 

3,382 

485 

16,014 

Illinois 

8,650 

2,819 

— 

— 

11,469 

Indiana 

4,326 

2,256 

— 

— 

6,582 

Missouri 

691 

3,945 

— 

— 

4,636 

Kentucky 

1,730 

— 

— 

— 

1,730 

Iowa 

1,039 

1,126 

— 

— 

2,165 

Kansas 

— 

— 

807 

— 

807 

Minnesota 

865 

— 

— 

— 

865 

Nebraska 

— 

— 

403 

— 

403 

Ohio 

— 

1,126 

— 


1,126 

Total 20,419 

20,301 

4,592 

485 

45,797 


Source: 1985 Survey. 


22 










Stallings 


Some of the 16.0 million bushels of grain listed as coming from 
Alabama could have been trans-shipped to the Port from at least one 
Alabama firm after coming from out-of-state. Therefore, it is difficult 
to estimate accurately just how much grain shipped to the Port from 
Alabama firms was actually grown in Alabama. 

Corn and soybeans were the primary grains shipped from the Port in 
1985, along with minor amounts of wheat and grain sorghum. Other than 
Alabama, Illinois and Indiana were the primary suppliers of grain to 
Mobile for export overseas. These two Corn Belt states accounted for 
13.0 million bushels or 63.5 percent of the corn and 5.1 million bushels 
or 25.0 percent of the soybeans shipped out of the Port. 

Receipts By Mode of Transportation and Origin 

Truck transport was the main mode of transportation for interfirm 
transfers within the State and for collection of grain from farmers, 
Table 6. Only minor amounts moved by rail and water between firms in 
Alabama. From out-of-state, however, rail and water were about equally 
important and together accounted for nearly 87 percent of all receipts. 
Truck receipts were mostly from surrounding states. Differences in 
modes of transportation by kind of grain were also calculated but the 
details were too extensive for this article. These details can be found 
in a recent Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station publication (7) . 
However, some excerpts from these data by kind of grain are presented as 
follows. 

Firm-to-firm transfers of corn within Alabama and receipts from 
Alabama farmers by firms were virtually all by truck. Corn coming from 
out-of-state was about equally distributed between rail and water with 
92.7 percent of the truck receipts from the surrounding states. Rail 
and water receipts came mostly to northern Alabama, the water receipts 
by way of the Tennessee River to firms in either Decatur or Gunters- 
ville. About 93.6 percent of all the rail and water receipts from the 
Corn Belt states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, Wis¬ 
consin, and Ohio were received by northern Alabama firms. 

Firm-to-firm transfers of soybeans within Alabama were mostly by 
truck. However there were some rail transfers within Alabama, mostly to 
the crushing plants in Decatur and Guntersville. Also, there were some 
firm-to-firm movements by water on the Tennessee River in northern Ala¬ 
bama. Alabama receipts from farmers were all by truck. 

As with corn, soybean receipts from out-of-state by truck were 
mostly from surrounding states (91.3%) and by water from the Corn Belt 
states of Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Minnesota, and Iowa (88.0%). 
However, unlike with corn, there were considerable receipts by rail from 
the surrounding states (92.0%). Rail movements were mostly to the 
crushing plants in northern Alabama. 

Wheat movements within Alabama between firms and from farmers were 
all by truck in 1985. However, there was a definite pattern of rail re¬ 
ceipts from the central and western corn belt (78.8%) and by water from 


23 







Alabama's Grain Marketing System 


Table 6. All Grain Receipts, By Mode of Transportation, and Origin, 
Alabama, 1985 


Mode of Transportation 


Origin 

Truck 

Rail 

Water 

Total 



(000 

Bu.) 


Firm-to-Firm Transfers 

(19,026) 

(4,164) 

(724) 

(23,914) 

S. Alabama 

4,123 

320 

— 

4,443 

N. Alabama 

14,903 

3,844 

724 

19,471 

Receipts from Farmers 

(67,126) 

— 

— 

(67,126) 

S. Alabama 

32,494 

— 

— 

32,494 

N. Alabama 

34,632 

— 

— 

34,632 

From Out-of-State 

(16,395) 

(54,125) 

(53,024) 

(123,544) 

Illinois 

269 

19,540 

21,785 

41,594 

Indiana 

227 

14,982 

10,328 

25,537 

Georgia 

4,583 

1,414 

— 

5,997 

Florida 

949 

— 

— 

949 

Tennessee 

6,717 

6,302 

999 

14,018 

Kentucky 

2,250 

4,996 

2,739 

9,985 

Iowa 

— 

91 

1,896 

1,987 

Minnesota 

— 

— 

9,500 

9,500 

Missouri 

776 

593 

1,113 

2,482 

Wisconsin 

— 

— 

629 

629 

Ohio 

— 

179 

3,963 

4,142 

South Carolina 

47 

— 

— 

47 

Mississippi 

577 

2,478 

— 

3,055 

Oklahoma 

— 

1,420 

— 

1,420 

Kansas 

— 

710 

— 

710 

Nebraska 

-- 

1,420 

72 

1,492 


Source: 1985 Survey. 


Minnesota (84.0%). All wheat imported into the State by truck was from 
surrounding states. 

Most in-state movements of grain sorghum also were by truck with a 
smaller amount by rail to southern Alabama. With the exception of a 
little from Missouri, all truck receipts from out-of-state were from the 


24 












s' 

Stallings 


surrounding states. Rail receipts consisted of 77.8 percent from one 
corn belt state, Illinois, and the rest, 22.2 percent, from surrounding 
states. Water receipts were mostly from corn belt states (87.1%). 

Oats receipts were relative unimportant. Within-state receipts and 
transfers were all by truck and out-of-state receipts were mostly from 
Minnesota by water. 

Receipts by Type of Firm and Origin 

Most within-state receipts in Alabama were from farmers by country 
elevators. Table 7. Most of this will show up as further firm-to-firm 
transfers within the State to processors. Some of the rest will show up 
as receipts by the Public Grain Elevator of the State Docks in Mobile. 
About 73 percent of the corn used in Alabama came from out-of-state in 
1985. Most of this was received by one corn products processor in Deca¬ 
tur and the rest by feed processors and poultry operations in northern 
Alabama through terminal and subterminal elevators. 

Most of the corn shipped from the Port of Mobile to overseas (17.3 
million bushels or 84.7%) came from out-of-state. And, it is highly 
likely that some of the 3.1 million bushels listed as coming from within 
Alabama was trans-shipped through at least one Alabama firm from out-of- 
state also. 


Table 7.' All Grain Receipts, By Type of Firm and Origin, Alabama, 1985 


Type of Firm 

Within 

State 

Out- 

of-State 

Total 

From 

Farmers 

Other 

Firms 

From 

Farmers 

Other 

Firms 




(000 Bu 

.) 


Country Elevators 

52,764 

84 

280 

— 

53,128 

Sub-Terminal Elevators 

850 

217 


4,663 

5,730 

Terminal Elevators 

3,002 

3,082 

350 

10,454 

16,888 

Export Elevators 

4,371 

767 

54 

526 

5,718 

S.B. Processors 

1,231 

9,797 


30,280 

41,308 

Corn Processors 

— 

— 

— 

12,024 

12,024 

Feed Processors 

2,600 

5,005 

360 

12,356 

20,321 

Poultry Operations 

1,865 

5,042 


40,377 

47,284 

Other Misc. 

443 

20 

240 

11,178 

11,881 

Sub Totals 

67,126 

24,014 

1,284 

121,858 

214,282 

State Docks-Mobile 

— 

16,014 

— 

29,693 

45,707 

Totals 

67,126 

40,028 

1,284 

151,551 

259,989 


Source: 1985 Survey, 


25 











Alabama's Grain Marketing System 


Receipts of soybeans from farmers within Alabama were mostly by 
country elevators who listed themselves as a subsidiary of some larger 
parent organization. Some went directly to the Port of Mobile for ex¬ 
port or to terminal elevators. Some from terminal elevators were then 
tran-shipped to the Port with the rest going to processing plants. The 
largest amount, however, came directly from out-of-state to soybean 
processors. 

Of the 7.5 million bushels of wheat received by country elevators 
from Alabama farmers in 1985, nearly half (3.4 million bushels), went to 
the Port of Mobile for export. Most of this was from south Alabama. 
Wheat needs in northern Alabama came mostly from out-of-state for use as 
feed ingredients for the poultry industry. Wheat production in Alabama 
is declining after a peak of 24.9 million bushels in 1981 to 12.0 mil¬ 
lion bushels in 1985 and an indicated 5.7 and 5.3 million bushels in 
1986 and 1987 (preliminary), respectively. 

Grain sorghum receipts from within the State, as with other crops, 
came mostly first to country elevators from farmers, then to terminal 
elevators of feed processors or poultry operations for eventual use as a 
substitute for corn in poultry feed. Only a minor amount was exported 
through the Port of Mobile in 1985. In addition to Alabama-produced 
grain sorghum, there was about an equal amount imported from out-of- 
state, mostly by terminal elevators and poultry operations. Virtually 
all was destined to be used as a poultry feed ingredient. 

While 1.4 million bushels of oats were listed as produced in Ala¬ 
bama in 1985, only a small amount of this is received by firms in 
Alabama from Alabama farmers, indicating that much is used on farms 
where produced. Oats that enter the Alabama marketing system primarily 
came from out-of-state to terminal elevators in North Alabama and were 
distributed from there to processors and to other users. 

SHIPMENTS 

Most firm-to-firm transfers in Alabama were of two types. One type 
resulted from transfer to the parent institution by satellite country 
elevators after collection from farmers. These were primarily to feed 
manufacturing firms, poultry operations, and to the soybean processing 
plants. Another type of firm-to-firm transfer resulted from the impor¬ 
tation of out-of-state grains by terminal elevators and the subsequent 
transfer of that grain to various users. Firm-to-firm transfers within 
Alabama represented 45.5 million bushels of grain movement in 1985, 
mostly by truck. Table 8. Shipments to farmers were relatively unimpor¬ 
tant and consisted mostly of 3.3 million bushels of corn in 1985. 

Shipments by Alabama firms to ports for export overseas were only 
17.2 million bushels in 1985, composed of 10.2 million bushels of soy¬ 
beans, 3.4 of wheat, 3.2 of corn, and less than 0.5 of grain sorghum. 
This compares with a total domestic use of 100.2 million for feed manu¬ 
facture, 60.7 million for processing, and 2.1 million for seed, for a 
total of 163.0 million bushels for domestic use, Table 3. 


26 




Stallings 


Table 8. 

Grain Shipments by Alabama Firms, 
Destination, 1985 

by Kind of Grain 

and 




Grain 

Shipments 



Destination 

Corn 

Soybeans 

Wheat 

Grain 

Sorghum 

Oats 

Total 





(000 Bu.) 



Firm-to-Firm 

Transfers 

(17,640) 

(14,128) 

(4,451) 

(8,452) 

(870) 

(45,541) 

S. Alabama 

3,365 

2,170 

1,192 

978 

44 

7,749 

N. Alabama 

14,275 

11,958 

3,259 

7,474 

826 

37,792 

Shipments to 

Farmers 

(3,327) 

— 

— 

— 

(12) 

(3,339) 

S. Alabama 

644 

— 

— 

— 

12 

656 

N. Alabama 

2,683 

— 

— 

— 

— 

2,683 

Shipments to 

Ports 

(3,118) 

(10,181) 

(3,382) 

(485) 


(17,166) 

Mobile 

3,118 

9,029 

3,382 

485 

— 

16,014 

New Orleans 

— 

1,152 

— 

— 

— 

1,152 

Out-of-State 

Shipments 

(3,314) 

(7,096) 

(2,178) 

(176) (1 

,098) 

(13,862) 

Georgia 

1,714 

5,300 

371 

112 

624 

8,141 

Tennessee 

1,100 

424 

1,552 

— 

54 

3,130 

Mississippi 

480 

220 

— 

— 

25 

725 

Florida 

— 

— 

255 

64 

261 

580 

North Carolina 

— 

— 

— 

97 

97 

South Carolina 

— 

— 

— 

28 

28 

Kentucky 

— 

— 

— 

— 

9 

9 


Source: 1985 Survey. 


As with shipments to ports, the out-of-state shipments of 13.9 
million bushels also represented a relatively small amount compared with 
domestic use. These shipments were almost exclusively to surrounding 
states, unlike out-of-state receipts, which were frequently from several 
states away. 


SUMMARY 

Alabama was a deficit state in all the five major grains studied in 
1985, except for grain sorghum, and it is expected to continue to be a 


27 
















Alabama's Grain Marketing System 


deficit state in the near future. The 73 percent deficit in corn is 
largely the result of the feed grain needs of a large poultry industry 
and the requirements of one large corn products processing plant. The 
33.8 percent deficit in soybeans is largely due to the needs of two 
soybean processing plants in northern Alabama which processed over 40 
million bushels in 1985 while Alabama production was only 27.8 million 
bushels. In addition, 10.2 million bushels of soybeans were shipped to 
ports for export. Recent trends in the production of all the five 
grains have been downward since the 1985 survey on which the above 
figures are based, while use continues approximately the same level to 
upward. 


REFERENCES 

(1) Alabama Agricultural Statistics Service. 1985 and previous. 

Alabama Agricultural Statistics, Montgomery, AL. 

(2) Alabama Agricultural Statistics Service. 1987 and previous. 

Alabama Farm Facts, Montgomery, AL. 

(3) Bedri, 0. A. K. 1979. Feed Grain Production and Utilization 
Balances for Alabama, Past, Present, and Future. Unpublished M.S. 
Thesis, Auburn University, Auburn, AL. 

(4) Cavanaugh, Jon E. and James L. Stallings. 1972. The Feed Grain 
Market for Alabama. Ala. Agr. Exp. Sta., Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL, 
Bulletin 425, January. 

(5) Headley, Leo M. and James L. Stallings. 1980. Grain Firms and 
Grain Movements in Alabama in 1977. Ala. Agr. Exp. Sta., Auburn 
Univ., Auburn, AL, Bulletin 523, October. 

(6) Hurst, James R. and Morris White. 1968. Feed Grain Situation in 
Alabama. Ala. Agr. Exp. Sta., Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL, Bulletin 
379, June. 

(7) Stallings, J. L. 1988. Alabama's Grain Marketing System in the 
1980's, Ala. Agr. Exp. Sta., Auburn Univ., AL, Bulletin 590, March. 

(8) USDA. 1987 and previous. Crop Production. USDA, Agr. Statistics 
Board, National Agr. Statistics Service, Washington, D.C. 


28 




V 

Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 60, No. 1, January 1989. 


STRATEGIC PLANNING AS A MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT TOOL 1 

William I. Sauser, Jr. 

Office of the Vice President for Extension 
Auburn University, AL 36849-5638 

ABSTRACT 

Managers at all levels of an organization perform four essential 
functions. They anticipate the future and plan courses of action; they 
organize resources and direct their use to accomplish established ob¬ 
jectives; and they compare accomplishments against objectives to control 
organizational functioning. 

Each level of management has its own planning horizon, with top 
management having the broadest horizon. As managers move through the 
organizational hierarchy, the mix of skills necessary to succeed shifts. 
While human relations skills remain important at all levels, conceptual 
skills become relatively more important than technical skills at the 
higher levels of management. 

When lower-level managers move into higher levels of authority, it 
is often necessary for them to improve their conceptual skills. One 
technique for developing conceptual skills is participating in strategic 
planning exercises. Strategic planning -- the construction of a road map 
for the future of an organization -- requires such actions as environmen¬ 
tal scanning, analysis of external opportunities and threats and internal 
strengths and weaknesses, and production of plans, objectives, and pri¬ 
orities . 

The author recently used strategic planning exercises to develop the 
analytical and conceptual skills of managers in two organizations, a 
higher-education unit and a state agency. In both cases the strategic 
planning process proved beneficial as a management development tool. 

INTRODUCTION 

One of the primary functions of management is to plan -- to anti¬ 
cipate the future, set organizational objectives, and determine the best 
courses of action to achieve these objectives (Boone & Kurtz, 1985, p. 
107) . Once plans have been formulated, managers can then organize the 
resources at their disposal and direct their use to accomplish es¬ 
tablished objectives. Managers perform their fourth major function when 
they compare accomplishments against established objectives. This 
control function allows the manager to revise either plans and objectives 
themselves or methods for accomplishing objectives if the desired results 
are not being attained. 


^Manuscript received 11 August 1988; accepted 31 October 1988. 


29 










Sauser 


While managers at all levels of the organizational hierarchy perform 
these four essential functions, the mix of functions varies across levels 
(Boone & Kurtz, 1985, p. 100). For example, top managers develop long- 
range plans for the organization and make broad decisions about policy. 
Members of the organization's middle level of management are typically 
charged with developing and implementing detailed plans, organizational 
structures, and control procedures to carry out the general plans of top 
management. First-line supervisors put into action the plans developed 
by middle management. They assign specific tasks to the operating em¬ 
ployees, maintain direct and continuing contact with these employees, and 
evaluate their performance in terms of task accomplishment. 

Just as the mix of functions differs across organizational levels, 
so does the mix of skills necessary to succeed as a manager (Donnelly, 
Gibson, & Ivancevich, 1987, pp. 27-28; Katz, 1974). Robert Katz iden¬ 
tified three essential managerial skills: (a) Technical -- the ability 

to use the tools, procedures, or techniques of a specialized field; (b) 
Human Relations -- the ability to work with and understand people; and 
(c) Conceptual -- the ability to comprehend all activities and interests 
of an organization and to understand how all of its parts relate to one 
another. 

Figure One shows how the essential mix of these skills varies across 
organizational levels. While human relations skills remain important at 
all levels, conceptual skills become relatively more important than tech¬ 
nical skills at the higher levels of management. 


M 

A 

N S 
A K 
G I 
E L 
ML 
E S 
N 
T 



SUPERVISORY MIDDLE TOP 

MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT 

Figure 1. The Change in the Essential Mix of Managerial 
Skills Across Levels of Management 


THE IMPORTANCE OF CONCEPTUAL SKILLS 

The well-known "Peter Principle" -- each person rises to his level 
of incompetence in an organization (Peter & Hull, 1969) -- is a reflec¬ 
tion of the relationship depicted in Figure One. An outstanding tech- 


I 

30 


f 


: 




Strategic Planning 


nician who has no human relations skills will most likely fail when 
promoted to a supervisory position -- unless he or she receives training 
in the development of these skills. Likewise, a successful first-line 
supervisor or middle manager must develop his or her conceptual skills in 
order to succeed in the higher levels of management. 

The American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) 
recognizes the importance of developing conceptual skills when preparing 
candidates for managerial positions. Area (e) of the required "common 
body of knowledge" curriculum for business administration degrees is "a 
study of administrative processes under conditions of uncertainty in¬ 
cluding integrating analysis and policy determination at the overall 
management level" (AACSB, 1986-87, p. 29). Thus graduates of BSBA and 
MBA programs are typically exposed to course work -- generally labeled 
"Business Policy," "Strategic Management," "Strategy and Policy," and the 
like -- which is designed primarily to develop conceptual skills. 

But what about working men and women who desire to progress through 
the organizational hierarchy, yet do not possess a business administra¬ 
tion degree or the skills such a degree implies? How are they to acquire 
the conceptual skills they need to complement their technical and human 
relations skills? This is the question addressed in the remainder of 
this paper. 

MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT THROUGH 
STRATEGIC PLANNING EXERCISES 

The experts in executive development (e.g., Kellogg, 1979; Kirkpat¬ 
rick, 1985; Tracey, 1983) suggest that in-service training programs for 
managers should include a variety of procedures, such as job rotation, 
coaching, professional reading, role playing, and group planning. For 
example, Marion Kellogg (1979) makes the following observation regarding 
the use of group planning as an executive development technique: 

The setting of organization objectives and development of 
plans for meeting them can frequently be improved by use of 
group or team planning. If all managers in a given or¬ 
ganization work out the mission of the organization, its 
objectives for the year, and their individual contributions 
toward their achievement, there is a far greater understand¬ 
ing of the problems each faces, the interdependence which 
exists among them, the coordination each must undertake, and 
the level of expectation of associates as well as of the 
manager. This provides a growth experience in teamwork, 
interpersonal communication, and the fundamental meaning of 
organization. It also ultimately results in a substantial 
time savings for the higher level manager. (p. 5-122) 

The author has recently conducted management development programs 
for two organizations --a higher-education unit and a state agency. In 
both cases the inclusion of a strategic planning exercise, as described 
below, proved beneficial as a management development tool. 


31 






Sauser 


THE CONCEPT OF STRATEGIC PLANNING 

Strategic planning, described thoroughly in modern textbooks for 
aspiring top managers (e.g., Pearce & Robinson, 1985; Thompson & Strick¬ 
land, 1987; Wheelen & Hunger, 1986), is a process for developing a road 
map for the future of an organization. The plans resulting from this 
process are used to guide organizational efforts and day-to-day decisions 
regarding deployment of the organization's resources. The plans also 
serve as the standard against which accomplishments are evaluated during 
the control process. 

The strategic planning process is diagrammed in Figure Two. The 
first step in the process is to gather pertinent information which is 
then used to project an image of the organization's environment of the 
future. Next a sense of the organization's mission in that future en¬ 
vironment is created, and valuable goods and services the organization 
can provide are determined. The next step is to take a hard look at the 
organization's internal strengths and weaknesses as they relate to ex- 



Figure 2. The Strategic Planning Process 


32 










s' 

Strategic Planning 



Figure 3. A Schematic for Developing Action Plans 

ternal opportunities and threats. Strategic alternatives are generated 
and choices are made. Finally, the organization develops policies and 
procedures to translate strategic plans into action (see Figure Three). 

CASE ONE: A HIGHER-EDUCATION UNIT 

In 1985, the Director of the Alabama Cooperative Extension Service, 
Dr. Ann Thompson, decided to employ the strategic planning process as the 
first step in the production of a federally-mandated five-year plan. She 
retained the author as a consultant for this project, and appointed an 
eight-person strategic planning task team of representatives from the 
three universities which make up the Alabama Cooperative Extension System 
(Alabama A&M University, Auburn University, and Tuskegee University). 
This task team received assistance from several technical advisors and 
committees, and drew upon advice and assistance from individuals located 
in every county in Alabama. 

The primary purpose of this project was, of course, to produce the 
written strategic plan. However, a secondary purpose was to develop 
within the members of the task team higher levels of conceptual and 


33 










Sauser 


creative skills. The development of these skills would better prepare 
members of the task team for leadership roles within the organization. 

The task team began its work by studying a monograph on creative 
planning (Bandrowski, 1985) and reports and articles projecting future 
trends for the State of Alabama and for the mission of extension or¬ 
ganizations nationwide. In a series of meetings the task team projected 
the future for cooperative extension in Alabama and analyzed the streng¬ 
ths and weaknesses of the current organization in light of the external 
opportunities and threats they identified. The team's next step was to 
adopt the following statement of mission, which resulted from several 
rounds of drafts, reviews, and revisions: 

The Alabama Cooperative Extension System is a statewide 
continuing education network that links the land-grant 
universities' knowledge base to the people and communities 
of Alabama and, subsequently, to national and international 
audiences. The system extends and encourages the applica¬ 
tion of research-generated knowledge in cooperation with 
public and private partners through local county offices. 

The Alabama Cooperative Extension System provides educa¬ 
tional opportunities to enable individuals to make sound 
decisions about their lives, families, businesses, and com¬ 
munities; to develop and strengthen the state's economy with 
emphasis on agriculture and related industries and busi¬ 
nesses; and to enable youth, adults, families, and com¬ 
munities to develop economically, socially, and culturally. 

The task force then undertook a massive effort to gather information 
from persons throughout the state; in all, over 3,200 persons were sur¬ 
veyed or interviewed to provide suggestions for extension programming. 
Analysis of these data led to the establishment of the following five 
priority areas for the development and implementation of cooperative 
extension projects: 

* Regain agricultural and forestry profitability with emphasis on 
business management skills, production systems, alternative enter¬ 
prises, and marketing strategies. 

* Develop, conserve, and manage natural resources with emphasis on 
water quality and quantity, soil preservation and productivity, and 
human and cultural uses. 

* Enhance family and individual well-being with emphasis on resource 
and financial management, family stability, wellness, diet and 
nutrition, home food production and preservation, and homes and home 
grounds. 

* Develop human resources with emphasis on leadership and volun- 
teerism. 


34 




Strategic Planning 


* Revitalize rural Alabama with emphasis on economic viability, 
community services and facilities, public policy, and rural-urban 
relationships. 

The results of the strategic planning process were reported in 
Priorities for People: A Strategic Plan for the Alabama Cooperative 

Extension System (1987). Excerpts from the report were produced in 
circular and videotape versions for wide distribution throughout the 
state. Although the strategic planning process was completed at this 
point, the work toward implementation had only begun. Efforts to produce 
long-range plans, specific plans of work, and organizational structures 
and budgetary mechanisms to put these priority programs into effect were 
begun immediately and are continuing at present. 

This strategic planning project proved to be a very effective man¬ 
agement development tool. All of the members of the task team reported a 
much better appreciation of the "big picture" following their participa¬ 
tion in this effort. Several of the team members have become involved in 
other, similar projects -- such as the development of management training 
programs and the redesign of the organization's structure. All of the 
team members have exhibited leadership skills in their ongoing assign¬ 
ments . 


CASE TWO: A STATE AGENCY 

This second management development program was conducted by the 
author and Dr. Raymond B. Wells, Director of the Center for Government 
and Public Affairs at Auburn University at Montgomery. Participants in 
the program were the management team of the Data Systems Management Divi¬ 
sion (DSMD) of the Alabama Department of Finance. The program was de¬ 
signed to fulfill one of the recommendations of the Alabama Management 
Improvement Program (AMIP); specifically it was designed to prepare the 
participants to design a plan to implement the remainder of the AMIP 
recommendations regarding DSMD. These remaining recommendations per¬ 
tained to reorganizing DSMD and orienting it more toward managing infor¬ 
mation systems and servicing client needs rather than simply "processing 
data." 


Whereas the program described in Case One took place in meetings 
scheduled across an entire year, the Case Two program was an intensive 
session accomplished in five days -- four consecutive days of off-site 
training followed two weeks later by an implementation session. The 
training program progressed as follows: 

Day One. Following introductions of the participants and the work¬ 
shop leaders, a discussion was held regarding DSMD and its role within 
the State of Alabama. Attention then shifted to a guided discussion of 
the characteristics of effective teams and group dynamics within a team 
atmosphere. 

Day Two. Using the Personal Profile System (Performax Systems 
International, 1977), a paper-and-pencil inventory designed to encourage 


35 



Sauser 


a broader view of human behavior, workshop participants explored their 
own and each others' personal work styles, then discussed how these 
individual styles could be blended into an effective team. Later ses¬ 
sions focused on leadership, communication, and conflict management 
strategies. 

Day Three. Guided by "Service Excellence," a video workshop hosted 
by Ron Zemke and designed to develop the concept of client service as an 
operational philosophy (Performance Research Associates and Nathan/Tyler 
Productions, 1986), the participants examined the service mission of 

DSMD. They then began drafting a mission statement for the organization. 

Day Four. The strategic planning concept, as described above, was 

the focus for this day's work. The participants completed drafting a 

mission statement, then systematically explored, in small groups, the 
external opportunities and threats and internal strengths and weaknesses 
of DSMD. They were instructed at the end of the session to reflect upon 
their work during the next two weeks and formulate individual plans to 
organize DSMD to better meet its service mission. 

Day Five. On this day, held two weeks after Day Four, the par¬ 

ticipants reassembled to review their organizational plans in light of 
AMIP's recommendations for DSMD. Specific action plans were then made to 
begin implementing these recommendations. 

Results. This management development program was an intensive 
preparatory session for the management team of DSMD. During the evalua¬ 
tion session which followed the program, the managers reported a greatly 
heightened sense of the mission of their organization, their roles in 
meeting this mission, and their importance as proactive leaders. The 
implementation of the AMIP recommendations is now underway. 

CONCLUSION 

Developing strong conceptual skills is essential if one is to suc¬ 
ceed in the upper levels of management. Business school curricula are 
typically designed to develop these skills, particularly by means of such 
"capstone" courses as Business Policy and Strategy. Organizational mana¬ 
gers who have not been formally educated in business schools must also 
have opportunities to develop these essential skills. 

This paper describes two management development programs which in¬ 
cluded strategic planning exercises. One program took place in sessions 
scheduled across an entire year; the other was an intensive five-day 
program. Participants in both programs were managers and specialists who 
had not typically been educated in business schools. All participants in 
both programs reported an increased understanding of the "big picture" of 
their respective organizations following the programs, and expressed a 
heightened awareness of their roles as leaders in their respective 
organizations. 


36 


Strategic Planning 


Top managers who are interested in developing their future succes¬ 
sors should consider involving their employees in strategic planning 
exercises such as the ones described in this paper. These exercises are 
effective in developing essential conceptual skills, and are useful 
management development tools. 

LITERATURE CITED 

American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (1986-87). Ac¬ 
creditation council policies, procedures, and standards. St. Louis, 
MO: Author. 

Bandrowski, J. F. (1985). Creative planning throughout the organization. 
New York: American Management Association. 

Boone, L. E., 6c Kurtz, D. L. (1985). Contemporary business (4th ed.). 
Chicago: Dryden. 

Donnelly, J. H., Jr., Gibson, J. L., & Ivancevich, J. M. (1987). Funda¬ 
mentals of management (6th ed.). Plano, TX: Business Publications, 
Inc. 

Katz, R. L. (1974). Skills of an effective administrator. Harvard 
Business Review, September-October, 90-102. 

Kellogg, M. (1979). Executive development. In D. Yoder & H. G. Heneman, 
Jr. (Eds.), ASPA handbook of personnel and industrial relations. 
Washington, D.C.: Bureau of National Affairs, pp. 5:105-5:135. 

Kirkpatrick, D. L. (1985). Development and training, management. In L. 
R. Bittel & J. E. Ramsey (Eds.), Handbook for professional managers. 
New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 238-243. 

Pearce, J. A., II, 6c Robinson, R. B., Jr. (1985). Strategic management: 
Strategy formulation and implementation (2nd ed.). Homewood, IL: 
Richard D. Irwin. 

Performance Research Associates and Nathan/Tyler Productions (1986). 

Service excellence: A video workshop hosted by Ron Zemke (2nd ed.). 
Boston: Author. 

Performax Systems International (1977). Personal profile system: A plan 
to understand self and others. Minneapolis: Author. 

Peter, L, J., 6c Hull, R. (1969). The Peter principle. New York: 

Morrow. 

Priorities for people: A strategic plan for the Alabama Cooperative 

Extension System (1987). Auburn, AL: Alabama Cooperative Extension 
Service. 


37 







Sauser 


Thompson, A. A., Jr., & Strickland, A. J., III. (1987). Strategic 

management: Concepts and cases (4th ed.). Plano, TX: Business 
Publications, Inc. 

Tracey, W. R. (1983). Career development and training. In W. K. Fallon 
(Ed.), AMA management handbook (2nd ed.). New York: AMACOM. 

Wheelen, T. L., & Hunger, J. D. (1986). Strategic management and 
business policy (2nd ed.). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. 


38 


Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 60, No. 1, January 1989. 


DESCRIPTIONS OF YOUNG SKIPJACK HERRING, WITH NOTES ON 
EARLY LIFE ECOLOGY 1 

Robert Wallus 

Tennessee Valley Authority 
Fisheries Laboratory 
Norris, Tennessee 37828 

and 

Larry K. Kay 

Tennessee Valley Authority 
Western Area Radiological Laboratory 
Muscle Shoals, Alabama 35660 


INTRODUCTION 

Little information has been published on the life history and 
biology of the skipjack herring, Alosa chrysochloris (Rafinesque). A 
general summary of existing information was provided by Hildebrand 
(1963). Wolfe (1969) studied the species in the Apalachicola River of 
Florida and commented on its reproductive biology, as did Coker (1929) 
for populations in the upper Mississippi River. Hogue et al. (1976) 
provided a photograph of a 5.0 mm TL yolk-sac larva. Trautman's (1981) 
illustration of a 160 mm total length juvenile is the only other de¬ 
scriptive information available for young of the species. 

Skipjack herring commonly occur in the open waters of the Tennessee 
River and its major tributaries. Fisheries staff of the Tennessee Val¬ 
ley Authority (TVA) often encounter the species in gill netting, elec¬ 
trofishing, chemical collections, and, occasionally, in ichthyoplankton 
samples. In this paper, we present the first detailed descriptions and 
illustrations of skipjack herring larvae using specimens collected from 
the Tennessee and Ohio Rivers. We also present information on the early 
life ecology of the species in the Tennessee River. 

METHODS AND MATERIALS 

The Tennessee River flows through Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, 
and Kentucky before entering the Ohio River near Paducah, Kentucky (Fig. 
1). The system has 9 mainstream dams and 37 tributary dams. Nine TVA 
steam-electric plants (seven fossil and two nuclear) are located on the 
Tennessee River and its tributaries. Waters surrounding plant sites 
have been sampled extensively and are the sources of most of the early 
life ecology information presented. 

Various collection methods were used to capture early life phases 
of skipjack herring during the period 1973-1980. Active collection 
techniques included one-meter (mouth diameter) conical nets which were 


Manuscript received 5 August 1988; accepted 14 November 1988. 


39 










K Y r v A 


Wallus and Kay 



40 


Fig. 1. Tennessee river collection localities (arrows) for larval and juvenile skipjack herring. Dam 
abbreviations are: KD = Kentucky; PD = Pickwick; WD = Wilson; WHD = Wheeler; GD = Guntersville; ND = 
Nickajack; CMD = Chickamauga; WBD = Watts Bar; and FLD = Fort Loudoun. 







y 

Descriptions of Young Skipjack Herring 


pushed, towed, or lifted vertically through the water column, and a 
half-meter-square net (0.25 square meter opening) towed obliquely 
through the water column. Passive collection techniques included 0.5- 
meter conical and 0.5-meter square stationary nets. All nets were 
equipped with flow meters mounted in the center of the net mouth for 
determining volumes of water filtered. Mesh size of the nylon netting 
was 0.79 mm until 1975; thereafter, it was 0.505 mm. 

Yolk-sac larval descriptions were completed from specimens collect¬ 
ed in 1975 from Wheeler Reservoir, a mainstream impoundment in northern 
Alabama. At the time of these collections, only two other clupeids, 
gizzard and threadfin shad, Dorosoma cepedianum and D. petenense , re¬ 
spectively, were present in mainstream reservoirs of the Tennessee Riv¬ 
er. Both of these species have distinct oil globules present in the 
yolk sac; these are lacking in skipjack herring. Identification of post 
yolk-sac larval skipjack herring was possible only after adult comple¬ 
ments of dorsal and anal fin rays or pterygiophores were present at 
approximately 17.0-18.0 mm. Post yolk-sac larval and juvenile descrip¬ 
tions were developed from Wheeler Reservoir specimens collected from 
1973-1980 and from Ohio River specimens borrowed from the University of 
Tennessee research collection of fishes (catalog numbers: 29.81 and 
29.82) that were collected in 1987. 

Specimens were examined with a stereo-microscope equipped with an 
ocular micrometer and polarizers. Morphometric and meristic characters 
examined were: total length (TL), distance from tip of snout to end of 
caudal fin or finfold; standard length (SL), distance from tip of snout 
to the posterior tip of the notochord or the hypural complex once it was 
completely formed; preanal length, distance from posterior margin of 
anus to tip of snout; predorsal length, distance from tip of snout to 
anterior margin of the base of the first dorsal pterygiophore; snout 
length, distance from tip of snout to anterior margin of eye; greatest 
head depth; greatest body depth (excluding finfold); head length, dis¬ 
tance from tip of snout to origin of pectoral fin or posterior margin of 
opercle; eye diameter; number of complete preanal myomeres, those from 
posterior margin of anus to nape including any bisected by an imaginary 
vertical line at the posterior margin of the anus; number of complete 
postanal myomeres; and number of complete predorsal myomeres, those 
anterior to the base of the first dorsal pterygiphore. Morphometries 
are presented as percent total length or as percent of head length. 
Lengths given in the text are total length unless stated otherwise. 
Illustrations were made with the aid of a camera lucida. The following 
terminology is used to describe early life phases of skipjack herring: 

Yolk-sac larvae —young from hatching to complete absorption of the 
yolk. 

Post yolk-sac larvae —phase beginning with complete absorption of 
the yolk and ending when an adult complement of rays is present in 
all fins and the median finfold is completely absorbed. 

Larvae —term encompassing both yolk-sac and post yolk-sac larval 
phases. 

Juvenile —phase beginning with complete absorption of median 
finfold and ending with maturity. 


41 








Wallus and Kay 


DESCRIPTIONS OF YOUNG 


Yolk-Sac Larvae 

The following descriptions are based on two specimens, 5.5 and 5.8 
mm TL and apply to both except where noted. Total myomeres were 49 and 
50 respectively; 42 preanal and 7 postanal myomeres for the smaller 
specimen; and 43 preanal and 8 postanal myomeres for the larger spec¬ 
imen. 


The smaller specimen appeared newly hatched and lacked any orbital 
or body pigment. The 5.8 mm specimen's eyes were pigmented and several 
small melanophores were present at the posterior margin of the yolk sac 
(Fig. 2a). The yolk sac was large and oval, clear to slightly opaque, 
and without distinct oil globules, although small quantities of oil 
appeared visible along the periphery of the yolk sac of the 5.5 mm spec¬ 
imen. The head was in line with the body axis and the notochord was 
straight. The eyes were large, about 46 percent of the head length 
(Table 1). The mouth was poorly developed with no evidence of a lower 
jaw, and auditory vesicles were visible. 

The median finfold originated dorsally, immediately posterior to 
the head, extended around the urostyle, and forward ventrally to the 
posterior margin of the yolk sac. The finfold was wide, approximately 
0.2 mm wide along the gut, and on the larger specimen appeared paddle¬ 
shaped at the end of the notochord with radial striations visible in the 
caudal finfold (Fig. 2a). Pectoral fin buds were not visible at 5.5 mm 
and were barely discernible at 5.8 mm. 

Post Yolk-Sac Larvae 

Sixteen specimens examined ranged from 18.0-29.0 mm (Table 1) . 
Total myomeres were 49-54 with 38-41 preanals, 9-14 postanals, and 16-21 
predorsals. Nine prepelvic scutes were present by 28.0 mm. The morph¬ 
ology of the body was generally more elongate than juveniles (Fig. 2) or 
adults. Clay (1975) reported that squamation had begun but was not 
complete on skipjack specimens 21.0-30.0 mm SL and that the smaller 
individuals in this size range had 20-21 gill rakers on the lower limb 
of the first gill arch. 

By 18.0-20.0 mm, adult complements of rays were present in dorsal 
(15-17), anal (17), and caudal (18-19) fins. Incipient rays were 
visible in pelvic (5-6) and pectoral (7-11) fins with adult counts of 
8-9 and 13-16, respectively, by 22.0-24.0 mm. The ventral finfold was 
still present between the pelvic fins and anus at 29.0 mm (Fig. 2c), but 
was completely absorbed by 32.0 mm. 

Between 18.0-21.0 mm, rows of melanophores were present ventrally 
on either side of the gut between the pectoral fins and midgut, some¬ 
times converging near the base of the pectoral fins; melanophores, scat¬ 
tered or sometimes in a double row, were present dorsally from about 
midcaudal peduncle to the caudal fin; and a few melanophores were 
present ventrally along the base of the anal fin and between the anal 


42 









Descriptions of Young Skipjack Herring 





c. Late post yoik-sac larva, 29.0 mmTL 



d. Juvenile, 67.0mmTL 


Figure 2. Illustrations of young skipjack herring from the 

Tennessee River, Alabama. Illustrations by Murrie V. 
Graser. 


and caudal fins (Fig. 2b). Between 22.0 and 28.0 mm, melanophores ap¬ 
peared on the tip of the lower jaw and on the cranium near the occiput; 
pigmentation increased dorsally between dorsal and caudal fins, appear¬ 
ing as a dense double row of melanophores on the posterior 8-10 myo¬ 
meres; pigmentation was scattered between rays in the caudal fin; and 
melanophores were present ventrally, as before, along base of anal fin 
and posteriorly (Fig. 2c). 


43 









































Table I. Selected morphometries and meristies for early life phases of skipjack herring from the Tennessee and Ohio River Systems. 

Morphometries are presented as mean percent total length (TL); eye diameter is also presented as mean percent head length. 


Wallus and Kay 


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Descriptions of Young Skipjack Herring 


Juveniles 

This phase of development begins between 29.0 and 32.0 mm when the 
remnant of median finfold between pelvic fins and anus is completely 
absorbed. The end of the juvenile phase is marked by attainment of 
sexual maturity, somewhere betwen 254 and 305 mm (Becker, 1983). 

Juvenile skipjack herring are not as elongate as larvae and appear 
more adultlike with the characteristic projecting lower jaw and scutes 
visible (Fig. 2d). Morphometries for specimens 32.0-76.0 mm are pre¬ 
sented in Table 1. At 32.0 mm, 19 prepelvic and 14 postpelvic scutes 
were visible; the adult complement of 19 and 16 was fully present at 
42.0 mm. 


Pigmentation on specimens between 32.0 and 42.0 mm was similar to 
late larval pigmentation except that ventral pigment between the anal 
and caudal fins became a scattered double row with up to eight melano- 
phores along the base of the anal fin. By 76.0 mm, pigment was present 
on the tip of snout, below and immediately posterior to the eye, and on 
the operculum; pigmentation was scattered above the midline, becoming 
more dense dorsally; and both dorsal and caudal fins had pigment scat¬ 
tered along their base and outlining rays. 

ECOLOGY OF YOUNG 

The yolk-sac larva pictured in Hogue et al. (1976) and those de¬ 
scribed in this paper from Wheeler Reservoir are the only documented 
records of this life phase known to the authors. Unfortunately, exact 
spatial and temporal collection data for these specimens is not avail¬ 
able. Pestrak (1977) reported collection of probable yolk-sac larval 
skipjack herring from the lower Coosa River, Alabama, in early May. 

TVA biologists collected post yolk-sac larvae in mainstream reser¬ 
voirs from late April through most of August, with peak densities usual¬ 
ly occurring in late May or early June. Most collections were from 
surface waters in littoral habitats (Table 2), usually at night. Mundy 
(1973) reported similar occurrences in collections from Wheeler Reser¬ 
voir, Alabama. Walker (1975) collected post yolk-sac larvae from mid¬ 
channel surface waters at night in late June in Nickajack Reservoir, 
Tennessee. Simon (1986) reported skipjack herring larvae in Ohio River 
ichthyoplankton samples during June, with peak densities June 25; most 
(74 percent) were collected in surface waters. 

Juvenile skipjack herring were more abundant in mainstream ichthyo¬ 
plankton samples than in cove rotenone samples collected by TVA. The 
juveniles in ichthyoplankton samples from Wheeler Reservoir were widely 
distributed horizontally and vertically (Table 2) , and occurred more 
often in pelagic open water areas than larvae. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The authors are grateful to Dr. David Etnier for loan of larval and 
juvenile skipjack herring used for morphometric and meristic analysis. 


45 





Wallus and Kay 


Table 2. Spatial distribution of post yolk-sac larvae and juvenile 
skipjack herring from Wheeler Reservoir, Tennessee River, 
Alabama, during the period 1973-1977 and 1980. 

3. b 

Post Yolk-sac Larvae Juveniles 


Relative Abundance (%) Relative Abundance (%) 


Habitat 


1973-1977 

N=754 

1980 

N=40 

1973-1977 

N=14 

1980 

N=14 

Littoral (2.4-4.5 m 
Surface 

depth) 

95.9 


57.2 


Full Strata 0 


- 

95.0 

- 

28.6 

Channel (7.0-10.0 m 
Surface 

depth) 

2.5 


7.1 


Upper Strata 


- 

5.0 

- 

21.4 

Mid-Depth 


1.6 

- 

35.7 

- 

Lower Strata 


- 

0.0 

- 

50.0 


a. Total Length Range 20-32 mm 

b. Total Length Range 33-69 mm 

c. 1980 data only: upper strata = surface to 3.0 m, lower strata = 3.0 
m to bottom, station depth = 8.0 m 


LITERATURE CITED 

Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. The University of Wisconsin 
Press, Madison, WI. 

Clay, W. M. 1975. The fishes of Kentucky. Ky. Dept. Fish and Wildl. 
Res., Frankfort, KY. 

Coker, R. E. 1929. Studies of the common fishes of the Mississippi 
River at Keokuk. U.S. Bur. Fish. Bull. 45:141-225. 

Hildebrand, S. F. 1963. Pomolobus chrysochloris Rafinesque 1820 

skipjack herring. Pages 315-319. In Fishes of the western north 
Atlantic. Mem. Sears Found. Mar. Res. 1 (Pt. 3). 

Hogue, J. J. Jr., R. Wallus, and L. K. Kay. 1976. Preliminary guide to 
the identification of larval fishes in the Tennessee River. 
Tennessee Valley Authority Tech. Note B19. 

Mundy, P. R. 1973. The occurrence, abundance and distribution of 
populations of larval fishes in Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama. 

Masters Thesis. Univ. of Alabama, University, AL. 

Pestrak, J. M. 1977. Fish eggs and larvae collected from the lower 
Coosa River, Alabama. Masters Thesis. Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL. 


46 







Descriptions of Young Skipjack Herring 


Simon T. P. 1986. Variation in seasonal, spatial and species 

composition of main channel ichthyoplankton abundance, Ohio River 
miles 569 to 572. Trans. Ky. Acad. Sci. 47(1-2): 19-26. 

Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Ohio State Univ. Press, 
Columbus, OH. 

Walker, R. B. 1975. A study of fish eggs and larvae in Nickajack 

Reservoir, Tennessee during 1973-1974. Masters Thesis. Tennessee 
Tech. Univ., Cookeville, TN. 

Wolfe, J. C. 1969. Biological studies of the skipjack herring, Alosa 
ahrysochloris , in the Apalachicola River, Florida. Master Thesis. 
Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL. 


47 





Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 60, No. 1, January 1989. 


REVIEW 


Davenport Larry J., 1988. Charles Mohr, Botanist in Alabama Heritage. 
No. 10. Fall 1988. Pp. 32-45. 


Readers of the Journal may be interested in knowing more about 
Alabama Heritage, a fairly new quarterly publication of the University 
of Alabama. The Fall 1988 issue is its tenth number. Its articles. 
Remembering Tallulah, Alabama at Gettysburg y and Charles Mohr, Botanist, 
suggest the broad range of the magazine's coverage, and this is 
substantiated by features in previous issues, listed in the index to 
issues 1-10. The layout and presentation of the magazine are thoroughly 
professional and most attractive, with photographs and illustrations on 
nearly every page, many in color. If you are unfamiliar with Alabama 
Heritage, it certainly deserves a careful looking over the next time you 
visit your library. Subscription is $12 per year (4 issues) plus 4% 
sales tax in Alabama, from Alabama Heritage, University of Alabama, 
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0342. 

Charles Mohr was born in Germany in 1824 and was educated there 
principally as a chemist. Following graduation, the adventurous young 
man accompanied a botanist-acquaintance on an expedition to Dutch Guiana 
(present-day Surinam), worked for a time as a chemist in Austria, made 
his way to Britain, and subsequently emigrated to the United States, 
arriving in New York in 1848 at age 23. The following year he set out 
by wagon trek for the gold fields of California, and after perils and 
adventures there and on his return journey via Panama sufficient for 
several lifetimes, a brief try at farming in Indiana, and travels in 
Louisiana and Mexico, he settled in Mobile in 1857. He established 
himself there in a pharmaceutical supply business and prospered during 
the following years until his death in 1901. 

Thus it was as a hobby only, and during the later years of his 
life, that Mohr undertook the botanical exploration, collection, study, 
and publication that established him as an authority of international 
stature on the southern forest flora, and specifically the plants of 
Alabama. In his fine article Dr. Davenport chronicles this monumental 
body of work, leading eventually to Mohr's publication of Plant Life of 
Alabama in 1901, but in the telling there shines through much of the 
character and personality of Charles Mohr, a scientist of distinction 
surely, but also a delightful and admirable human being whom one would 
like very much to know and enjoy. Dr. Davenport, I feel, has given me a 
warm, personal introduction to one of his best friends, and I am 
grateful for that. His article is highly recommended to anyone 
interested in Alabama's natural history. 

Norton Marshall 

Department of Botany and Microbiology 
Auburn University, AL 36849 


48 









INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS 


Editorial Policy: Publication in the Journal of the Alabama Academy 
of Science is restricted to members. Membership application forms 
can be obtained from Dr. Ann Williams, 101 Cary Hall, Auburn Univer¬ 
sity, AL 36849. Subject matter should address original research in 
one of the discipline sections of the Academy; Biological Sciences; 
Chemistry; Geology; Forestry, Geography, Conservation, and Planning; 
Physics and Mathematics; Industry and Economics; Science Education; 
Social Sciences; Health Sciences; Engineering and Computer Science; 
and Anthropology. Timely review articles of exceptional quality and 
general readership interest will also be considered. Invited arti¬ 
cles dealing with Science Activities in Alabama are occasionally 
published. Book reviews of Alabama authors are also solicited. 

Reviews'. Each manuscript will receive at least two simultaneous peer 
reviews. Include in your letter of transmittal the names, addresses, 
and telephone numbers of at least four qualified referees. Do not 
include names of individuals from your present institution. 

Manuscripts : Consult recent issues of the Journal for format. Dou¬ 
ble-space manuscripts throughout, allowing 1-inch margins. Number 
all pages. Submit the original and two copies to the Editor. Papers 
which are unreasonably long and verbose, such as uncut theses, will 
be returned. The title page should contain the author's name, affil¬ 
iation, and address, including zip code. An abstract not exceeding 
200 words will be published if the author so desires. Use headings 
and subdivisions where necessary for clarity. Common headings are: 
INTRODUCTION (including a literature review), PROCEDURES (or MATE¬ 
RIALS AND METHODS), RESULTS, DISCUSSION, and LITERATURE CITED. Other 
formats may be more appropriate for certain subject matter areas. 
Headings should be in all-caps and centered on the typed page; sub¬ 
headings should be italicized (underlined) and placed at the margin. 
Avoid excessive use of footnotes. Do not use the number 1 for foot¬ 
notes ; begin with 2. Skip additional footnote numbers if one or more 
authors must have their present address footnoted. 

Illustrations : Submit original inked drawings (graphs and diagrams) 
or clear black and white glossy photographs. Width must be 14-15 cm 
and height must not exceed 20 cm. Illustrations not conforming to 
these dimensions will be returned to the author. Use lettering that 
will still be legible after a 30% reduction. Designate all illustra¬ 
tions as figures, number consecutively, and cite all figures in the 
text. Type figure captions on a separate sheet of paper. Send two 
extra sets of illustrations; xeroxed photographs are satisfactory for 
review purposes. 

Tables: Place each table on a separate sheet. Place a table title 
directly above each table. Number tables consecutively. Use symbols 
or letters, not numerals, for table footnotes. Cite all tables in 
the text. 

Literature Cited: Only references cited in the text should be listed 
under LITERATURE CITED. Do not group references according to source 
(books, periodicals, newspapers, etc.). List in alphabetical order 
of senior author names. Cite references in the text by number or by 
author-date. 










: -$PP 


VOLUME 








COVER PHOTOGRAPH: Hatchling of a gopher tortoise ( Gopherus polyphemus). 
The gopher tortoise has declined prodigiously in recent years to the point 
that all populations west of the Tombigbee and Mobile Rivers are 
considered endangered. This decline is attributed to habitat alteration, 
loss of habitat, and predation by fire ants ( Soleonopsis sp.), armadillos 
(Dasypus novemcincCus ), and humans ( Homo sapiens ), particularly on eggs 
and juveniles (see abstract Vol. 60, No. 3, July, 1989). Gopher tortoise 
hatchlings are rarely found in the wild; this particular hatchling was one 
of ten found in DeSoto National Park, Mississippi. Gopher tortoises are 
an important aspect of the sandhills of Southeastern US because of their 
'•.habit; *of digging large burrows. These burrows are often used by 
threatened or special concern species such as the eastern indigo snake 
(Drymarchon corais) , the Florida pine snake ( PiCuophis melanoleucus ), the 
gopher frog ( Rana areolata) , and the Florida mouse ( Podomys floridanus). 
Photograph courtesy of Emmett Blankenship, Ty W. Bryan, and Dr. Craig 
Guyer. 

Emmett Blankenship and Ty W. Bryan are graduate students and Dr. Craig 
Guyer is an assistant professor in the Department of Zoology and Wildlife 
Science at Auburn University. 





Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 60, No. 2, April 1989. 


OUTSTANDING ALABAMA SCIENTISTS: 


PROFILES OF FIVE YEARS' RECIPIENTS 
OF THE WRIGHT A. GARDNER AWARD 1 



Ellen B. Buckner 
School of Nursing 


University of Alabama at Birmingham 


Birmingham } AL 25294 


The Wright A. Gardner Award was established by the Alabama Academy 
of Science to honor individuals whose work during residence in Alabama 
has been outstanding. Persons nominated for this award have included 
researchers, teachers, industrialists, clinicians and scholars. This 
report reviews the many contributions and ongoing work of the first five 
recipients of the Gardner Award 1984-1988. These scientists are Dr. 
Robert P. Bauman, Professor of Physics, University of Alabama at Bir¬ 
mingham (1984); Dr. Nolan E. Richards, Research Scientist and Manager of 
Manufacturing Technology Laboratory, Reynolds Metals Company, Sheffield 
(1985); Dr. S. T. Wu, Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Director, 
Center for Space Plasma and Aeronautic Research, University of Alabama 
in Huntsville (1986); Dr. Herbert H. Winkler, Professor of Microbiology 
and Immunology, University of South Alabama College of Medicine (1987); 
and Dr. Richard W. Compans, Professor of Microbiology and Senior Scien¬ 
tist, Cancer Center, Diabetes Center, and Arthritis Center, University 
of Alabama at Birmingham (1988). 

Dr. Wright A. Gardner was the principal founder and first President 
of the Alabama Academy of Science. Born in 1878 on a farm in the Tyrone 
Community, Michigan, he entered Albion College, Albion, Michigan plan¬ 
ning to enter the Methodist ministry, but his interests in plants led 
him to complete his studies in botany. He came to Alabama in 1917 as 
Professor of Botany and Plant Physiology at then Alabama Polytechnic 
Institute (Auburn University). From his graduate studies at the Univer¬ 
sities of Michigan and Chicago he realized the intellectual stimulation 
which could result from meetings of scientists to discuss mutual teach¬ 
ing and research interests. By the early 1920's, Gardner was carrying 
on extensive correspondence about organizing a state scientific society: 
With the encouragement of the Alabama Education Association (AEA) lead¬ 
ership he organized a meeting as the Science Section at the April 1924 
annual AEA meeting in Montgomery. The program of 26 papers was attended 
by some 30-40 persons. Dr. Gardner's scientific training and research 
interests included: (1) the effect of light on the gemination of 
light-sensitive seeds, (2) decomposition of organic toxins by soil 
organisms, (3) the decomposition of chlorophyll, (4) an enzyme in the 
rinds of oranges, and (5) black resistance in sweet potatoes. 

Dr. and Mrs. Gardner (Mabel Anna Anderson) were parents of four 
children, Hannon Austin, Louis Wright, Mabel Grace, and Donald Anderson, 


Manuscript received 28 September 1988, accepted 31 October 1988. 


49 



Buckner 


each of whom rose to distinguished positions in their chosen field of 
endeavor. Dr. Gardner had the ability and insight to be both an inno¬ 
vator and a motivator for the better-than-average student. From a 
humble background he prepared himself to be a leader among scientists. 
We of the Academy continue to honor his accomplishments through the 
Gardner Award. The recipients listed below further the tradition of 
scientific excellence today and are both leaders and role models for 
those who would follow. 


Robert P. Bauman 


Robert P. Bauman was born in Jackson, Michigan in 1928. He at¬ 
tended Purdue University, receiving a B.S. in Chemistry and Physics and 
an M.S. in Physical Chemistry. In 1954 he completed the Ph.D. in Phy¬ 
sics at the University of Pittsburgh. He is married to Edith Gerkin 
Bauman and they are the parents of four children: Katherine B. Griffis, 
David G. Bauman, Jefferey A. Bauman and Alice B. Morris. Dr. Bauman 
currently serves as Professor of Physics at the University of Alabama at 
Birmingham. 

Bauman's professional interests have spanned areas of science, 
education, and community work. He has also demonstrated a long-standing 
and continuing commitment to the Alabama Academy of Science and the 

Alabama Junior Academy of Sci- 



Bauman 


ence through active involvement 
in its programs for over 20 
years, and serving as Vice- 
president of the Physics sec¬ 
tion and Associate Counselor of 
the Junior Academy. From 1967— 
1973 he served as Chairman of 
the Department of Physics at 
the University of Alabama at 
Birmingham. 

Dr. Bauman's professional 
activities have included par¬ 
ticipation in the Coblentz 
Society and its Board of Mana¬ 
gers; the American Association 
of Physics Teachers, of which 
he was national President in 
1983-84; and the American In¬ 
stitute of Physics, Governing 
Board. His principal pub¬ 
lications include Absorption 
Spectroscopy, John Wiley and 
Sons, Inc., New York, 1962; An 
Introduction to Equilibrium 
Thermodynamics , Prentice- Hall, 
Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 
1966, translated into Japanese 


50 






Gardner Award 


and Portuguese; and A First Course in Physical Science , John Wiley and 
Sons, Inc., New York, 1987. He has over 60 publications in journals, 
including the Journal of Chemical Physics, American Journal of Physics, 
Physical Reviews, The Physics Teacher, Journal of Chemical Education , 
and others. 

Dr. Bauman has also been active in physics and science education. 
From 1975-78 he directed a "Project on Teaching and Learning in Univer¬ 
sity College" at the University of Alabama at Birmingham designed to 
apply Piagetian theory to college teaching. Many of his publications 
speak to the imperative of working with students to increase their 
understanding of difficult content. 

In addition to scholarly endeavors in his chosen field of physics. 
Dr. Bauman has demonstrated commitment to the community. From 1972-78 
he served on the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Advisory Board, 
University of Alabama at Birmingham, and was its chairman for one year. 
He continues as a member of the Board of Directors of the Red Mountain 
Museum and its Society as well as being active in other associations in 
the Birmingham area. 



Dr. Bauman's research interests continue in areas of 1) molecular 
physics: infrared and Raman spectroscopy,valence theory, computer model¬ 
ing of electric discharges; 2) 
teaching-learning theory: sci¬ 
ence museums as educational 
centers, teaching for cognitive 
development; and 3) applica¬ 
tions of physics to accident 
reconstruction. 


Richards 


Dr. Richards' principal 
contributions have been in the 
area of metallurgy and he has 


Nolan Earle Richards 

Nolan Richards was born in 
Kaitaia, New Zealand in 1930 
and completed his Ph.D. at the 
University of Auckland in 1956. 
Following that degree he 
studied at the University of 
Pennsylvania in the School of 
Molten Salts and was Stanley 
Elmore Fellow in Extractive 
Metallurgy at the Imperial 
College of Science and 
Technology in London. He is 
married to the former Helen 
Margaret Mackenzie and they are 
the parents of two children, 
Bruce Earle and Robin Lynnette 
Garibay. 


51 



Buckner 


been active in resource processing and development in Alabama for over 
25 years. He was Research Scientist and Department Manager at the 
Reynolds Metals Company Reduction Laboratory in Sheffield, Alabama from 
1957-1973. He has written numerous articles in technical journals and 
books and holds several patents in the fields of metal and material 
science. He is a Fellow of the New Zealand Institute of Chemistry, a 
member of the Electrochemical Society, the American Institute of Mining 
and Metallurgical Engineers, the American Chemical Society, and the 
Chemical Society of London. 

Dr. Richards serves Reynolds Metal Company as Manager of the Manu¬ 
facturing Technology Laboratory. His primary interests are 1) process 
metallurgy, 2) material science of refractories and aluminum, 3) re¬ 
cycling, and 4) automation. 


S. T. Wu 

Shi Tsan Wu was born in Nanchang, Kiangsi, China. He received his 
B.S. in Mechanical Engineering from National Taiwan University, Taipei, 
Taiwan. He then studied Mechanical Engineering at the Illinois Insti¬ 
tute of Technology and completed the Ph.D. in Aerospace Engineering 
Science at the University of Colorado in 1967. He is married to the 
former Mai Kao and they are the parents of three children: Cheyenne, 
Rosalind, and Patricia. 



Dr. Wu has a distinguished 
record of teaching, publica¬ 
tions, and professional activi¬ 
ties in a number of areas of 
physics and engineering. His 
publications have involved (1) 
basic theory, kinetic theory, 
fluid dynamics, heat transfer, 
plasma dynamics, radiative gas 
dynamics, and magnetic-hydro- 
dynamics; (2) solar and inter¬ 
planetary physics; (3) atmos¬ 
pheric physics; (4) application 
of numerical methods; and (5) 
solar energy. He has edited 
nine books. Dr. Wu has pre¬ 
sented over 200 talks since 
1963 at international and na¬ 
tional meetings, including 
presentations in 23 countries. 
He has received the Martin 
Schilling Award from the Ala- 
bama-Mississippi Section of the 
American Institute of Aeronau¬ 
tics and Astronautics (AIAA), 
1987, Group Achievement Award 
for Skylab-ATM Data Analysis 
from the National Aeronautics 


52 







Gardner Award 


Space Administration (NASA) (1979), and over 12 other awards of scien¬ 
tific recognition. He has directed graduate students in the production 
of twenty-seven theses and dissertations in mechanical engineering and 
physics. 


Dr. Wu' s professional activities are numerous and extensive. At 
the national level he was Co-Chairman of the Conference on Advanced 
Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion Technology at the NASA/ Marshall Space Flight 
Center in 1986. He was Chairman of the Session on Plasma at the AIAA 
Fluid Dynamics Conference in 1985, and was Co-Chairman of the Advanced 
High Pressure 02/H2 Technology Conference at the NASA/ Marshall Space 
Flight Center in 1984. He has been Secretary of the NASA Solar Beacon 
Scientific Study Team. Internationally, he has been a member of the 
Scientific Organizing Committee on Study of Traveling Interplanetary 
Phenomena, and a member of advisory committees in China, Japan, Ireland, 
Siberia, and Australia on the Solar Maximum Year. Locally, he has been 
the director of the Alabama-Mississippi Section of the AIAA since 1980. 

Dr. Wu continues his many efforts in the training of scientists in 
space and solar study and engineering. He is currently Professor of 
Mechanical Engineering and Adjunct Professor of Physics at the Univer¬ 
sity of Alabama in Huntsville and Director of the Center for Space 
Plasma and Aeronautic Research. He is a visiting Professor at Wu-Han 
University and a Consultant for the Battelle Memorial Institute Research 
Laboratory (U.S. Army), Space Environment Laboratory, and Environmental 
Research Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 
(NOAA). Current committee involvements include the following: AIAA 
Technical Committee on Plasma and Lasers; NASA Advanced Solar Observa¬ 
tory Working Group; American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Modeling 
and Simulation Committee; and the International Council of Scientific 
Unions, Scientific Committee on Solar Terrestrial Physics. He is a 
reviewer for grant proposals for NASA, NOAA and the National Science 
Foundation and a member of editorial review boards of the J. of Geo¬ 
physical Research, Astrophysics J., Solar Physics _, and Applied Mechanics 
Review. 


Herbert H. Winkler 

Herbert Winkler was born in Highland Park, Michigan in 1939. He 
attended Kenyon College receiving the B.A. in biology, magna cum laude. 
He completed the Ph.D. in physiology in 1966 at Harvard University and a 
post-doctorate in physiological chemistry in 1968 at Johns Hopkins 
University. He is married to the former Sue Schuler and they are 
parents of one daughter, Elizabeth. 

Dr. Winkler is considered one of the premier microbiologists in 
America. The work he has conducted for the past ten years in Alabama 
has been exemplary of fundamental understandings and pioneering new ef¬ 
forts. With the aid of colleagues at the University of South Alabama, 
he was the first to clone a gene from an obligate intracellular procary¬ 
ote and achieve gene expression. This remarkable discovery made feasi¬ 
ble the possibility of describing every gene and concomitant protein 


53 



Buckner 


present in the rickettsial organism which can be produced in the eucary- 
otic cells which the microbe parasitizes causing cell death and fatal 
outcome for the patient. This revolutionary approach to attacking the 
genetic and biochemical basis of a procaryotic mediated human disease 
represents ingenious perspective, undergirded by a solid understanding 
of biochemistry and cell physiology. His ongoing work has resulted in 
over 80 publications in scientific journals and books and he has active¬ 
ly directed nineteen theses, dissertations, and post-doctoral fellow¬ 
ships . 



Dr. Winkler continues in 
his work as Professor and Vice- 
Chairman of Microbiology and 
Immunology at the University of 
South Alabama College of Medi¬ 
cine. He is a member of the 
Winkler Editorial Board of Infection 

and Immunity. His current re¬ 
search is in the areas of 1) permeability properties of rickettsiae, 2) 
lymphokine and antibody: host defense against rickettsiae, and 3) gene¬ 
tic analysis of Rickettsia prowazekii. 


Dr. Winkler has been hon¬ 
ored many times for his work 
and professional activities. 
From 1983-85 he was national 
President of the American So¬ 
ciety for Rickettsiology and 
Rickettsial Diseases. In 1987 
he was an invited speaker at 
the Centennial Celebration of 
the Institute Pasteur in Paris, 
France. He has served as con¬ 
vener for symposia of the Amer¬ 
ican Society for Microbiology 
on topics including procaryotic 
cellular parasite adaptation, 
diseases caused by leukocytic 
rickettsiae, microbial viru¬ 
lence, and molecular biology of 
rickettsiae. Nationally, he 
has received an award- for dis¬ 
tinguished faculty service. 


Richard W. Compans 


Richard W. Compans was born in 1940 at Syracuse, New York. He 
attended Kalamazoo College receiving the B.A. in 1963, magna. cum laude. 
He completed the Ph.D. at Rockefeller University in 1968 and was an 
American Cancer Society Postdoctoral Fellow at the Australian National 
University the following year. He is married to the former Marian 
Merly. 


54 


Gardner Award 



Dr, Compans has demonstrated broad interest and application of 
microbiology and specifically virology to various disease states. He 
has authored over 180 research papers and review articles and four 
books: The Replication of Negative Strand Viruses and Double-Stranded 
RNA Viruses (both with David H.L. Bishop, published by Elsevier North- 
Holland, 1981 and 1983, respectively) and Segmented Negative Strand 
Viruses and Non-segmented Negative Strand Viruses (with David H. L. 
Bishop, Academic Press, New York, 1984). He has directed the work of 36 
graduate students and post-doctoral fellows. He has been the primary 
organizer of three international symposia on negative strand viruses and 

double stranded RNA viruses and 
one on the cell biology of vir¬ 
al entry, replication, and 
pathogenesis. He has been a 
member of the Viral Study Sec¬ 
tion of the U. S. Public Health 
Service and Special Review Com¬ 
mittees for Retrovirus Vaccines 
of the National Institute of 
Health (NIH), National Cancer 
Institute (NCI), Breast Cancer 
Task Force, and the Frederick 
Cancer Research Facility. In 
1987 he was elected Chairman of 
the RNA Viruses Section of the 
American Society for Microbiol¬ 
ogy. 


His current research work 
is extensive and includes the 
following projects: (1) influ¬ 
enza virus structure, biosyn¬ 
thesis, and assembly (NIH Merit 
Award); (2) directional trans¬ 

port of MuLV glycoproteins; (3) 
basic mechanisms in virology; 
and (4) HTLV-III/LAV antigen 
Compans variation and cell biology. He 

continues supervising both ba¬ 
sic training grants and an Electron Microscope Core Facility support 
grant. Dr. Compans is Professor of Microbiology at the University of 
Alabama in Birmingham. He is active in several research centers in the 
University as Senior Scientist in the Cancer Research and Training 
Center, the Diabetes Research and Training Center, the Multipurpose 
Arthritis Center, and the Cystic Fibrosis Center. He is editor of Virus 
Research and is a member of editorial boards of Intervirology 3 J. of 
Biological Chemistry _» and Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, 


NOTE: Sources for this report were curricula vitae obtained from the 

award recipients; "Wright A Gardner" by Emmett B. Carmichael, 
Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science Vol. 51(4), pp. 308-14, 
1980; personal communications and prepared citations. 


55 






Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 60, No. 2, April 1989. 


AIR FLOW DISTRIBUTION IN AN UNDERFEED RESIDENTIAL 
STOKER COMBUSTOR USING BITUMINOUS COALS 1 


N. L. Mukherjee 

Department of Chemical Engineering 
Tuskegee University 
Tuskegee, AL 36088 

and 

0. J. Hahn 

Department of Mechanical Engineering 
University of Kentucky 
Lexington, KY 40506 

ABSTRACT 

Bituminous coals used in residential space and water stoker heaters 
emit significant amounts of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocar¬ 
bons, and non-uniform air flow distribution in the retort and in the 
coal bed causes incomplete combustion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocar¬ 
bons produced during coal pyrolysis. Investigations were carried out in 
a Will-Burt automatic underfeed residential stoker combustor to deter¬ 
mine air flow distribution from the tuyeres to the retort and the coal 
bed. Air flow from the inside, bottom tuyeres was higher than that from 
the outside tuyeres, and was lowest at the coal bed center. 

INTRODUCTION 

The cost of natural petroleum oil and gas in the United States of 
America is increasing and deposits are dwindling. It is quite possible 
in the near future that bituminous coal, which is plentiful as well as 
readily available, will be a potential fuel source for the residential 
stoker combustor. Bituminous coal in the state of Alabama has low 
percentages of sulfur and ash; moreover, in 1982, Alabama was ranked 
eleventh in coal production among coal-producing states in the United 
States. Table 1 (Tolson et al. 1982) shows the typical ranges in 
Alabama bituminous steam coal quality on as as-received basis. Alabama 
steam coal, because of its good quality and enormous reserves, has an 
excellent potential market for residential combustors. 

Bituminous coal, due to coking characteristics, agglomerates and 
causes blowhole, gas channels in the coal bed; in addition, coal crushes 
partly and fines segregate in the coal bed during screwfeeding. As a 
result, air flow distribution is irregular and bed temperature is non- 
uniform, conditions which inhibit complete combustion of volatile matter 
and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). 


Manuscript received 19 August 1988; accepted 16 November 1988. 


56 



Mukherjee and Hahn 


Table 1. Analysis of Alabama Steam Coal as 
Received Basis. 


Moisture, (%) 

7-13 

(max) 

Ash, (%) 

13-15 

(max) 

MJ/kg 

26.62 

(max) 

Sulfur, (%) 

0.6-3. 

,3 (max) 

Fixed carbon, (%) 

45-65 


Volatile matter, (%) 

20-27 


Ash softening temperature, (°C) 

1,065 

(min) 

Ash fusion temperature, (°C) 

1,315 

(min) 


With minor modifications in tuyere design, PAH emissions can be 
significantly reduced. Effective air velocity and uniform air flow 
distribution in the retort and coal bed can be improved if rows have the 
proper number of tuyeres and are of the correct size and position. Due 
to ash softening, agglomerates, clinkers, and segregated coal fines 
increase air flow resistance; restricting the area of the tuyeres' air 
outlet will create a higher fan capacity but will also increase cost. 
Restricting the air outlet area, however, is advantageous in that it 
tends to equalize air flow to the different portions of the retort. 

Investigations were carried out at Pittsburgh Energy Technology 
Center, Department of Energy, in a Will-Burt type underfeed stroker 
residential combustor; bituminous coal was used in order to achieve an 
overview of the air flow distribution in the retort and in the coal bed 
so that investigators could determine how to.modify tuyere design. 

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 

The Will-Burt type residential underfeed stoker combustor (Figure 
1) in which investigations were conducted had a capacity of 153 mj/hr, a 
warm air furnace, a stoker, warm air controls, and a barometric damper. 
Air from the windbox flowed into the retort through rows of tuyeres. 
Three tuyere rows were located outside, inside top, and inside bottom of 
the retort wall. Each row consisted of sixteen tuyeres of the same size 
with the following dimensions: 7.94 x 10 3 m diameter —_outside; (2.06 
x 10 2 m) x (8.73 x 10 3 m) — inside top; and (1.75 x 10 2 m) x (1.03 x 
10 2 m) — inside bottom. Coal rose vertically in the retort through the 
stoker system. Volatile matter from the coal mixed with air and ignited 
as it passed through the incandescent layer of the bed and thus effecti¬ 
vely controlled smoke emission. 

The investigation determined air flow distribution at variable 
conditions through the front and rear tuyeres. A pitot tube connected 
to a differential manometer measured the velocity head. 


57 





Air Flow Distribution in an Underfeed Residential Stoker 


TURN DAMPER 
■SLIDE IN FIRE DOOR 



hr— 





BAROMETRIC 

DAMPER 


FEED SCREW WINO DUCT 


.-LIVE FUEL BED 
^IGNITION LINE 

-LOOSE ASH 
-CLINKER 

-REFRACTORY 

HEARTH 

-TUYERES 

-WINO BOX 
-RETORT 

—GREEN FUEL 


Figure 1. Schematic diagram of Will-Burt type residential 
stoker combustor. 


Air flow rates were calculated from the following equations: 

1 

velocity, m/sec = 20.71 (P ) 2 (1) 

where P = velocity pressure meter of waterflow, m 3 /sec in tuyere = 
tuyere surface, m 2 x velocity, m/sec (2) 

To measure the air flow rate and distribution through the tuyeres 
in the retort, the first test [Figure 2] was conducted without a coal 
bed. Flow was measured at four different points in each tuyere row and 
for three different air flow rates. Table 2 shows average flow distri¬ 
bution through three tuyere rows. 

The second test [Figure 3] was performed to determine air flow 
distribution on the coal bed surface at variable air flow and coal feed 
rates. As is illustrated in Table 3, the air flow was measured on the 

basis of the height of the water column in the pitot tube; it was 

measured at three different sections and in the center of the bed, and 
was calculated at four different points in each section. To determine 
the degree of fines produced in screwfeedings, as well as their distri¬ 
bution in the coal bed, the third test was conducted at various coal 

feed and air flow rates [Table 4], 


58 



















Mukherjee and Hahn 



Tuyeres location 


outside tuyeres A * 0.203m (dla.i 
Inside tuyeres, top B * 0.165m (dia.) 
Inside tuyeres, bottom C * 0.127m (dia.) 


Figure 2. Tuyere location of air flow measurement in empty 
coal bed. 


Table 2. Average Air Flow Distribution through Tuyere Rows in Empty 
Coal Bed. 


Flow Type 

Air 

Flow Distribution 


Test 1 

Test 2 

Test 3 

Outside tuyeres, flow% 

9.7 

8.6 

9.1 

Inside top tuyeres, flow % 

43.8 

44.3 

46.0 

Inside bottom tuyeres, flow% 

46.5 

47.0 

45.0 

Measured total air flow, m 3 /s 

17.83xl0~ 3 

25.25xl0~ 3 

35.39xl0~ 3 

Calculated total air flow, m ? /s 

18.97x10" 3 

24.59xl0~ 3 

33.17xl0“ 3 


1 



Location of air flow measurement 
on bed surface 

Section A - 0.102m (dia.) 
Section 3 - 0.178m (dlaJ 
Section C - Q.254m (dia.) 


Figure 3. Location of air flow measurement on coal bed surface. 


59 











Table 3. Air Flow Distribution (Basis Water Columin in Pitot Tube) on Coal Bed Surface. 


Air Flow Distribution in an Underfeed Residential Stoker 



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3 45.0 55.0 63.4 36.6 63.7 36. 

















Air Flow Distribution in an Underfeed Residential Stoker 


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

Table 2 shows the average air flow distribution through three 
tuyere rows without a coal bed: inside bottom air flow was high [46%]; 
inside top was slightly low [44%]; outside was low [9%]. These results 
were most likely attributable to high bottom bed temperatures and low 
temperatures near the wall. 

Table 3 shows the air flow distribution on the fuel bed surface at 
variable air and coal feed rates. Air flow was clearly non-uniform at 
the sides and decreased towards the center, probably because of fines, 
bed resistance, irregular bed height, design characteristics of tuyeres 
and retort, and an irregular distribution of coal sizes. The average 
air flow distribution on the bed surface in Test B was relatively higher 
than that in Test A. The continued air flow through coal fines caused 
larger channel sizes and showed increased air flow. 

Table 4 illustrates the segregation and distribution of coal fines 
due to coal crushing in the screwfeeder. Coal fines produced at low 
coal feed rates in the screwfeeder were relatively higher than those 
produced at high coal feed rates, but the amount of fines produced at 
the two high coal feed rates was almost the same. Small sizes and fines 
tended to accumulate toward the rear, the part of the bed which was less 
permeable to air. Because more air passed through the front of the 
retort since the bed was more open, there was rapid combustion in the 
front section of the retort and channels and blow holes formed because 
of the presence of clinkers. 


CONCLUSIONS 

1. Air flow is high through inside bottom tuyeres, and low through 
outside tuyeres. 

2. Coal fines produced in the screwfeeder at low coal feed rates are 
relatively higher than those produced at high coal feed rates, but 
coal fines produced at high coal feed rates are almost the same. 

3. Accumulation of coal fines in the rear bed is higher than that in 
the front bed. 

4. Air flow at the center of the coal bed is lower than that in other 
sections. 


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The author is grateful to personnel of the U. S. Department of 
Energy-Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Combustion Laboratory for 
their assistance and cooperation in performing the experiment. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Tolson, S. J.; Musgrove, C. G.; and Sokolo, P. K. 1982. Alabama Coal 
Data for 1982, p. 16. 


62 


Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 60, No. 2, April 1989. 


HUMAN TWINNING AS A COMPENSATORY MECHANISM: 
A UNIFYING HYPOTHESIS 1 


Janet P. Abbott-King 
144 Fuller Street 
Auburn, AL 36830 


ABSTRACT 

Problematic demography of human twinning includes elevated postwar 
twinning rates (PTRs) and high twinning rates (HTRs) among individuals 
whose social-cultural environment encourages large family-size. This 
paper suggests an original hypothesis to account, in part, for some 
unexplained patterns of twinning observed in human populations and to 
serve as an alternative focal-point for research into a biosocial, com¬ 
pensatory mechanism which might regulate human reproductive potential, 
via neuroendocrine pathways. The common denominator of a reproductive 
imperative conferred by social or cultural parameters is discussed with 
regard to Yoruba, Hispanic, Mormon, and Catholic HTRs and elevated PTRs 
associated with World War I and II. Elevated twinning rates in Gorlitz 
Germany, 1651-1660 and 1761-1770 and in the U.S. (1970s) are related to 
postwar periods and are discussed accordingly. A hypothetical schema of 
stress-related hormonal conditions which would favor twinning is present¬ 
ed accommodating existing neuroendocrinological data and twin data. Al¬ 
ternative lines of inquiry are proposed therefrom. 

INTRODUCTION 

Although two types of twinning, monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ), 
are generally recognized in studies of twinning rates (TRs) in humans, 
evidence for other mechanisms of twinning exists but is addressed much 
less frequently in the literature. These other twinning phenomena in¬ 
clude: polar-body twinning [15, 31]; superfetation (double pregnancy) 
[1, 8, 14, 33, 34, 49, 53, 83, 100, 102, 127, 137, 155]; whole-body 
chimerism or fused fraternal twins ("twin-in-one") [12, 24, 31]; and 
ovular reabsorption ("blighted twin") [42, 55, 78, 113, 129, 133, 149, 
163]. The latter two types are also known as "vanishing twin" phenomena, 
resulting in singleton births. In addition to providing a source of 
variability in data on TRs, these other types of twinning phenomena also 
indicate that twin conceptions occur more frequently than the generally 
recognized figure of 1:80 [13]. 

Literature on twin studies also contains demographic data on vari¬ 
ations in TRs within and between countries for which existing environmen¬ 
tal and genetical models do not adequately account. This paper develops 
an hypothesis to account for these problematic demographics and in so 
doing advances twinning as a focal-point for investigation into compen¬ 
satory reproductive strategies in human populations, in relation to 
social-environmental parameters. It is hoped that the multifarious 


Manuscript received 27 July 1988; accepted 16 November 1988. 


63 



Abbott-King 


observations offered in this paper and the postulates arising therefrom 
will stimulate experimental work useful to both twin research and popula¬ 
tion biology. 

Genetic and Environmental Bases for Twinning 

From the early 1900's to the present a number of authors have at¬ 
tempted to identify a mode of inheritance for twinning. To date, a 
variety of interpretations exist. Some workers have described DZ and MZ 
twinning as genetic and others as non-genetic. Different interpretations 
exist for other hereditary aspects such as paternal vs. maternal influ¬ 
ence, polygenic vs. monohybrid characters, and whether or not all forms 
of twinning are expressions of the same tendency toward multiple¬ 
birthing . 

The incidence of twinning in humans is not adequately explained on 
the basis of genetics alone, however, and twin studies could be made more 
valuable by investigation into environmental components. Developmental 
processes of identical traits (e.g., multiple ovulation resulting in 
dizygotic twinning) are the same, whether or not their origin is genetic. 
For instance, several authors have concluded that DZ twinning and its 
frequency variations depend on multiple genes whose traits are influenced 
by environmental interactions [65, 146]. They further concluded that 
phenotypic expression of the DZ twinning tendency is a "threshold char¬ 
acter" whereby the cumulative effect of multiple genes must exceed a 
certain value or environmentally influenced hormone production has to 
exceed a certain value before twinning can occur. A number of authors 
have postulated a major role for the pituitary gonadotropic hormones, 
luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), in 
regulating the incidence of DZ twinning [4, 16, 17, 27, 44, 60, 77, 78, 
92, 93, 95, 97, 102, 109-112, 129, 133, 135, 136, 142, 153, 157]. Sup¬ 
porting evidence comes from numerous studies on patients treated for 
anovulation (and other ovarian dysfunctions) with gonadotropins or agents 
such as clomiphene, which stimulate release of the pituitary gonadotropic 
hormones. These studies indicate that polyovulation is dose-related 
[157]. 


Zahdlkova [162] mathematically established the existence of environ¬ 
mental influence on twinning incidence through analysis of twin-birth 
clustering in space and time. The study focused on a population of about 
2,000 individuals in Southern Moravia, Czechoslovakia (an area comprising 
15,029 square km) inhabiting the region between 1960 and 1979 inclusive. 
The study showed highly significant statistical results involving a 
"relatively short interval of action and quick change in place" [162] 
leading Zahalkovd to suggest that "the twinning rate is influenced by 
environmental factors which are present or active in varying degrees in 
different places at different times" [162]. 

Problematic Twinning Demographics 

A number of twin studies support the argument that changes in TRs do 
not necessarily indicate a change in the genetic structure of a popula¬ 
tion, but may be the result of changes in social habits or other environ- 


64 


Human Twinning 


mental factors [7, 39, 62, 31, 86, 117, 146, 153, 161] and variations in 

DZ TRs are commonly used as a reference point for discussion of TR 

changes because MZ TRs tend to be uniform throughout human populations, 
with few exceptions. The frequency of MZ twinning is generally about 3.5 
maternities per thousand [12, 18]. Maternal age, parity, and nutritional 
factors are commonly shown to influence DZ twinning frequencies. How¬ 
ever, these factors have not been shown to account for elevated TRs 

reported in the following categories: 

I. Large families [3, 4, 17, 21] 

a. Yorubas of Western Nigeria [80, 104-112, 114] 

b. Catholics: U.S. [158] & Bolas of New Britain [135, 136] 

c. Hispanics: Mexican-American [47] & Chilean [135] 

d. Mormons: U.S. [21] 

II. Postwar Births 

a. WWI: Italy [5, 117] 

b. WWII: U.S. [7] & Norway [146] 

c. Vietnam Conflict: U.S. [61, 62, 64] 

d. Thirty Years War, 1618-1648: Gorlitz, Germany [128] 

e. Seven Years War, 1756-1763: Gorlitz, Germany [128] 

The remaining sections of this paper address these problematic data from 
a heuristic perspective, offering alternative, and, it is hoped, more 
fruitful lines of inquiry. 

TWINNING, FAMILY SIZE, AND REPRODUCTIVE IMPERATIVE 

The characteristic occurrence of twinning in large families [3, 4, 
17, 21] can be argued to result from maternal-age and parity-effects or 
simple numerical odds; the more children a twin-prone mother has, the 
more likely she is to express the twinning tendency [4]. However, this 
argument does not account for the high frequency of twinning observed 
among early conceptions in legitimate first maternities of twin-prone 
couples [4, 17, 119] and the high frequency of twinning observed among 

primiparae of illegitimate maternities [38]. It has been proposed that 
these twinning phenomena might have resulted from a maternal psychologi¬ 
cal state affecting the pituitary gland thereby precipitating double 
ovulation [4] . Other authors have proposed that levels of pituitary 
gonadotropins, in turn influenced by emotional stress, may be responsible 
for observed variations in rates of double ovulation [5, 7, 39, 63, 99, 
117, 146, 153] but detailed neurohormonal pathways whereby such a mecha¬ 
nism might operate have not been postulated. Nevertheless, information 
generated from twin studies, regarding a possible connection between the 
pituitary gonadotropic hormones and DZ twinning, offers a framework in 
which to reconsider classically problematic twinning phenomena. 

Consider, for instance, the highest TR in the world, 62 per 1,000 
maternities, reported in the Yoruba population of Western Nigeria [104, 
106, 111, 112]. Nylander [104-112] extensively studied the occurrence of 
twinning (and higher multiple births) in Nigeria and reported a high 
incidence of DZ twinning among West Nigerian mothers four times the 
incidence found in Great Britain and the U.S. [104, 107, 111]. When 

typically influential factors such as maternal age and parity are taken 
into account in comparing West Nigerian and Great Britain populations, 
West Nigerian women still showed much higher TRs than European women 


65 


Abbott-King 


[111]. In comparing serum-gonadotropin hormone levels in West Nigerian 
mothers of twins and mothers of singletons, Nylander reported much higher 
FSH levels in mothers of twins than in mothers of singletons [109-111]. 
Nylander speculated that some as-yet-unidentified dietary factor may be 
responsible for the high gonadotropin levels, and hence high DZ TR in 
Yoruba women [111-112]. However, the cause of this twinning phenomenon 
remains obscure. 

Previous investigations have not explored social structures as re- 
productively influential components of the Yoruba environment. However, 
a cultural study of the Yoruba by Oruene [114] revealed deeply rooted, 
emotional attitudes toward twinning. This information coupled with that 
provided by other studies discussed herein lead me to consider that the 
sociocultural environment of the Yoruba may intermittently provide a 
source of psychological/emotional stimuli, subsequently resulting in 
altered neurophysiological states favorable to twinning. For example, in 
a study of the traditional religious beliefs of the Yoruba and their 
attitudes and practices toward twins, Oruene [114] reported that earlier 
in Yoruba history, twins were regarded as omens and were killed or 
banished, along with their mothers, in efforts to rid the community of 
the evil they were believed to foreshadow, and that "elaborate rituals of 
purification" were carried out to benefit the mother and community. 
Reasons for the negative attitude toward twins as observed in cultural 
and traditional Yoruba beliefs were that 1) twin conception implied 
defilement of the mother, which would result in a paternity dispute 
disturbing "the peace and stability of the whole society" and 2) "the 
social structure of the community would be threatened if two people of 
similar age were accepted into a society where the principle of seniority 
was of great importance" [114]. This practice of ritual killing 
persisted at least until the 1600s. Therefore, twinning was selected 
against in the Yoruba population until religious and cultural attitudes 
toward twinning changed. According to Oruene, killing of twins was 
replaced by ritual homage of twins due to the belief that twins were 
divine in origin, possessing supernatural powers, and because "with the 
high incidence of infant mortality, it appeared prudent to accept the 
birth of two infants in the hope that at least one would survive infancy" 
[114], 


Among the powers attributed to Yoruba twins are those of fertility, 
prosperity, rainmaking, healing, and avenger and detector of thieves. 
Because the birth of twins brings joy and prosperity to parents through 
remuneration derived from the occupation decreed to a mother of twins 
[114], it is socially, emotionally, and biologically advantageous for a 
Yoruba woman to give birth to twins. It is believed so strongly that 
twins possess the power of fertility, that previously barren women 
associating with twins or their mothers are reported to have conceived 
and given birth to twins [114]. A likely explanation for this observa¬ 
tion is that women who are infertile due to stress - induced anovulation 
may be relieved from their anxiety (through their faith in twins) upon 
association with twins, and upon relief from this stress, ovulation may 
then resume. (Neurohormonal conditions which favor anovulation are 
discussed further in a later section of the present paper.) Although 
rituals using the twins' powers are primarily practiced within the 


66 


Human Twinning 


family, they are also performed for individuals in the community and when 
believed needed to benefit the community itself [114], 

The socioreligious tradition of twinning appears to be a powerful 
reproductive force in Yoruba society. As such, I propose that this tra¬ 
dition might provide a psychological stimulus, a reproductive imperative 
to conceive and to give birth to twins, in the neurophysiology of Yoruba 
women. This stimulus may periodically result in increased fertility and 
perhaps follicular recruitment, maturation, and ovulatioi of more than 
one oocyte per menstrual cycle. 

An alternative reproductive imperative could be postulated to origi¬ 
nate from the culture of tropical Africa as a whole for high fertility is 
almost universally desired there [20]. Socioeconomic fertility differen¬ 
tials are nearly absent and a large number of children, six or more, is 
favored by both males and females in much of tropical Africa. Barren 
women are sometimes regarded as witches. The total fertility rate in 
African populations is 6.5 or more [20], An exception is the "low- 
fertility zone" in central Africa which includes two areas in Sudan, the 
Central African Republic, Cameroon, Zaire, and Gabon. Caldwell and 
Caldwell [20] concluded the sterility in these regions to be the result 
of a long-lasting gonorrhea epidemic introduced by colonizers in the 
1870s. Because coastal populations were in frequent contact with Arabs 
and Europeans they were able to build immunological resistance through 
the centuries, whereas natives living in the interior region of the 
continent remained more vulnerable. The low fertility zone is comprised 
of the former Congo Free State and French Congo, the last c>f the colonial 
states to have been established. Traditionally, economic systems in 
tropical Africa have rewarded those populations with large numbers of 
offspring, thus partly accounting for the desire for very high fertility 
among individuals in these populations [19]. 

The common denominator of a reproductive imperative, grounded, at 
least in part, in social or religious tradition, can be identified in 
other populations also reported to have relatively high TRs. For ex¬ 
ample, in a study of multiple births among individuals in the Bola tribe 
of the island of New Britain, Scragg and Walsh [135] reported a multiple- 
birth incidence of 3.17%, a rate two to three times greater than the 
observed rates among four local control populations (two communities on 
New Ireland and two on Bougainville Island). The incidence of multiple 
births in these two communities is 1.15% or 1 in 87 births, a figure that 
approximates most Caucasian groups [135]. 

The main component of the multiple-birthing phenomenon among the 
Bolas of New Britain is attributed to DZ twinning. Scragg and Walsh 
[136] reported that during the time-period which was encompassed by this 
study (the years between 1954 and 1966, inclusive), the Bola area com¬ 
prised about 400 square miles with a population ranging from 3,063 to 
4,609 individuals. They also reported that the area has been under the 
influence of a Roman Catholic mission for over 40 years [136] and de¬ 
scribed the Bola people as "entirely Roman Catholic" [135]. The authors 
concluded that some as-yet-unidentified environmental factor might be 
influencing pituitary gonadotropin levels in Bola women causing the 


67 


Abbott-King 


observed multiple-birthing phenomenon. In comparing nutritional factors, 
the authors concluded no significant difference existed between the diet 
of the Bolas and the diet of the individuals in the New Ireland and 
Bougainville populations. They noted this incidence of multiple-birthing 
to have been a local phenomenon not found anywhere else in Papua or New 
Guinea. 

Comparatively, the religion factor seems significant also in a study 
by Wyshak [158] regarding the reproductive and menstrual characteristics 
of mothers of multiple births and mothers of singletons in the United 
States. Wyshak [158] reported Catholic women as having a greater number 
of live births, pregnancies, and maternities than women of other reli¬ 
gions. The twinning incidence in Chile, a predominantly Roman Catholic 
country, is reported to be high at 57 per 1,000 births [135] and a study 
of twinning in Mexican-Americans [4-7 ] , a predominantly Roman Catholic 
population, showed Mexican-Americans as having a higher TR when compared 
with U.S. populations of Blacks, Anglos, and Asians. In a study of twin¬ 
ning in the Utah Mormon population, Carmelli and others [21] reported 
that when compared to other U.S. Caucasian populations, Mormons consis¬ 
tently showed higher twinning rates. Both Mormon and Catholic religions 
encourage large family size as do the Yoruba and Bola cultures. 

Based on inference from the examples discussed above, it seems 
likely that investigation of the possibility that religious culture might 
provide a proximal stimulus for neurohormonal conditions, which would 
favor multiple ovulation, appears warranted. And, assuming that such an 
apparently causative mechanism exists, the question thus arises: through 
what neurohormonal pathways might it conceivably operate to produce the 
final outcome of multiple ovulation? This line of inquiry may also shed 
light on another unexplained phenomenon reported in twin literature: 
elevated TRs among postwar births. 

TWINNING, POSTWAR BIRTHS, AND REPRODUCTIVE IMPERATIVE 

As if to compensate for war mortality or delayed reproduction, the 
frequency of twin births tends to increase during postwar periods. Allen 
and Schachter [7] reported an increase in TR in the United States after 
World War II. Allen [4, 5] has suggested that the psychological state of 
the female, influenced by the pituitary, may have enhanced production of 
pituitary gonadotropins during this time period, thereby enhancing the 
probability of double ovulation. However, no characteri- zation of the 
hormonal pathway(s) whereby such a mechanism might operate has been 
offered. Torgersen [146] reported a postwar increase in triplet births 
greater than that of any earlier period in Norway after World War II. 
Parisi and Caperna [117] reported a sudden increase in DZ TRs in Italy 
associated with the end of World War I. The authors of these latter two 
studies have been unable to account for these phenomena in terms of 
factors usually associated with such variation (namely, maternal age, 
parity, and nutritional effects). Parisi and Caperna [117] have 
suggested that psychosocial factors may influence rates of double ovula¬ 
tion and that this may account for some variations in TRs, but like other 
studies, details of the neurohormonal pathways whereby such a mechanism 
might influence multiple ovulation have not been proposed. 


68 


Human Twinning 


A postwar peak in TR is also reported to have occurred in the United 
States in 1919 [5], Similarly, in a series of studies on worldwide 
secular trends in TRs over the two decades 1957-1978 [61, 62, 64] James 
[64] reported an unexplained increase in twin births in the United States 
during the 1970s, while TRs in other developed countries showed a de¬ 
crease or stabilization during these years. Allen [6] further examined 
this increase in U.S. TRs between 1964 and 1983, standardizing for mater¬ 
nal age and parity. His analysis approximated 1964 as the low point for 
U.S. TRs, showed a 10% drop in TRs among both Blacks and Whites for 1969- 
70 (which may be an artifact of a 2-year reporting hiatus encompassing 
these years) with continuous increase in White TRs thereafter, and showed 
increased TRs among Blacks beginning in 1972, following a stable rate for 
earlier years (the 1969-70 drop being an exception). Allen ruled out 
medical ovulation stimulants as a causative factor because of the distri¬ 
bution of increased TRs with respect to race, maternal age, and year. 

In light of these data and the aforementioned postwar twinning 
studies, I suggest it noteworthy that the 1970s represent a postwar 
period in the United States. Military discharges were ongoing throughout 
the Vietnam Conflict period; the highest number totalling in the millions 
occurred from 1969-1971, and complete withdrawal of all U.S. forces was 
attained by January 1973 [147], While battle deaths reported for 1968 
were the highest reported for any ye~r during this war period at 14,589, 
those of the adjacent years 1967 and 1969 were reported to be 9,377 and 
9,414, respectively [147]. Approximately 75% of the total casualties 
incurred through battle deaths in Vietnam from 1961-1972, occurred during 
the period 1967-1969 [147]. 

Relatedly, examination of data presented in a decadal study of TRs 
in Gorlitz, Germany, during 1611 to 1860 [128] shows coincident occur¬ 
rence of twinning peaks in postwar years. The authors of the Gorlitz 
study did not take postwar relationship into account and supposed that 
some seasonally epidemic factor may have played a role in causing the 
twinning peaks. The authors reported Gorlitz as "an important medieval 
town on the main road between Eastern and Western Europe." They also 
reported a nearly constant population of about 10,000 and a birth rate of 
about 250/year during the years encompassed by this study, except for 
increases in TRs observed in the decades under study. It is noteworthy 
that the highest TR (2.04%) of the decades encompassed by this study 
occurred in the decade 1651-1660 following the Thirty Year War (1618- 
1648) . Also noteworthy is the fact that this war has been described as 
frightful in terms of the population losses Germany suffered as a result 
of military action and disease. The TR increase is followed by decades 
of medium (defined by the authors as 1.00-1.50%) to low (less than 1.00%) 
TRs until the decade 1761-1770 following the Seven Years War (1756-1763) 
when the TR increased to over 1.50%. The TR for the preceding decade was 
less than 1.00%. Thereafter, the TR remained high-to-medium in alternat¬ 
ing decades until it dropped to low levels beginning with the decade 
1811-1820 [128]. This low level alternated with medium levels in sub¬ 
sequent decades until 1860, the last year encompassed by this study. 

The stress of war manifests itself in humans through anxiety, chron¬ 
ic depression, and certain disease states characteristic of chronic 


69 


Abbott-King 


tension [103], Elevated TRs appear to have coincided with the cessation 
of wartime, and therefore, perhaps, with the cessation of a proximate 
stress stimulus. From this observation, it can tentatively be supposed 
that examination of physiological changes associated with stress and 
post-stress conditions would provide supporting or refuting evidence for 
twinning incidence as a stress-related phenomenon. Existing data on the 
relationship between stress and reproductive physiology does provide 
supporting lines of evidence which are discussed in the following sec¬ 
tions. However, studies utilizing contemporary assaying techniques on 
mothers of DZ twins are necessary to more fully evaluate this possible 
interaction and to ascertain a direct correlation. 

NEUROHORMONAL PATHWAYS FOR MULTIPLE FOLLICULAR RECRUITMENT, 
MATURATION, AND OVULATION 

Several lines of evidence indicate that pituitary gonadotropin 
hormones, FSH and LH, play a regulatory role in dizygotic twinning. 
Numerous studies on human infertility and its treatment indicate that 
poly-ovulation is related to levels of the pituitary gonadotropic 
hormones [157]. In a study by Shaw and others [138], twin pregnancy 
occurred following desensitization of the pituitary using an LHRH 
analogue, and administration of FSH in conjunction with down-regulation 
of the hypothalamopituitary axis. Suppressed levels of LH thus attained 
indicate that LH is not as important as FSH for follicular recruitment 
and maturation, requisite events for double ovulation. Direct evidence 
for elevated pituitary gonadotropin levels associated with twinning comes 
from Nylander's studies on Yoruba mothers of twins [109-112] discussed 
previously, and from studies by Martin and others [92, 93] where a study 
of mothers of twins in an Australian population showed higher serum FSH 
levels in mothers of twins when compared with mothers of singletons [92]. 
Conversely, serum gonadotropin levels in a Japanese population studied by 
Soma and others [142] showed very low levels and Japanese populations are 
reported to have the lowest TRs. 

It is expected that if more than one follicle were recruited and 
matured for ovulation, follicular estradiol levels would be elevated 
during the midfollicular phase [92, 93, 164] and investigations show 
results consistent with this expectation [92, 93]. A number of studies 
have described binovular human ovarian follicles [48, 54, 66, 70, 115, 
116, 139] and it has been suggested that these follicles may contribute 
to the incidence of DZ twinning [54, 66]. Zeilmaker and others [163] 
reported recovery of viable oocytes from a- human binovular follicle 
subsequent to gonadotropin and clomiphene treatment for in vitro fertili¬ 
zation. Although it is likely that these binovular follicles were the 
result of hormonal treatment, the natural occurrence of binovular fol¬ 
licles is not ruled out [164], Clomiphene treatment accompanied by 
temporary estrogenic hormone withdrawal induces multiple follicular 
maturation via increased secretion of gonadotropins [164], Gonadotropin 
stimulation has been closely linked to the incidence of human binovular 
follicles [66, 70, 116]. 


70 


Human Twinning 


Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone and Pituitary Gonadotropins 

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a hypothalamic decapeptide, 
is reported to regulate gonadotropin secretion from the anterior pitui¬ 
tary [91]. Several lines of evidence support pulsatile mode of GnRH 
release as being essential for gonadotropin secretion and frequency of 
GnRH secretion as important in altering gonadotropin secretion. Pre¬ 
sumably, alterations in GnRH frequency affect recruitment and maturation 
of more than one follicle via alteration of FSH/LH ratios at critical 
phases of the menstrual cycle. Pulses of GnRH have been shown to re¬ 
instate secretion of LH and FSH in GnRH-deficient humans and monkeys and 
continuous infusions of GnRH have been shown to desensitize the release 
of gonadotropins [11, 57, 80, 90, 91, 148]. Frequency of GnRH stimulus 
has also been shown to regulate secretion of FSH and LH in the following: 
in humans, sheep, and monkeys one GnRH pulse/hour maintains FSH- and LH- 
release [91, 154]; one Gn Q H pulse every 3-4 hours results in elevation of 
FSH and reduction in LH-release [25, 91, 118, 154]; three GnRH pulses/ 
hour result in reduced LH- and FSH-release in plasma (reduction of LH 
being due to its 90-100 minute half-life) [91, 154], Therefore, slow 
GnRH-pulse frequency may favor FSH-release from the anterior pituitary 
[91]. With regard to GnRH control of amount of LH released, it has been 
shown in sheep that amplitude of LH-release decreases with frequent GnRH 
pulses and increases with slowed GnRH pulses [25, 91], 

Pituitary Gonadotropins and Gonadal Steroids 

LH stimulates secretion of gonadal steroids and secretion of pro¬ 
gesterone and prostaglandins, substances necessary for ovulation [145], 
FSH regulates follicular growth and maturation. Figure 1 illustrates 
generalized hormonal pathways through which gonadotropin secretion is 
thought to be regulated in the human female. GnRH secretion frequency is 
reported to be inhibited by the gonadal steroid estradiol [91], Con¬ 
versely, LH pulse frequency is increased by estradiol [68] . Estrogen 
effects may be dependent on the duration or magnitude of hypothalamic 
exposure to estradiol [91], Supporting data show LH-pulse-frequency 
increases with increased plasma estradiol during the late follicular 
phase of the menstrual cycle [10, 124], Estrogen is produced by the 
maturing follicle and is the stimulus for the LH-FSH-peak associated with 
ovulation [2, 145]. Progesterone's inhibitory effect on LH has been 
observed in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle [10, 41, 124, 160], 
In other studies, the gonadal steroid progesterone has been shown to 
inhibit LH pulse frequency [94, 143]. 

Both estradiol and progesterone can modify GnRH secretion amplitude 
and frequency patterns, altering the differential secretions of FSH and 
LH during the menstrual cycle. Further, progesterone has been shown to 
enhance the response of LH to GnRH after exposure to estradiol [75, 91] 
and the combined effect of these steroids are thought to be responsible 
for the LH and FSH peak at midcycle [84] usually associated with ovula¬ 
tion. While estradiol has been shown to positively influence LH levels, 
it has also been shown to inhibit FSH secretion [88, 91,96]. It is 
thought that gonadal steroids affect pituitary gonadotropin secretion by 
changing levels of endogenous opioids and hypothalamic catecholamines 

[91]. 


71 



Abbott-King 


o a. 

s A 




a. 

t 



STIMULATORY 
-► INHIBITORY 


/A 


/V — > L 

H FSH<-^ 

s. \ 

/ \ 

/ 7 


OVARY 

GRANULOSA CELLS 


\1/ 


FOLLICULAR RECRUITMENT. 
GROWTH. 8. MATURATION 


G-CELLS 

PRODUCE PROGESTERONE 
IN THE 

LATE FOLLICULAR 

PHASE 

I 



PROGESTERONE 


OVULATION^- 


-< 


ESTROGEN 


> 


CORPUS LUTEUM 
(G-CELLS » THECAL CELLS) 





PROGESTERONE 

-7- 


ESTROGEN 

-7— 


5 7 

(D CD 


A 


W 
^ /~\ 


W 


Figure 1. Schematic diagram showing regulation of gonadotropin 
secretion in the female. Secretory structures and 
products are shown in boxes and regulatory influences 
are indicated with arrows (see text for references). 


Opioids, Catecholamines, GnRH, and Gonadotropin Secretion 

The hypothalamus contains high concentrations of opioids and their 
receptors [56, 58]. Beta-endorphin is also contained in the cortico- 
trophs of the anterior pituitary and there is some evidence for met- 
enkaphalin in pituitary somatotrophs [58, 150]. Co-release of beta- 
endorphin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is reported to occur in 
plasma following stressful stimuli [58, 140]. Opioids are reported to 
suppress FSH and LH in humans [29, 50, 58, 125, 144] and to have an 
inhibitory effect on GnRH pulse frequency [91]. Opioids are also thought 
to mediate inhibitory effects of ovarian steroids [82, 91], Figure 2 
schematically summarizes regulatory pathways reported for opioids, GnRH, 
and gonadotropins. 


72 
























Human Twinning 



Figure 2. Schematic diagram schowing inhibitory action of 
opioids on GnRH, and stress - induced secretion of 
pituitary peptides (see text for references). 
Secretory structures and products are shown in 
boxes and regulatory influences are indicated with 
arrows. 


Increased activity of opioids and consequent inhibition of GnRH 
secretion has been implicated in hypothalamic amenorrhea and anovulation 
[22, 23, 51, 71, 72, 91, 121, 132], Physical and psychological stress as 
well as self-imposed loss of weight are reported to result in increased 
hypothalamic opioid activity and consequent reduction of GnRH pulse fre¬ 
quency, producing amenorrhea, and anovulation [74, 89, 91, 134], Opioids 
are thought to operate by modifying firing patterns of neurons that 
secrete GnRH causing alteration in GnRH pulse-frequency [91], 

Various forms of stress are reported to release corticotropin re¬ 
leasing factor (CRF) from the hypothalamus and experimental data on human 
pituitaries demonstrate increased release of both adrenocorticotropic 
hormone (AGTH) and beta-endorphin in response to CRF [40]. In their 
hypothesis on the role of endogenous opioids in ovarian function, Ferin 
and others [40] postulated that amenorrhea .may be caused by abnormal 
activity of hypothalamic beta-endorphin characterized by continuously low 
or sustained high activity, rather than the normal sequence of high and 
low periods of activity characteristic of the normal menstrual cycle 
(beta-endorphins increase during the luteal phase [40], for instance). 
Such abnormal opioid activity would lead to "sustained high or continu¬ 
ously low GnRH oscillator frequency" and improper ratios of gonadotropins 
necessary for morphological ovarian changes in the normal menstrual cycle 
[40] . Subsequent studies have produced results consistent with this 
hypothesis [71, 72, 123], Observations on chronic opioid treatment have 
shown loss of responsiveness to opioid stimulation and massive increase 
of LH upon withdrawal of the treatment [82] (Table 1). 


73 

















Abbott-King 


Table 1. Stress - related neurohormonal conditions which could contribute 
to multiple ovulation. 


Cessation of Stress 


Stressed Condition 


Favors decreases in : 

Beta-Endorphin 

CRF 

ACTH 

*Dopamine 

^Epinephrine 

*NE 


Favors increases in: 

Beta-Endorphin 

CRF 

ACTH 

*Dopamine 

*Epinephrine 

*NE 


Favors increases in: 


Favors decreases in: 


GnRH pulse frequency 
Gonadotropins to "over¬ 
shoot" levels [79, 82, 145] 

Possible reproductive consequences : 

Quickened GnRH-pulse frequency 
resulting in excessively high 
FSH-LH levels or disproportionate 
FSH-LH ratios during "rebound 
period" (overshoot of gonadotro¬ 
pins above pre-stress baseline 
levels); favoring multiple 
follicular recruitment, 
maturation and ovulation, 
or binovulation; followed by 
stabilization of GnRH-pulse 
frequency and FSH/LH ratios 
to normal pre-stress levels. 


GnRH pulse frequency 
Gonadotropin levels 


Tonically-slowed GnRH- 
pulse frequency resulting 
in low FSH-LH levels or 
disproportionate FSH/LH 
ratios favoring anovula¬ 
tion/amenorrhea . 


*Opioids are thought to prevent excessive release of catecholamines 
[30, 52, 59, 73, 87] and may, therefore, alter NE/E ratios producing 
a net effect on GnRH-pulse frequency. Increased release of catechol¬ 
amines may result in increased release of opioids that modulate ex¬ 
cessive release of catecholamines through autofeedback [59]. 


Like opioids, catecholamines such as epinephrine (E) and norepi¬ 
nephrine (NE) are thought to change the firing pattern of GnRH-secreting 
neurons, consequently altering GnRH pulse frequency [91]. E and NE have 
been shown to affect the frequency of GnRH pulses in rats [67] and in 
primates, and catecholamine blocking agents have been shown to slow LH 
pulse frequency [69]. These data imply a stimulatory role for catechol¬ 
amines on hypothalamic GnRH-release. Dopamine, a precursor in the bio¬ 
synthetic pathway of NE and E, is reported to cause a decrease in 
circulating levels of LH in humans, when orally infused [145]. It has 


74 

















Human Twinning 


been suggested that norepinephrine exerts a stimulatory effect on GnRH 
while dopamine exerts an inhibitory effect on GnRH [145, 159]. However, 
while continuous administration of dopamine in humans causes a decrease 
in circulating gonadotropin concentrations, withdrawal of treatment 
results in a rebound effect causing circulating concentrations of gonad¬ 
otropins to overshoot original baseline levels [145] (Table 1). 

The sympathomedullary-adrenocortical system responds to physical 
and psychological stress in a number of ways including NE-release from 
sympathetic nerves, E-release from the adrenal medulla, ACTH from the 
anterior pituitary, and glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex. Ca¬ 
techolamines also are reported to stimulate release of ACTH from the 
anterior pituitary and are in turn regulated by glucocorticoids [9]. E 
is reported to sensitize the anterior pituitary to the action of CRF on 
ACTH-release [9], Stress has been shown to activate the sympathetic 
adrenomedullary system to produce elevated plasma levels of catechol¬ 
amines. Social stresses such as public speaking [9, 76] and harassment 
[9, 32] have been shown to raise E levels. A rise in NE levels is also 
reported to result from public speaking stress [9, 76] though to a lesser 
extent than those of E. Basal levels of E and NE have been shown to 
increase in relation to level of anxiety in depressed subjects [9, 85]. 
Other forms of stress such as hypoglycemia, physical stress, and thermal 
stress are also reported to increase plasma levels of catecholamines [9], 

Studies support a modulatory role for opioids in excessive release 
of catecholamines [30, 52, 59, 73, 87] and the human sympathoadrenal 
system characteristically contains high concentrations of the opioids 
beta-endorphin and met-enkaphalin [59], Opioid peptides may be released 
from splanchnic nerve endings to modulate catecholamine - release from 
adrenal chromaffin cells or may be released from chromaffin cells in the 
adrenal medulla to exert catecholamine-modulating autofeedback on the 
cells [59], 

STRESS-RELATED NEUROHORMONAL CONDITIONS FAVORING MULTIPLE 
FOLLICULAR RECRUITMENT AND MATURATION: . A HYPOTHETICAL SCHEMA 

Observations on the suggested role of pulsatile, hypothalamic GnRH- 
release in regulating FSH/LH release from the anterior pituitary, the 
modulatory roles suggested for catecholamines and opioids on GnRH-re¬ 
lease, the modulatory role suggested for opioid peptides in preventing 
excessive release of catecholamines, and the release of opioids and 
catecholamines in response to stressful stimuli provide a valuable con¬ 
struct in which to examine a possible role for psychosocial stimuli in 
twinning incidence. In Table 1, I propose tentative pathways accom¬ 
modating existing data, whereby stress - induced alterations of opioids and 
catecholamines might contribute to physiological conditions favoring 
twinning. According to this hypothetical schema, the stressed condition 
sets up antecedents for a rebound effect favoring relatively high FSH and 
LH levels. These elevated gonadotropin levels might in turn favor re¬ 
cruitment and maturation of more than one follicle, or perhaps, binovular 
follicular development. It is significant that Nylander [111, 112] and 
Martin and others [92] found elevated FSH levels in DZ twinning mothers 
during the follicular phase. Existing data indicate a finely tuned 


75 


Abbott-King 


regulatory role for GnRH pulse-frequency variation in controlling gonad¬ 
otropin ratios during various phases of the menstrual cycle to maintain 
normal menstrual and ovulatory cyclicity. Disturbances in hypothalamic 
GnRH-release have been shown to result in varied FSH/LH ratios and can 
therefore be presumed capable of disturbing the normal events of the 
ovulatory cycle. 

This hypothetical schema is highly simplified and does not preclude 
the possible interaction of other neurohormones and gonadal steroids 
within the system. Further studies using specific agonists, antagonists, 
radioimmunoassays, and sufficiently sensitive radioenzymatic techniques 
to evaluate the possibility of these and other interactions, are clearly 
necessary. It is an objective of this synthesis to underline the impor¬ 
tance of this line of inquiry to present and future research on twinning. 

Several falsifiable predictions derive from the synthesis put forth 
in this paper and the hypothetical schema postulated therefrom. The main 
tenets of my hypothesis are summarized as follows, and unless otherwise 
noted, are referenced in previous sections. 

A. Demographic and physiologic studies of twinning have produced 
the following observations: 

1. Twinning tends to occur in large families. 

2. The frequency of twinning increases after wartime. 

3. Levels of FSH and LH are higher in mothers of twins than in 
mothers of singletons. 

4. Twinning incidence increases with increased maternal age [17, 
18, 35, 99, 122, 156]. 

B. Studies on pituitary gonadotropin regulation of follicular 
recruitment, maturation, and ovulation show results compatible with the 
above findings on twinning incidence, assuming a neuroendocrine relation: 

1. Pituitary gonadotropins, FSH in particular, are important in 
follicular recruitment, maturation and ovulation, and at high 
levels promote multiple ovulation. 

2. GnRH pulse frequency and amplitude are postulated to regulate 
gonadotropin levels. 

3. Catecholamine and opioid peptide neurotransmitters stimulate or 
inhibit GnRH pulse frequency and are thereby postulated to play 
a regulatory role in gonadotropin secretion. 

4. Catecholamines and opioid levels co-vary with emotional state 
and excess hypothalamic opioid-release is implicated in amenor¬ 
rhea and anovulation. 

C. If levels of these neurotransmitters are consistently correlated 
with stressed emotional/psychological states of twin mothers, then 
certain heretofore unexplained twinning phenomena might be correlated 
with stress - related events affecting female neurophysiology. Demographic 
and physiologic findings are consistent with this hypothesis and the 
following predictions should hold in order to confirm it: 

1. Variations in levels of catecholamines and opioid peptides in 
mothers of twins should show consistency with GnRH-pulse 


76 


Human Twinning 


frequency variations and variations in gonadotropin levels which 
would favor multiple ovulation. 

2. Populations whose traditional culture, religion, or social 
structures do not encourage large family size should show 
comparatively low twinning incidence. 

3. Within a cohort of women of increased maternal age, twinning 
rate should be higher among primaparous mothers than multiparous 
mothers; the ending of a woman's reproductive years signalling a 
"reproductive imperative" in the neurophysiology of older 
mothers who have not yet successfully born children. Results of 
at least one study [122] support this prediction. 

4. Twinning rates should increase after stressful man-made or 
natural events which result in high mortality, e.g., plague, 
famine, war (supported, in part, by postwar studies cited in a 
previous section). 

5. Twinning incidence should increase with increased migration from 
urban to rural areas, urban areas representing chronically high- 
stress environments and rural areas representing environments of 
intermittent stress (see Discussion for supporting studies). 

6. Twinning incidence should be higher among native inhabitants of 
island populations (see Discussion for supporting studies) when 
compared with the mainland inhabitants of their ancestral 
lineage; islands representing colonization sites and less 
stable, intermittently stressful environments when compared with 
mainland environments. 


DISCUSSION 

Confirmation of the predictions derived from the hypothesis proposed 
in this paper would support a related hypothesis proposed by Rushton 
[131] that: 1) DZ twinning is a r-selected reproductive strategy in the 
human species characteristic of individuals living in unstable environ¬ 
ments and the degree to which an individual is K-selected manifests 
itself in social behavior and physiology and 2) the process of sociali¬ 
zation itself may cause humans to adopt an r- or K-strategy based upon 
how predictable they perceive their environment to be [126, 151, 152]. 

The twinning phenomena described in this paper show relationships 
predicted by population regulation theory, although anomalies do exist. 
(Deviations at the empirical level are expected of the hypothetical 
schema postulated in this paper and therefore, it is expected to be 
refined necessarily, through further experimentation. However, existing 
data merits its investigation.) Although population regulation is most 
commonly discussed in terms of mechanisms which reduce the population 
from a high level in relation to resources and space, a phenomenon known 
as "population limitation" [28], it is also supposed that such a mecha¬ 
nism could operate to increase the population in response to a low 
population level [43], thus maintaining an optimal density in relation to 
environmental limits. Human twinning phenomena discussed in this paper 
collectively manifest some of the characteristics of a density-dependent, 
self-regulating mechanism and as such, perception of population density 
would be expected to play an integral role in limiting or expanding the 
human populations discussed. Human reactions to population density are 


77 


Abbott-King 


highly variable [26, 43] and if human twinning is part of a self- 
regulating system in humans, then mothers of twins would be expected to 
show cor- relates of perceptual reactions to density accordingly, when 
compared with mothers of singletons. This assumption is readily 
falsifiable through appropriate experimental manipulations. 

The line of reasoning being developed here considers the possibility 
that the sensory-perceptual systems of some humans is part of a complex 
of feedback loops involving their reproductive system and cognitive 
functions in such a way as to confer them the ability to compensate for 
prenatal or postnatal familial mortality. Any one human's response to 
density is mediated by many processes including interpretation of a 
situation and its consequences for him/herself, and social organization 
affects density-sensitivity [43], Further, it is expected that the 
extent to which self-regulation characterizes species as a by-product of 
individual selection, the regulatory mechanisms and systems of regulation 
would be expected to be specific to populations and closely adapted to 
their particular environment [26], Twinning phenomena discussed herein 
appear consistent with this expectation. 

Such a self-regulating mechanism may account for high TRs observed 
in rural vs. urban populations [36-39, 45, 46, 101, 130, 146] and in 
island populations [36, 92, 98, 119, 120, 135, 136]; rural environments 
representing optimal density/resource situations and islands repre¬ 
senting sites of optimal density/resource conditions upon initial 
colonization. Similarly, with regard to postwar increases in TR, 
perception of optimal density/resource conditions during postwar periods 
may operate through neurohormonal pathways to increase reproductive 
potential via twinning. Perception of optimal density/resource condi¬ 
tions might contribute to relief from stress characteristic of the 
postwar period. Finally, such a density-dependent mechanism operating, 
in. part, through perceptual systems in humans, may account for the 
association of twinning with individuals of specific religions. Self- 
perception of whether or not one has fulfilled one's social, religious, 
or personal obligation to successfully reproduce, may result in neuro¬ 
hormonal conditions which favor twinning. This may account for the 
relatively high twinning incidence observed among individuals in the 
Yoruba, Catholic, and Mormon populations previously described. It would 
be informative to investigate postwar TRs in terms of the religious 
components of the populations studied, to see if the observed high TR is 
not predominantly due to TR in individuals of religious groups which 
encourage large family-size. This possibility is as yet unexplored. 

The premise of this paper has been that human twinning incidence can 
be observed to vary in a seemingly compensatory manner, in response to 
changes in the physical or cultural environment. This premise supports 
selection at the individual level, and any collective advantage to the 
group (e.g., Catholics, Yorubas, and Mormons) is viewed as a fortuitous 
result of advantage to the individual (as it is viewed of other species 
exhibiting compensatory mechanisms [141]). The relative paucity of 
information on neurohormonal pathways involved in DZ twinning could, I 
be- lieve, be mitigated by study of the relationships postulated in this 
synthesis and a greater understanding of the enigmatic variations ob- 


78 


Human Twinning 


served in human twinning rates gained, through the lines of inquiry 
herein proposed. 


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I gratefully acknowledge ray former population ecology professor, Dr. 
Gary R. Mullen, Auburn University, whose graduate course provided the 
stimulus for this study. 

This study is dedicated to my co-twin, Jeffrey P. Abbott, to our 
parents, Anne J. Stabryla Abbott and Richard Merrill Abbott, and to my 
husband, David T. King, Jr., for his technical assistance and encourage¬ 
ment . 


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91 


Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 60, No. 2, April 1989. 


VITELLOGENIC PROTEIN SYNTHESIS BY THE CRICKET OVARY 1 


James T. Bradley, H.-C. Chang and, Theresa G. Dawkins 
Department of Zoology and Wildlife Science and 
Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station 
Auburn University , AL 36849 


ABSTRACT 

As in other insects, vitellogenin (VG) is synthesized and secreted by 
the fat body of adult female crickets during vitellogenesis. In some 
species, notably certain dipterans, the ovary also produces VG. This 
study examined the ovary of Acheta domesticus for VG-synthesizing activi¬ 
ty. Isolated ovarian and fat body tissue from 48 to 60-hour-old adult 
females was cultured in vitro with u C-leucine or 35 S-methionine for 2-4 
h at 30°C. Tissues and media were assayed for labeled VG polypeptides 
by immunoprecipitation and by autoradiography after SDS-polyacrylamide gel 
electrophoresis. The results indicated that the cricket ovary produces 
VG. Evidence was also obtained for the synthesis of two high molecular 
weight intracellular VG precursor polypeptides by the fat body and ovary 
of adult females. The factors regulating ovarian VG synthesis and the 
relative contributions of fat body- and ovary-derived VG to the total egg 
yolk protein in the cricket are not yet known. 

INTRODUCTION 

Vitellogenin is the blood borne precursor protein for the major egg 
yolk protein(s) for animals with lecithal eggs. Insect VG is produced by 
the fat body, secreted into the hemolymph, and sequestered by vitellogenic 
follicles via receptor-mediated endocytosis (Engelmann, 1979, Telfer et 
al., 1982). Immunoreactive VG is first detectable in the hemolymph of 
virgin female Acheta domesticus between 14 and 24 hours after ecdysis to 
the adult (Benford and Bradley, 1986). By 38 hours, terminal follicles 
are vitellogenic, and fully grown chorionated oocytes appear in the 
lateral oviducts on the 5th day of adult life (Bradley and Edwards, 1978). 
As in other insects (Wyatt and Pan, 1978) , the fat body is a major source 
of VG in the cricket (Cox, 1988). 

In a few insects, VG also appears to be synthesized by the ovary. 
Previtellogenic ovaries from several Drosophila species produce fully- 
developed oocytes after being transplanted into adult male or even larval 
hosts (Bodenstein, 1947; Srdic et al., 1979), suggesting autonomous VG 
synthesis by the ovary, and immunoprecipitable VG is synthesized by the 
ovaries of Sarcophaga bullata (Huybrechts et al., 1983), D. melanogaster 
(Brennan et al., 1982), and Musea domestica (de Bianchi et al. , 1985), 
So far there has been no direct demonstration of extra-fat body VG syn- 


^anuscript received 25 October 1988; accepted 30 January 1989. 


92 



Bradley, Chang, and Dawkins 


thesis in crickets. The possibility of ovary-derived cricket VG is 
suggested by the facts that the appearance of newly made hemolymph VG in 
A. domesticus is juvenile hormone (JH)-dependent (Benford and Bradley, 
1986) and that a few normal-appearing oocytes are produced in some (12%) 
adult A. domesticus females allatectomized during their last nymphal 
instar (Chudakova et al. , 1967). The latter study was done prior to 
identification of cricket VG polypeptides (Bradley and Edwards, 1978) and 
so did not rule out the possible uptake of nonVG hemolymph proteins by 
developing follicles in the allatectomized animals. The present study 
provides immunological and electrophoretic evidence for VG synthesis in 
the ovary of A. domesticus. Also reported is the tentative identification 
of unprocessed VG polypeptide precursors in the fat body and ovary of 
females during vitellogenesis. 

MATERIAL AND METHODS 


Animals 

Acheta domesticus (L.) was purchased in mixed (females and males) 
batches of 1000 last instar nymphs from Monroe Cricket and Grub Farm 
(Monroe, GA) , and stock populations of these were maintained as previously 
described (Bradley and Edwards, 1978). Newly molted adults were isolated 
from the stock population, placed in individual plastic petri dishes (90 
mm diameter x 13 mm deep), supplied with food (Pulverized Little Friskies, 
Carnation, Ca., Los Angeles, CA) and water ad libitum, and maintained in 
a ventilated incubator (Percival, Boone, IA) at 27-30°C (70% r.h.) on a 
12:12L/D photoperiod until used in the experiments described below. The 
time of ecdysis of the adult was estimated on the basis of cuticle 
coloration and degree of wing inflation (Bradley, 1976) to within 5 
minutes for animals used in the ligation experiment and to within 2 hours 
for those used in all other experiments. 

In vitro labeling of polypeptides 

Tissues were cultured in plastic tissue culture plates (Ace Scientif¬ 
ic, Model S-MRG-90) or 10 mm diameter glass shell vials. These and all 
dissecting equipment were sterilized by a 1-2 hour exposure to UV light 
(Sylvania bulb G30T8) inside a benchtop culture hood (Lab Con Co.). Prior 
to dissection, crickets were rinsed briefly in deionized water, surface 
sterilized by immersing 45-60 seconds in 0.2% HgCl 2 , and then rinsed twice 
in sterile deionized water. Ovaries and fat body were removed from the 
dorsal side of the abdomen, and muscle tissue was collected from hind 
femurs. Each organ or tissue piece was placed directly into a shallow 
glass dish containing sterile Grace's unmodified insect medium (Gibco)i 
All visible fat body adhering to the ovaries was removed with the aid of 
a dissecting microscope. Tissues were then transferred to individual 
culture wells or vials containing measured amounts of Grace's unmodified 
culture medium. For each experiment, label previously diluted to an 
appropriate activity with culture medium was added to each culture vessel 
within a 60 second period. The wells (or vials) were then covered with 
parafilm, and the plates were wrapped in cellophane and incubated with 
gentle shaking at 30° in a shallow water bath. 


93 


Vitellogenic Protein Synthesis 


Tissues for which VG-synthesizing activity was quantitated by immuno- 
precipitation were incubated for 4 hours in 350 ^Ci of 1A C-leucine (342 
mCi/mmol, New England Nuclear). Tissue from four crickets was incubated 
in each vial which contained either four ovaries, fat body approximating 
that in two whole abdomens, or leg muscle approximating that in two hind 
femurs. After the incubation period, the tissue and culture medium in 
each vial were homogenized at 0°C in the presence of 0.1 mM phenylmethyl- 
sulfonyl fluoride (Sigma), and aliquots of the homogenate were stored at 
90°C for later estimation of labeled VG, TCA precipitable label, and total 
protein. 

For the electrophoretic analysis tissues were incubated for 2 h in 27 
pi of culture medium containing 10 pCi of 35 S-methionine. Ovary pairs 
and/or about 50% of the abdominal fat body from each individual were 
cultured separately. After the incubation period, tissue from each 
culture well was rinsed twice in culture medium and then homogenized in 
35 pi of fresh medium. These homogenates and the original culture medium 
for each tissue sample were stored at -90°C until electrophoresis. 

Antiserum preparation and immunoprecipitation assay for newly synthesized 
vitellogenin 

Antiserum was raised in rabbits as previously described (Chang and 
Bradley, 1982) using a protein extract from fully grown cricket oocytes 
as the antigen. The antiserum was exhaustively absorbed with hemolymph 
from adult males and last nymphal instar males and females, and its 
specificity was tested by Ouchterlony immunodiffusion. The absorbed 
antiserum reacted only with adult female hemolymph and egg yolk protein 
extracts, forming a single fused precipitin band opposite these antigen 
sources. Labeled VG in tissue homogenates was estimated using the 
immunoassay described by Chang and Bradley (1982). 

Estimation of 14 C -leucine incorporation and total protein 

^C-labeled protein was precipitated in 10% TCA, transferred to glass 
filters (GF/A, VWR Scientific), washed, and counted by liquid scintilla¬ 
tion as previously described (Chang and Bradley, 1982). Total protein in 
tissue homogenates was estimated according to Lowry et al. (1951) using 
bovine serum albumin in 0.4 M NaCl as a standard, and samples were read 
at 560 nm against 0.4 H NaCl blanks. 

Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis 

Samples to be electrophoresed were thawed, and a half volume of 
solution containing 0.186 M Tris-HCL pH 6.8, 6% sodium dodecyl sulfate 
(SDS), 30% glycerol, and 15% 2-mercaptoethanol was mixed with each tissue 
homogenate and culture medium sample. The samples were then heated for 
2 min. at 100°C after which the tissue homogenates were microfuged for 3 
min. in order to sediment insoluble material. SDS-polyacrylamide gel 
electrophoresis was performed at room temperature according to Laemmli 
(1970) in a 15-lane, 180 x 160 x 1.5-mm, 6-8% acrylamide gradient slab 
gel. Ten to 30 p\ samples of either pooled or individual tissue homoge¬ 
nates or culture media were applied to each sample well. A constant 85 


94 


Bradley, Chang, and Dawkins 


V were applied until the bromophenol blue tracking dye reached the 
stacking gel-running gel interface; thereafter, electrophoresis was at 
110-125 V until the dye reached the bottom of the running gel. After 
electrophoresis, the separate polypeptides were fixed and stained with 
Coomassie brilliant blue according to Laemmli (1970). The destained gels 
were photographed and dried onto filter paper with a Bio-Rad gel slab 
dryer. 

Autoradiography and photography 

Autoradiographs of dried polyacrylamide gels containing 35 S- 
methionine-labeled polypeptides were produced using Kodak XAR-5 film 
exposed for varying periods of time at -90°C. The film was developed by 
standard procedures with Kodak x-ray developer. Autoradiographs were 
photographed over a light box using Kodak Technical Pan Film 2415 and a 
deep orange filter. The film was developed for high contrast. 

Statistical procedures 

Each mean + standard error reported in Table 1 was derived from three 
samples, each containing tissue from four animals. The means were com¬ 
pared using Student's one-tailed t-test. 

RESULTS 

Tissue-specificity of in vitro vitellogenin synthesis 

To quantitate in vitro VG-synthesizing activity of the fat body and 
ovary, an immunoprecipitation assay for newly synthesized VG was used. 
In two separate experiments, VG-synthesizing activity, expressed as the 
amount of label incorporated into immunoprecipitable VG per unit of tissue 
protein, was about three times greater in the fat body than in the ovary 
(P<.05) of 48 to 60-hour-old virgins (Table 1). Nevertheless, the amount 
of immunoreactive, labeled protein produced by the ovary was significantly 
greater than that from either the ovaries or fat body of last instar 
nymphs, or from leg muscle tissue from adult females (P<.05; Table 1). 

Vitellogenin represented 18-20% and 4-5%, respectively, of the TCA 
precipitable 14 C-leucine incorporated by the fat body and ovary of adult 
females during the culture period. Since both ovaries and as much abdomi¬ 
nal fat body as possible were collected and cultured from each experimen¬ 
tal animal, the relative contributions of the ovary and the fat body to 
the total vitellogenin-synthesizing activity per animal could be estimated 
from the in vitro activities of these tissues. Assuming that the fat body 
and ovary are the only sites of VG synthesis, it was estimated that the 
ovaries were producing 16-21% of the newly synthesized VG in the abdomens 
of 48 to 60-hour-old females. 

Electrophoretic identification of vitellogenin precursor polypeptides 

Patterns of in vitro protein synthesis were examined in various 
tissues by autoradiography of 35 S-labeled polypeptides separated electro- 
phoretically in SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Fat body from 48-hour-old adult 


95 


Table 1. Tissue-specificity of in vitro synthesis of cricket vitellogenin 


Vitellogenic Protein Synthesis 


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96 


Within colums, values with different superscripts differ significantly (P<.05). 






Bradley, Chang, and Dawkins 



Figure 1. Autoradiographs of SDS-polyacrylamide gels containing 35 S- 
methionine labeled vitellogenin precursor polypeptides (long 
arrows) synthesized in vitro by fat body or ovaries from 47- 
hour-old adult females. All tissues were homogenized in their 
respective incubation media. Lane 1, adult female fat body; 2, 
last nymphal instar female fat body; 3, adult male fat body; 4, 
immunoprecipitated fat body polypeptides; 5 and 6, adult female 
hemolymph polypeptides labeled in vivo with 35 S-methionine (short 
arrows show positions of the four processed VG polypeptides of 
A. domesticus ); 7, adult female fat body; 8, ovary; 9, 

incubation medium from ovary of lane 8. Exposure times for 
images in lanes 6-9 and for lanes 8' and 9' were 5 days and 24 
days, respectively. Note that labeled ovarian polypeptides 
which comigrate with fat body VG precursor polypeptides are 
detectable only after long exposure. 


females with vitellogenic follicles synthesized two high molecular weight 
polypeptides which were precipitated specifically by an antiserum for 
cricket VG and vitellin (VN) (Fig. 1). Neither polypeptide was produced 
by fat body from adult males or last nymphal instar females at levels 
sufficiently high for detection by autoradiography. Therefore, these two 
female-specific fat body polypeptides were tentatively identified as 
precursors of the processed VG polypeptides previously identified in the 
hemolymph of A. domesticus (Bradley and Edwards, 1978). Autoradiographs 
produced by extending the exposure period beyond three weeks revealed two 
minor 35 S-labeled polypeptide products of vitellogenic ovaries which co¬ 
migrate with the putative fat body VG precursors (Fig. 1). 


97 



Vitellogenic Protein Synthesis 


DISCUSSION 

Evidence for VG synthesis in the ovary of the cricket, A. domes t icus , 
was obtained by two methods: liquid scintillation of immunoprecipitates 
and autoradiography of labeled polypeptides separated in polyacrylamide 
gels. Evidence for ovarian production of VG has been reported for only 
one other orthopteran (Wyss-Huber and Luscher, 1975). These authors 
presented electrophoretic and immunological evidence that the female - 
specific vitellogenic protein of Leucophaea maderae is synthesized by 
isolated ovarioles and the ovarian connective tissue sheath, as well as 
by the fat body. Moreover, it appeared that the rate of ovarian VG 
synthesis was highest during a period of follicle growth when the corpora 
allata are active, suggesting that JH may regulate ovarian as well as fat 
body (Brookes, 1969) VG synthesis in L. maderae. Although the whole ovary 
did produce VG in vitro, fat body tissue within the ovary or the ovarian 
sheath was suggested to be responsible for this activity. 

Ovarian VG synthesis is well documented in the Diptera. In D. me- 
lanogaster , the follicular epithelium of vitellogenic oocytes synthesizes 
all three VG polypeptides and produces 10-35% of the total messenger RNA 
in the animal for each of these (Brennan et al., 1982). The ovaries of 
M. domestica synthesize and secrete VG in vitro (de Bianchi et al., 1985), 
and ultrastructural studies suggest that some yolk protein synthesis also 
occurs in the follicle cells of this species (Chia and Morrison, 1972) . 
Ovary transplantation experiments gave evidence for VG synthesis by the 
ovary in D. mercatorum and D. hydei (Srdic et al., 1979), and in S. 
bullata both the fat body and ovary contain VG messenger RNAs and syn¬ 
thesize and secrete all three corresponding yolk polypeptides (Huybrechts 
et al., 1983). By contrast, none of the three VG polypeptides synthesized 
and secreted by the fat body of Calliphora erythrocephala appear to be 
produced by the ovary (Fourney et al., 1982). 

Ovarian VG synthesis in A. domesticus may be significant in the 
context of ooplasmic localization of VN in the fully grown oocyte. 
Nicolaro and Bradley (1980) reported that the two native VNs of A. 
domesticus are nonrandomly distributed in the fully grown oocyte, VN II 
predominating in the anterior end and VN I in the posterior end of the 
oocyte. How these gradient-like VN distributions are established is 
unknown, but one possibility is that preferential uptake of the corre¬ 
sponding VGs occurs at opposite poles of VG follicles. Vitellogenin 
synthesis of each VG within developing follicles could also contribute to 
the final VN distribution in the oocyte. 

The existence of two high molecular weight, VG precursor polypeptides 
in A. domesticus was predicted by Harnish and White (1982) who have 
proposed an evolutionary model for insect VNs based on the number and size 
of the processed VG polypeptides in insects representing eight orders. 
In A. domesticus four VG polypeptides are resolved in denaturing poly¬ 
acrylamide gels (Bradley and Edwards, 1978). The molecular weight for 
two of these is about 100 kDa and for the other two is about 50 kDa. 
According to the model of Harnish and White (1982), these large (> 100 


98 


kDa) and small (50 kDa) VG polypeptides are derived from larger (approx. 
200 kDa) precursor polypeptides by proteolytic processing, each precursor 
yielding a large and a small VG polypeptide. A precursor-product 
relationship between the high molecular weight female-specific fat body 
polypeptides reported here and the four hemolymph VG polypeptides in A. 
domesticus (Bradley and Edwards, 1978) has been established, and the 
relationship between each precursor and its proteolytic products is being 
investigated. 


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

This work was supported by the Alabama NSF/EPSCoR Program in Molecu¬ 
lar, Cellular and Developmental Biology (Grant 3R11-8610669), HATCH 

Project ALA 665, and by state funds to the Alabama Agricultural Experiment 

Station (Journal Series No. 15-881891P), Auburn University. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Benford H. H. and Bradley J. T. (1986) Early detection and juvenile hor¬ 
mone dependence of cricket vitellogenin. J. Insect Physiol. 32, 109- 
116. 

de Bianchi A. G., Coutinho M., Pereira S. D., Marinotti 0. and Targa H. 
J. (1985) Vitellogenin and vitellin of Musca domestica: Quantifica¬ 
tion and synthesis by fat body and ovaries. Insect Biochem. 15, 77- 
84. 

Bodenstein D. (1947) Investigations on the reproductive system of 
Drosophila. J. Exp. Zool. 104, 101-152. 

Bradley J. T. (1976) Aspects of vitellogenesis in the house cricket 
Acheta domesticus. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, 
Seattle. 171 pp. 

Bradley J. T. and Edwards J. S. (1978) Yolk proteins in the house 

cricket, Acheta domesticus: Identification, characterization, and 
effect of ovariectomy upon their synthesis. J. Exp. Zool. 204, 239- 
248. 

Brennan M. D., Weiner A. J., Goralski T. J. and Mahowald A. P. (1982) The 
follicle cells are a major site of vitellogenin synthesis in 
Drosophila melanogaster. Develop. Biol. 89, 225-236. 

Brookes, V. J. (1969) The induction of yolk protein synthesis in the fat 
body of an insect, Leucophaea maderae, by an analog of the juvenile 
hormone. Develop. Biol. 20, 459-471. 

Chang H.-C. and Bradley J. T. (1983) Vitellogenin synthesis and secretion 
in ovariectomized crickets. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 75B, 733-737. 

Chia W. K. and Morrison P. E. (1972) Autoradiographic and ultrastructural 
studies on the origin of yolk proteins in the housefly, Musca 
domestica L. Can. J. Zool. 50, 1569-1582. 


99 


Vitellogenic Protein Synthesis 


Chudakova, I. V., Bocharova-Messner, 0. M. and Romashkin M. P. (1975) 
Morphofunctional state of principal organ systems, life span, and 
fertility in the domestic cricket Acheta domesCicus during normal 
imaginal development and after allatectomy. Ontogenez 6(1), 20-30. 

Cox M. G. (1988) Vitellogenin Synthesis and Processing by the Fat Body 
of the House Cricket Acheta domesticus . M. S. Thesis, Auburn 
University, Auburn, Ala. 

Engelmann F. (1979) Insect vitellogenin: Identification, biosynthesis and 
role in vitellogenesis. Adv. Insect Physiol. 14:49-108. 

Fourney R. M, Pratt G. F, Harnish D. G., Wyatt G. R. and White B. N. 
(1982) Structure and synthesis of vitellogenin and vitellin form 
Calliphora erythroceophala . Insect Biochem. 12, 311-321. 

Harnish D. G. and White B. N. (1982) An evolutionary model for the insect 
vitellins. J. Mol. Evol. 28, 405-413. 

Huybrechts R., Cardoen J. and De Loof A. (1983) In vitro secretion of 
yolk polypeptides by fat body and ovaries of Sarcophaga bullata 
(Diptera, Calliphoridae). Annls. Soc. R. Zool. Belg. T. 113 (suppl. 
1), 309-317. 

Laemmli U. K. (1970) Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly 
of the head of bacteriphage T4. Nature (London) 227, 680-685. 

Lowry 0. H. , Rosebrough H. J., Farr A. L. and Randall R. J. (1951) 
Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 
193, 265-275. 

Nicolaro M.-L. and Bradley J. T. (1980) Yolk proteins in developing 
follicles of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (L.). J. Exp. Zool. 
212, 225-232. 

Srdic Z., Reinhardt C., Beck H. and Gloor H. (1979) Autonomous yolk 

protein synthesis in ovaries of Drosophila cultured in vivo. Roux's 
Arch. Dev. Biol. 187, 255-266. 

Telfer W. H., Heubner E. and Smith D. S. (1982) The cell biology of 

vitellogenic follicles in Hyalophora and Rhodnius. In: Insect 
Ultrastructure Vol. 1. King R. C. and Akai H., eds. Plenum Press, New 
York, pp. 118-149. 

Wyatt G. R. and Pan M. L. (1978) Insect plasma proteins. Ann. Rev. 
Biochem. 47, 779-817. 

Wyss-Huber M. and Luscher M. (1975) In vitro synthesis and release of 
proteins by fat body and ovarian tissues of Leucophaea maderae during 
the sexual cycle. J. Insect Physiol. 18, 689-710. 


100 


Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 60, No. 2, April 1989. 


INCOME DISTRIBUTION IN ALABAMA: 
AN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 1 


A. Wayne Lacy 
Department of Economics 
Auburn University at Montgomery 
Montgomery, AL 36193 


I. Introduction 

This paper examines the long term trend of income distribution in 
Alabama and compares it with that of the U.S. in general. A widespread 
impression is growing that income is once again becoming more unequally 
distributed in the United States, after many years of movement toward more 
equality. Although most references in the news tend to talk about changes 
in the 1980s, the reversal in the trend toward equality began much earlier 
for the U.S. as a whole. This paper examines the data available for Ala¬ 
bama from the Census of 1960, 1970, and 1980 to see if the state differs 
from the U.S. and to what degree. 

The basic measure of income used in this study is earned income. It 
is not adjusted for any income transfers received or for taxes paid; nor 
is it adjusted for differences in the income life cycle of the population. 
The life cycle considers the age structure of the population and the 
relative differences in earnings expected at different ages in the life 
span of individuals. This was not treated in this paper, although some 
mention will be made of the factors that possibly affect the degree of 
equality of income. 

II. Lorenz Curves and Gini Concentration Ratios 

The most widely used measure of income distribution is the Lorenz 
Curve and the Gini Concentration coefficient or rate derived from that 
curve. In Figure 1, the 45° line OA shows the line of equal distribution 
of income where 1 percent of the units have 1 percent of the income, 5 
percent have 5 percent, and so on. The curved line OXA is the Lorenz 
curve showing the actual distribution of income. The gini coefficient is 
measured by comparing the shaded area OAX to the triangle OAB. That is: 

Gini - Area OAX 
Area OAB 

Thus, as area OAX approaches 0, gini approaches 0, a perfectly equal 
income distribution. As the gini coefficient grows larger (maximum value 
of 1) income grows more unequal. 

The gini formula used for computation was: 

k 

G “ 1 i ? i (f i+1 -fi) (Y t +Yi .,) 

Manuscript received 11 April 1988; accepted 10 March 1989 


101 




Lacy 


FIGURE 1 


O 



where the f t represent the cumulative percent of total units (families or 
households in this study) at points measured on a Lorenz curve, and the 
Y t represent the respective cumulative percent of aggregate income for 
those units [Bronfenbrenner, p. 221]. 

Great care should be taken in the use and interpretation of gini 
coefficients. Bronfenbrenner [1971, pp. 49-50] points out several 
problems exhibited by the measure. First, the measure's sensitivity to 
change is low as compared to the possibility of sampling error. Simply 
stated, this means that differences in measures that are close together 
could be of no significance and sampling error could easily have resulted 
in the respective placements. This holds for any reasonably close values. 

Secondly, the gini coefficient does not recognize any differences 
between the locations of the points used in the income distribution data. 
For example, it is quite possible to have the same gini coefficient for 
very different types of income distributions. This can be seen in Figure 
2. In Figure 2, the two Lorenz curves OABC and ODEC would have the same 
gini coefficient if the area bounded by OAXDO were the same as the area 
bounded by XECBX. Yet a humanitarian argument might well be made that 
OABC is more "equitable" if not more equal distribution of income than 


102 





Income Distribution in Alabama 


FIGURE 2 
O 



ODEC since there is a smaller percent who would fall into the poor cate¬ 
gory. However, this also implies that while a smaller percent would be 
very rich, they would be much richer than in the ODEC case. 

A third concern arises because the fewer the number of points availa¬ 
ble for analysis on the Lorenz curve, the stronger a bias exists in 
computing the gini coefficient as too low. The more points, the better 
the estimate. 

These considerations raise some concern over the interpretation of the 
results of this study. The gini coefficient ratios computed or used 
herein are not strictly comparable since they are computed from different 
Censuses with differing number of income groups and different cumulative 
levels of income. As such they must be treated only as general indicators 
for fairly large changes in values. Extreme caution must be used in their 
interpretation. 

III. Income Distribution in the U.S. 

An examination of the index of income concentration presented in the 
Current Population Reports indicates that since World War II the United 


103 



Lacy 


States has gone through two phases - one in which the distribution of 
income trended towards greater equality (from 1950 until the later 1960's) 
and another in which a reversal of the trend toward equality has taken 
place (from the late 1960's to the present). This can be seen in Table 
1. In 1947 the gini coefficient of income distribution for the U.S. (for 
families and unrelated individuals) was .376. From that time until 1967- 
68 the distribution of income in the U.S. tended to become more equal, as 
indicated by the gini decrease to .348. Since then, the trend has re¬ 
versed with the gini rising to .365 in 1980 and accelerating since then 
to .389 in 1985. Thus the distribution of income in 1985 was more unequal 
than it was in 1947. 


Table 1. U.S. Gini Coefficients for Selected Years 
(Families and Unrelated Individuals). 


Year 


Gini 


1947 

.376 

1950 

.379 

1955 

.363 

1960 

.364 

1965 

.356 

1967 

.348 

1968 

.348 

1970 

.354 

1975 

.358 

1980 

.365 

1984 

.383 

1985 

.389 


SOURCE: Current Population Reports, Series p. 60 

"Consumer Income" 


Especially interesting to note is that the reversal of the trend 
toward income equality in the U.S. began at the very time when the growth 
of social programs were at their height. The turning point coincides 
roughly with the beginnings of Lyndon Johnson's "Great Society" program, 
which was supposed to reduce the inequality of income. It would be hasty 
to assume that the growth of welfare programs contributed to income in¬ 
equality, although such arguments might be made. Other factors, such as 
the enormous growth of the labor force in the late 1960's and 1970's, 
that strongly influenced the age composition of the work force, could be 
a more pertinent factor, as could changes in the tax structure of the 
economy over time. 


104 






Income Distribution in Alabama 


Alabama Income Distribution 

Typically, the income distribution of Alabama families has been 
characterized as among the most unequal of the states in the U.S. A study 
by Al-Samarrie and Miller (1967) ranked the state 47th out of 50 in 1949 
and tied for 45th in 1959. The movement from 47th to 45th was accompanied 
by a significant increase in equality as the gini coefficient fell from 
.475 in 1949 to .424 in 1959, as compared to a national drop from .405 to 
.371. 

A later study by Sale (1974), showed Alabama ranked 47th of the 48 
conterminous states in 1949 and 45th in 1959 with his gini calculations 
dropping from .4778 to .4390 over the same period. From 1959 to 1969, 
however, Sale's study shows Alabama slipping to 46th place, even though 
the gini continued to fall to .3983 over the period. Thus it would appear 
that great progress in equalizing income occurred in Alabama, as well as 
the rest of the U.S. in the two decades prior to 1970. 

To present a picture of the movement in income distribution, Figure 3 
was constructed showing the Lorenz curve for Alabama families for the 
years 1959, 1969, and 1979 based on the data from the 1960, 1970 and, 1980 
Censuses. 


O 



FIGURE 3. Actual Alabama Lorenz Curves. 


105 





Lacy 


The movement toward more equality over the decade of the 60's can be 
clearly seen as the Lorenz curve shifted left toward the line of equal 
distribution. However, the curve for 1979 almost overlaps that of 1969, 
showing only a minute shift towards more equality. Thus the long term 
trend towards a more equal distribution of income in Alabama slowed almost 
to a halt in the 1970's. 

As will be shown below, these results will be borne out by the Gini 
coefficients. The data for the Lorenz curve are presented in Appendix 
Tables A, B, and C. 

The question remains as to how different areas of the state fared 
during this period and how they compared to the state overall. To answer 
these questions, data from the three past Censuses were utilized to 
examine the income distribution of families in the SMSA's of Alabama for 
which data is available for those years. The results are shown in Table 
2. The 1969 ginis were published directly in the 1970 Census. However, 
that was the only Census to pre-calculate these data. The 1979 ginis were 
calculated by the author using the income data of the 1980 Census and the 
formula given above. 

Unfortunately, for the purposes of this study neither the mean family 
incomes nor the total family incomes for SMSA's were available in the 1960 
census data. All that is given is the total number of families. The 
distribution of income is given but the final category of $25,000 and over 
is open ended, thus the total family income needed to compute the gini 
coefficient is not available. 

To get around this problem a method was devised to estimate the total 
and also mean family incomes for the SMSA's in Alabama for 1960. This was 


Table 2. 

Gini Coefficients 

for Alabama 

SMSA's 

SMSA 

1959 a 

1969 b 

1979° 

Birmingham 

.4041 

.378 

.3842 

Gadsden 

.4076 

.361 

.3825 

Huntsville 

.3433 

.342 

.3763 

Mobile 

.3664 

.398 

.3834 

Montgomery 

.4081 

.398 

.3831 

Tuscaloosa 

.4014 

.405 

.3784 


Alabama 


.4370 

.393 

.3897 


NOTES : 

a. 

b. 

c. 

Estimated by author 
Values published in 
Calculated from 1980 

from 1960 Census Data 
1970 Census. 

Census Data. 


106 







Income Distribution in Alabama 


achieved by taking the total income for the SMSA, dividing it by the pop¬ 
ulation to get per capita income for the SMSA. This was then multiplied 
by 3.91, the figure for the average number of persons per family in the 
State of Alabama (the number of persons per family was not given for 
SMSA's). Table 3 shows the relationship between the estimated mean family 
income and the stated median family incomes of the Census. As can be 
seen, they follow the pattern usually exhibited in such a relationship, 
that is, the means exceed the medians. 


Table 3. Comparison of Actual Median Family Income To Estimated 
Mean Family Income for Alabama SMSA's, 1954. 


ALABAMA 

SMSA 

ESTIMATED MEAN 
FAMILY INCOME 
(1) 

ACTUAL MEDIAN 
FAMILY INCOME 
(2) 

RATIO 
(1) (2 

Birmingham 

$6125 

$5103 

1.20 

Gadsden 

5201 

4387 

1.19 

Huntsville 

5794 

5426 

1.07 

Mobile 

5797 

5132 

1.13 

Montgomery 

5755 

4777 

1.20 

Tuscaloosa 

4912 

4274 

1.15 


SOURCE: 1960 Census of Population, and calculations 

therefore. 


Although these figures seem reasonable, they make the computed SMSA 
ginis for 1960 somewhat more suspect and should be used only as approxi¬ 
mations. Because of the very small number of families in the upper income 
category of $25,000 and over, the estimate should be reasonably close 
however. Birmingham had the largest percent in this group, a small 1.3 
percent, followed by Montgomery (1.2 percent), Tuscaloosa and Mobile (0.8 
percent), Huntsville (0.6 percent), and Gadsden (0.4 percent). 

With these considerations in mind, the computed ginis for 1959 should 
be reasonably reliable. For 1959 Huntsville had the most equal distribu¬ 
tion of income, followed by Mobile, with Montgomery having the most 
unequal distribution, but closely followed by Gadsden, Birmingham, and 
Tuscaloosa. All of the metropolitan areas had more equal incomes than the 
state as a whole. This means that the income distribution between metro¬ 
politan areas and non-metropolitan areas must have been even more unequal. 

From 1959 to 1969, Alabama followed the national trend toward more 
equality of income, although gains in this decade were modest in most of 
the SMSA's. Gadsden made the largest gains in the decade and significant 
gains were made by Birmingham. Mobile made a significant shift away from 
equality and Tuscaloosa possibly made a minor move toward inequality. 


107 







Lacy 


Montgomery made a small move toward equality while Huntsville's move in 
that direction was minute. 

With the growth of these six SMSA's, the disparities of income rela¬ 
tive to the state as a whole grew. Mobile, Montgomery, and Tuscaloosa 
had income distributions that were more unequal than the state average 
while Birmingham, Gadsden, and Huntsville had more equal distribution than 
the state average. 

From 1969 to 1979, the distribution of income in the state became only 
slightly more equal. In 1979 the state ranked 46th of the 50 states in 
income equality, ahead of only Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, and 
Florida, but just behind several other southern states [Lacy, 1988], 
Nevertheless, Alabama did considerably better than the U.S. as a whole as 
can be seen in Table 1. Nationally, income became more unequal. 

By 1979, there was much less disparity of income distribution within 
the SMSA's than in the previous two decades. Huntsville, Gadsden, and 
Birmingham, the three SMSA's with the most equal income distribution in 
1969, all followed the national trend toward more inequality. Tuscaloosa, 
Montgomery, and Mobile, the three SMSA's with the most unequal incomes in 
1969 did not follow the national trend and moved towards a more equal 
distribution of income. Consequently the range of ginis of the six SMSA's 
was only .079 from .3763 to .3842. All of the SMSA's had ginis lower, but 
not far removed from, the state average. 

Thus over the twenty year period, the state of Alabama saw a consider- 
ble movement towards a more equal distribution of income. Although the 
movement slowed during the decade of the 1970's, the progress made is not 
altogether insignificant when viewed in the context of the national trend 
to greater inequality. The question remains as to what has happened since 
1979. Using the national figures of Table 1, the trend for greater in¬ 
equality has not only continued but has accelerated. Whether Alabama has 
been able to move against this trend will not be known until data from the 
1990 census becomes available. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Al-Samarrie, A. and Miller, H.P. 1967. State Differentials in Income 
Concentration, American Economic Review, 57, 59-71. 

Bronfenbrenner, M. 1971. Income Distribution Theory, Aldine Atherton, 
Inc., Chicago, 1971. 

Lacy, A. 1988. The Relative Income Inequality Between States. 

Unpublished Manuscript, under revision. Copy available from the 
author. 

Miller, P. and U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1966. Income Distribution 
in the United States (a 1960 Census Monograph) U.S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 

Sale, T. 1974. Interstate Analysis of the Size Distribution of Family 
Income, 1950-1970. Southern Economic Journal 40, 434-41. 


108 


Income Distribution in Alabama 


APPENDIX 


Table A. 1959 

Lorenz Curve 

Data for Families in 

Alabama. 

Income 

Class 

Percent 

Families 

Cumulative 

Percent 

Families 

Percent 

Income 

Cumulative 

Percent 

Income 

Under $1000 

12.7 

12.7 

1.3 

1.3 

$1000 to 1999 

13.9 

26.8 

4.3 

5.6 

$2000 to 2999 

12.5 

39.3 

6.4 

12.0 

$3000 to 3999 

11.7 

51.0 

8.4 

20.4 

$4000 to 4999 

10.9 

61.9 

10.1 

30.5 

$5000 to 5999 

10.0 

71.9 

11.3 

41.8 

$6000 to 6999 

7.8 

79.7 

10.4 

52.2 

$7000 to 7999 

5.7 

85.4 

8.7 

60.9 

$8000 to 8999 

4.1 

89.5 

7.2 

68.1 

$9000 to 9999 

2.8 

92.3 

5.5 

73.6 

$10000 to 14999 

5.7 

98.0 

14.6 

88.2 

$15000 to 24999 

1.6 

99.6 

6.6 

94.8 

$25000 and Over 

0.6 

100.2* 

5.2 

100.0 


*Rounding Error 

Source: 1960 Census of Population 


Table 

B. 1969 

Lorenz Curve 

Data for 'Families in 

Alabama. 

Income 

Class 


Percent 

Families 

Cumulative 

Percent 

Families 

Percent 

Income 

Cumulative 

Percent 

Income 

Under $1000 

4.6 

4.6 

.3 

.3 

$1000 to 

1999 

6.8 

11.4 

1.2 

1.5 

$2000 to 

2999 

7.1 

18.5 

2.1 

3.6 

$3000 to 

3999 

7.3 

25.8 

3.0 

6.6 

$4000 to 

4999 

7.1 

32.9 

3.8 

10.4 

$5000 to 

5999 

7.6 

40.5 

5.0 

15.4 

$6000 to 

6999 

7.5 

48.0 

5.8 

21.2 

$7000 to 

7999 

7.6 

55.6 

6.7 

27.9 


(continued) 


109 








Lacy 


(Table B continued) 


$8000 to 8999 

7.0 

62.6 

7.1 

35.0 

$9000 to 9999 

6.2 

68.8 

7.0 

42.0 

$10000 to 11999 

10.5 

79.3 

13.7 

55.7 

$12000 to 14999 

9.5 

88.8 

15.3 

71.0 

$14999 to 24999 

8.9 

97.7 

21.1 

92.1 

$25000 and Over 

2.4 

100.1* 

7.9 

100.0 


*Rounding Error 

Source: 1970 Census of Population 



Table C. 1979 

Lorenz Curve 

Data for Families in 

Alabama. 



Cumulative 


Cumulative 

Income 

Percent 

Percent 

Percent 

Percent 

Class 

Families 

Families 

Income 

Income 

Less than $5000 

11.4 

11.4 

1.5 

1.5 

$5000 - 7499 

8.7 

20.1 

2.8 

4.3 

$7500 - 9999 

8.6 

28.7 

3.9 

8.2 

$10000 - 14999 

16.8 

45.5 

11.0 

19.2 

$15000 - 19999 

15.6 

61.1 

14.2 

33.4 

$20000 - 24999 

13.1 

74.2 

15.4 

48.8 

$25000 - 34999 

15.5 

89.7 

24.2 

73.0 

$35000 - 49999 

7.1 

96.8 

15.7 

88.7 

$50000 - Over 

3.2 

100.0 

11.3 

100.0 


*Rounding Error 

Source: 1980 Census of Population 


110 










































•• 

































INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS 


Editorial Policy: Publication in the Journal of the Alabama Academy 
of Science is restricted to members. Membership application forms 
can be obtained from Dr. Ann Williams, 101 Cary Hall, Auburn Univer¬ 
sity, AL 36849. Subject matter should address original research in 
one of the discipline sections of the Academy: Biological Sciences; 
Chemistry; Geology; Forestry, Geography, Conservation, and Planning; 
Physics and Mathematics; Industry and Economics; Science Education; 
Social Sciences; Health Sciences; Engineering and Computer Science; 
and Anthropology. Timely review articles of exceptional quality and 
general readership interest will also be considered. Invited arti¬ 
cles dealing with Science Activities in Alabama are occasionally 
published. Book reviews of Alabama authors are also solicited. 

Reviews : Each manuscript will receive at least two simultaneous peer 
reviews. Include in your letter of transmittal the names, addresses, 
and telephone numbers of at least four qualified referees. Do not 
include names of individuals from your present institution. 

Manuscripts: Consult recent issues of the Journal for format. Dou¬ 
ble-space manuscripts throughout, allowing 1-inch margins. Number 
all pages. Submit the original and two copies to the Editor. Papers 
which are unreasonably long and verbose, such as uncut theses, will 
be returned. The title page should contain the author's name, affil¬ 
iation, and address, including zip code. An abstract not exceeding 
200 words will be published if the author so desires. Use headings 
and subdivisions where necessary for clarity. Common headings are: 
INTRODUCTION (including a literature review), PROCEDURES (or MATE¬ 
RIALS AND METHODS), RESULTS, DISCUSSION, and LITERATURE CITED. Other 
formats may be more appropriate for certain subject matter areas. 
Headings should be in all-caps and centered on the typed page; sub¬ 
headings should be italicized (underlined) and placed at the margin. 
Avoid excessive use of footnotes. Do not use the number 1 for foot¬ 
notes; begin with 2. Skip additional footnote numbers if one or more 
authors must have their present address footnoted. 

Illustrations: Submit original inked drawings (graphs and diagrams) 
or clear black and white glossy photographs. Width must be 14-15 cm 
and height must not exceed 20 cm. Illustrations not conforming to 
these dimensions will be returned to the author. Use lettering that- 
will still be legible after a 30% reduction. Designate all illustra¬ 
tions as figures, number consecutively, and cite all figures in the 
text. Type figure captions on a separate sheet of paper. Send two 
extra sets of illustrations; xeroxed photographs are satisfactory for 
review purposes. 

Tables: Place each table on a separate sheet. Place a table title 
directly above each table. Number tables consecutively. Use symbols 
or letters, not numerals, for table footnotes. Cite all tables in 
the text. 

Literature Cited: Only references cited in the text should be listed 
under LITERATURE CITED. Do not group references according to source 
(books, periodicals, newspapers, etc.). List in alphabetical order 
of senior author names. Cite references in the text by number or by 
author-date. 







ALABAMA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 














COVER PHOTOGRAPH: Dr. James McClintock and his colleagues preparing a 
dive site on sea ice in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Thirty meters below 
a 3-m hKick 'tatyer of sea ice, the benthos are covered with a rich carpet 
iof marine invertebrates, particularly sponges, soft corals, sea anemones, 
and echinoderms. One of the commonest antarctic echinoderms is the sea 
star Odontaster validus which occurs in great abundance, has a free 
swimming feeding larva, and as a juvenile and adult preys on a wide 
variety of plants and animals. This common sea star is an important 
determinant of community structure, and serves as an indicator of primary 
production in shallow antarctic communities (see abstract, Vol. 60, No. 
3, p. 121, July, 1989). Photography courtesy of James B. McClintock. 

James B. McClintock is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Biology 
at the University of Alabama in Birmingham. His research interests 
encompass aspects of the reproduction, nutrition, and ecology of marine 
invertebrates. His work has taken him frequently to Antarctica. 


THE JOURNAL 

OF THE 


OCT 1 1 1989 


M« ill* tt,. 


ALABAMA ACADEMY 
OF SCIENCE 


AFFILIATED WITH THE 
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE 
ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 


VOLUME 60 JULY 1989 NO. 3 


EDITOR: 

W. H. Mason, Extension Cottage, Auburn University, AL 36849 
ARCHIVIST: 

C. M. Peterson, Department of Botany, and Microbiology, Auburn University, 

AL 36849 

EDITORIAL BOARD: 

J. T. Bradley, Chairman, Department of Zoology-Entomology, Auburn 
University, AL 36849 

Charles Baugh, 1005 Medical Science Building, University of South Alabama, 
Mobile, AL 36688 

j. W. Sulentic, P.O. Box 1921, University of Alabama, University, AL 35486 
Publication and Subscription Policies 

Submission of Manuscripts: Submit all manuscripts and pertinent 
correspondence to the EDITOR. Each manuscript will receive two simultaneous 
reviews. For style details, follow instructions to Authors (see inside back cover). 

Reprints: Requests for reprints must be addressed to authors. 

Subscriptions and Journal Exchanges: Address all correspondence to the 
CHAIRMAN OF THE EDITORIAL BOARD ~ 


ISSN 002-4112 



BENEFACTORS OF THE 
JOURNAL OF THE 
ALABAMA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 


The following have provided financial support 
to partially defray publication costs of the Journal. 


AUBURN UNIVERSITY 
BIRMINGHAM - SOUTHERN COLLEGE 
UNIVERSITY OF MONTEVALLO 
AUBURN UNIVERSITY AT MONTGOMERY 
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA 
TROY STATE UNIVERSITY 
UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA AT BIRMINGHAM 
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TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY 
UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA 
UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA AT HUNTSVILLE 
TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY 
MOBILE COLLEGE 
UNIVERSITY OF NORTH ALABAMA 










CONTENTS 


ABSTRACTS 

Biological Sciences . Ill 

Chemistry.132 

Geology ........ . 143 

Forestry, Geography, Conservation, and Planning . 148 

Physics and Mathematics . 152 

Industry and Economics . 162 

Science Education . 169 

Social Sciences.....173 

Health Sciences . 180 

Engineering and Computer Science . 205 

Anthropology . 211 

MINUTES OF ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING . 215 






































































































•• <' 












Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 60, No. 3, July, 1989. 


ABSTRACTS 


Papers presented at the 66th Annual Meeting 
Birmingham-Southern College 
Birmingham, Alabama 
March 22-25, 1989 


BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 

Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Against Cricket 
Vitellogenin. Holley L. Handley , Barbara Esteridge and 
James T. Bradley, Auburn University, AL 36849. 

Insect vitellogenins are multisubunit phospholipoglycoproteins 
presumed to serve as a source of nutrients during embryogenesis. 

The mechanisms whereby these molecules are metabolized by the 
developing egg are poorely understood. Two monoclonal antibodies 
have been produced with specificity for two of the cricket 
vitellogins, one MAb (2D-1) having specificity for only one of the 
yolk polypeptiedes (YP-2b) , and the other MAb (IE-10) having 
specificity for two of the polypeptides (YP-1 and YP-2b). The 
antibodies were screened by a Bio-Dot assay (Bio-Rad) and the selected 
positive cell lines cloned twice. The specificity was determined 
using Western Blotting. The subclass of immunoglobulin was determined 
to be IgG by agar gel immodiffusion. The antibodies were shown to 
react in different locations in the egg by the immunohistochemical 
staining using avidine-biotin horseradish peroxidase system. Further 
studies using Western Blotting have shown that the antibodies react 
with different degradation products which form during embryogenesis. 
These studies support the idea that the degradation of vitellogenins 
during embryogenesis results in smaller peptide fragments derived 
directly from the original vitellin present in the egg. By producing 
a family of monoclonal antibodies specific for different degradation 
products, a precursor-product relationship can be established. This 
information can then be used to determine the developmental/ 
physiological significance of vitellin and the role the embryo's 
genome might play in their utilization. (Supported by the Al. NSF/ 
EPSCoR Program in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Grant 
RII-8610669 and HATCH Project 665 - Al.Agr.Ex.St., Auburn University). 

VARIATION IN ACREMONIUM COENOPHIALUM - THE TALL FESCUE ENDOPHYTE. 
Edward M. Clark and Richard A. Shelby, Dept, of Plant Pathology, 
Auburn University, Auburn University, AL 36849 

Isolates of Acremonium coenophialum grown on medium #13A 
varied considerably in colony characteristics-morphology, diameter, 
dry weight and sporulation. Grown for 5 weeks at 23°C there was a 
range in colony diameter from 13.5 mm to 36.5 mm. Dry wt. of 
mycelium varied from .Q45g to .124g per colony. Sporulation ranged 
from profuse to very little. Some colonies were mounded; others 
were spread. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed differences 
between isolates. 


Ill 










Abstracts 


REDISTRIBUTION OF A ZONA PELLUCIDA BINDING COMPONENT ON MURINE SPERM. 
Donna A. Free , Holly Boettger, Teresa Battle, and Gary R. Poirier, 
Dept, of Biology, Univ. of Ala., Birmingham, AL 35294. 

The exposure and distribution of an epitope of a 15,000 molecular 
weight component on the head of murine spermatozoa was monitored with 
a monoclonal antibody during in vitro incubation. The component, 
termed the acceptor, binds a proteinase inhibitor of seminal vesicle 
origin at ejaculation and functions in zona binding (Irwin, et al., 
1983; Poirier et al., 1986). The epitope is not visible on undiluted 
cauda epididymal sperm, but can be localized on the plasma membrane 
over the acrosomal cap region on 70 to 100 percent of washed sperm. In 
some samples approximately 10 percent of the sperm express the epitope 
in the equatorial region of the sperm head. With incubation at 37° 
for 90 minutes, the percentage of sperm with equatorial expression 
increased to 70 percent while the percentage with exclusively acro¬ 
somal cap expression decreased to 10 percent. These changes are 
temperature dependent but not medium or Ca ++ dependent. They will 
occur in the presence of metabolic poisons. Prelabeling the epitope 
with the monoclonal antibody has no effect on the changing patterns. 
Pre-labeling, followed by washing at room temperature, results in a 
30 percent increase in equatorial expression. The seminal inhibitor 
binds only in the acrosomal cap region of incubated sperm. Acrosomal 
cap and equatorial expression can be detected on sperm retrieved from 
the uterus after natural insemination. The data suggest that the 
epitope is first visible with dilutions of the epididymal fluids. The 
second step, exposure in the equatorial region, is due to a tempera¬ 
ture sensitive step which may involve an unmasking and/or a migration. 


TAXONOMIC POTENTIAL OF PALATAL SENSILLA OF BITING MIDGE LARVAE 
(DIPTERA: CERATOPOGONIDAE). Lawrence J. Hribar , C. Steven Murphree, 
and Gary R. Mullen, Department of Entomology, Auburn University, AL, 
36849-5413. 

The sensilla located on the labral palatum have been neglected as 
taxonomic characters for biting midge larvae. Studies of larvae of 

2 Dasyhelea spp., 4 Culicoides spp., and 6 Bezzia spp. have revealed 
that the number, position, and relative size of sensilla vary among 
the taxa examined. Dasyhelea sp. A: 6 pairs; 2 flat, round; 3 seti- 
form; 1 trifurcate. Dasyhelea sp. B: 7 pairs; 4 flat, round; 2 seti- 
form; 1 trifurcate. Culicoides travisi : 6 pairs; 2 flat; 4 elongate. 
Culicoides melleus : 6 pairs; 5 round; 1 setiform. Culicoides 
obsoletus: 5 pairs; 4 round; 1 setiform. Culicoides sanquisuga : 10 
pairs; 5 elongate; 5 rounded. Bezzia bivittata : 5 pairs; 4 setiform; 

1 round. Bezzia nobilis : 7 pairs; 3 elongate; 4 round. Bezzia sp. A: 

7 pairs; 4 round; 3 elongate. Bezzia sp. B: 4 pairs; 3 round; 1 ovoid. 
Bezzia sp. C: 5 pairs; 4 round; 1 elongate. Bezzia sp. D: 7 pairs; 

3 elongate; 4 round. The results of this study indicate that the 
sensilla on the palatum can be used as a taxonomic character among the 
taxa examined. Further study is required to determine whether this is 
true for the Ceratopogonidae as a whole. 


112 


























Abstracts 


INDUCTION OF ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE AND POLYAMINE SYNTHESIS IN 
EMBRYOS OF THE BRINE SHRIMP Artemia spp. Stephen A. Watts and George 
B. Cline, Dept, of Biology, Univ. of Ala. at Birmingham, Birmingham, 

AL 35294. 

Reproductively active Artemia respond to environmental stress by 
encysting their embryos. These cysts are able to survive long-term 
dehydration but will begin to develop when rehydrated in >5 ppt sea 
water. Specific mechanisms regulating intracyst (gastrula) 
development are of considerable interest since it is not known what 
signals initiate metabolic and synthetic pathways after rehydration 
begins. We examined both dehydrated and rehydrated cysts (20 ppt 
seawater, 28°C) during development for ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) 
activity and polyamine production, important regulators (indicators) 
of embryonic development in vertebrate systems. We found significant 
levels of ODC activity in dehydrated cysts (3.34 nmol/hr/g wet 
weight). These residual levels decreased within one hour of 
hydration but then increased significantly within 2 hours, suggesting 
de novo synthesis of protein. Activity increased to 164 nmol/hr/g 
wet weight within 7 hours of hydration. Putrescine, spermidine and 
spermine levels increased rapidly during the first 4 hours of 
rehydration with highest levels (1.35, 1.34 and 0.06 uM/g wet weight, 
respectively) observed after 12 hours. Spermidine/spermine ratios 
reached 20, reflecting high rates of biosynthetic activity. Polyamine 
levels decreased prior to hatching at 18 hours. Significant levels of 
characteristically labile ODC are apparently stored/stabilized in 
dehydrated cysts over long periods and are available to initiate 
development with rehydration. Apparent <ie novo synthesis of ODC after 
rehydration and the resulting synthesis of polyamines stimulate 
further embryonic development. 


PRESENCE OF VIBRIOS IN OYSTER SHELLSTOCK SHIPPED INLAND. 
Robin Spoon, Gesa Capers, Cherie Holland and Linda Hopkins, 
Biology Dept., Jacksonville State Univ., Jacksonville, A1. 
36265. 

Vibrio vulnificus, a naturally occurring marine 
bacterium, has been implicated in recent years as being a 
virulent human pathogen capable of causing death after the 
consumption of raw oysters in coastal areas. The objective of 
this study was to determine the presence of V.vulnificus in 
oyster shellstock after being harvested then shipped inland. 
Oysters used in this study had been harvested in coastal waters 
of Virginia, Florida, Alabama or Louisiana and shipped inland 
to local restaurants and food stores in Gadsden, Anniston and 
Birmingham. Purchased oysters were shucked and analyzed for 
fecal coliforms, aerobic plate count and Vibrio species using 
enriched and nonenriched procedures. Coliforra and total 
aerobic plate counts were low or zero on all samples but one. 

V. vulnificus was recovered in all oyster samples from 
Louisiana. Other predominating bacteria included species of 
Vibrio, Pseudomonas, and Aeromonas. 


113 
















Abstracts 


REGULATION OF STEROIDOGENESIS IN INSECT (MANDUCA SEXTA ) PROTHORACIC 
GLANDS. R. Douglas Watson, Dept, of Biology, Univ. of Ala. at 
Birmingham, AL 35294. Walter E. Bollenbacher, Dept, of Biology, Univ. 
of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599. 

Insect prothoracic glands synthesize and secrete the steroid 
hormones (ecdysteroids) that control molting and metamorphosis. In 
the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta , ecdysteroid synthesis is 
regulated by the prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), a protein factor 
present in hemolymph, and the biosynthetic competence of the 
prothoracic glands. The competence of prothoracic glands to synthesize 
ecdysteroids changes during development. Early in the last larval 
stadium, the basal rate of synthesis is low and the glands are 
unresponsive to PTTH and the hemolymph factor. By about day 3, the 
glands are fully competent: Basal and effector-stimulated rates of 
synthesis are significantly higher. The acquisition of competence 
occurs after a drop in the juvenile hormone (JH) titer. Current 
results indicate that the drop in the JH titer is permissive for 
steroidogenic competence. Topical treatment of larvae with JH 
suppresses the acquisition of competence. That effect is specific to 
biologically active juvenoids, and is dependent on the dose of JH 
applied. Further, JH is effective in head-ligated larvae, suggesting 
the hormone acts directly on the glands. The cellular and molecular 
events that underlie the acquisition of competence are not known, but 
electrophoretic (SDS-PAGE) analyses reveal protein differences between 
incompetent and competent glands. Supported by NRSA (HD-06700) and 
UAB Faculty Research Grant to RDW, and NSF Grant DCB-8512699 to WEB. 


THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE COMMON PULMONATE GASTROPOD PHYSELLA 
CUBENSIS WITH AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON 
EMBRYONIC AND JUVENILE GROWTH. Donald L- Thomas and James B. 
McClintock, Dept, of Biology, Univ. of Ala. B'ham, AL. 35294. 

The general distribution, abundance and feeding habits of 
Phvsella cubensis were examined. Eggs laid by individuals collected 
from Shades Creek, Birmingham, Alabama were placed into three 
temperature treatments of 10, 20, and 30°C in the laboratory and 
developmental stages documented through hatching. P. cubensis 
hatched in 36, 13, and 9 days, respectively. The hatched juveniles 
were raised at their respective temperatures to sexual maturation 
(onset of egg laying). Juveniles raised at 30°C reached maturity in 
35 days attaining a mean shell length of 4.4 mm. Juveniles raised 
at 20°C reached maturity in 65 days attaining a mean shell length 
of 6.2 mm. Juveniles raised at 10°C did not reach maturity after 95 
days and attained a mean shell length of only 1.7 mm. These 
laboratory investigations indicate that temperature has a 
pronounced effect on rates of embryogenesis, juvenile growth, and 
the onset of sexual maturation in 2. cubensis . Given the dramatic 
daily and seasonal fluctuations of temperature in the field where 
populations of £. cubensis are known to occur, it is hypothesized 
that reproductive activity and population dynamics of this species 
are influenced by temperature. 


114 

















Abstracts 


SYNTHESIS OF HIGH LEVELS OF HUMAN SICKLE HEMOGLOBIN (Hb S) IN 
TRANSGENIC MICE. Thomas M. Ryan . Dept, of Microbiology, Univ. of 
Ala., Birmingham, AL 35294. Richard R. Behringer and Ralph L. 
Brinster, Laboratory of Reproductive Physiology, Univ. of Penn., 
Philadelphia, PA 19104. Richard D. Palmiter, Dept, of Biochemistry, 
Univ. of Wash., Seattle, WA 98195. Tim M. Townes, Dept, of 
Biochemistry, Univ. of Ala., Birmingham, AL 35294. 

The human P-globin locus spans over 45-kilobase of DNA encoding 
five functional p-like globin genes which are sequentially expressed 
at precise developmental stages. Flanking the entire locus are six 
erythroid specific, developmentally stable DNase I super¬ 
hypersensitive (HS) sites. When all six of these HS sites (HS I-VI) 
or just a single HS site (HS II) are fused directly to the adult human 
p-globin gene and microinjected into fertilized mouse eggs, high-level 
erythroid-specific expression of the human P-globin gene occurs in the 
developing transgenic embryos. Similarly, when fertilized mouse eggs 
are injected with the adult human al-globin gene fused downstream of 
the HS sites from the P-locus, high-level erythroid expression of the 
human al-globin gene is obtained in the resulting transgenic animals. 
The coexpression of both human al- and P-globin genes in transgenic 
mice produces mice which synthesize complete and functional adult 
human hemoglobin (Hb A). By substituting the sickle P-globin gene (p s ) 
for the wild type allele in the HS construct, transgenic mice which 
make high levels of human sickle hemoglobin (Hb S) are generated. A 
line of Hb S producing transgenic mice which faithfully pass the 
transgenes on to progeny is a step toward the development of a mouse 
model for sickle cell disease. T.M.R. is a predoctoral trainee 
supported by NIH grant T32 CA-09467. 


AOUATXC AND AERIAL RESPIRATORY GAS EXCHANGE IN SOFTSHELL, MUD, AND 
MUSK TURTLES. Paul A. Stone, Dept, of Zoology and Wildlife Science, 
Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5414 

Fourteen turtles, representing three species, Trionyx spiniferus 
(n=3) , Kinosternon subrubrum (n=6), and Sternotherus odoratus (n=5), 
were individually placed in respiratory chambers and aerial and 
aquatic oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were 
measured. T. spiniferus averaged 29.03 + 4.90 mL/Kg x hr total oxygen 
consumption, of which 66% was from the water, and 27.4J8 + 8,61 mL/Kg x 
hr total carbon dioxide production, of which 86% was into the water. 
K. subrubrum averaged 30.90 + 3.47 mL/Kg x hr total oxygen 
consumption, of which 5% was from the water, and 20.96 + 4.97 mL/Kg x 
hr total carbon dioxide production, of which 50% was into the water. 
S^. odoratus averaged 31.81 + 3.80 mL/Kg x hr total oxygen consumption, 
of which 13% was from the water, and 27.43 +' 6.83 mL/Kg x hr total 
carbon dioxide production, of which 50% was into the water. An ANOVA 
revealed that aquatic oxygen consumption differed (P<.05) in all three 
species while aerial gas exchange and aquatic carbon dioxide 
production did not differ (P<.05) in any of the species. This study 
was supported in part by a grant from the Alabama Academy of Science. 


115 












Abstracts 


HABITATS IN NEED OF ATTENTION. George W. Folkerts . Dept, 
of Zoology and Wildlife Science, Auburn Univ., AL 36849-5414 

Most of the habitats present in Alabama in pre- 
Columbian times have been destroyed or drastically altered. 
Although a perfunctory assessment would reveal that much of 
the state is forested, few remnants of original forest 
habitats remain. Aquatic habitats, especially those of 
large rivers, have been severely decimated. The few nearly 
natural coastal habitats that remain are isolated and 
probably doomed to early disappearance. Among the habitat 
types which have been reduced to very small remnants are: 
rocky shoals in large upland rivers, maritime forest, 
coastal dune systems. Red Hills ravines, sand pine scrub, 
cedar glades, and Appalachian Plateau longleaf pine forests. 
Other habitats that have become restricted include: granite 
outcrops of the Piedmont, calcareous prairies, sandhill 
habitats, pitcher plant habitats, sinkhole ponds, Atlantic 
white cedar communities, floodplain forests, and coastal 
marshes of all types. Cave systems, springs, and mountain 
rivers all face imminent threats. The major factors 
currently responsible for habitat destruction relate to: 
conversion of forests to pine monoculture, surface mining, 
damming of rivers, and coastal development. Habitat damage 
from off-road vehicles and the accumulation of toxic 
substances are impending problems. The aforementioned 
examples highlight the fact that habitat destruction is 
pervasive throughout the state. Currently, Alabama lags far 
behind most other states in both habitat inventory and 
habitat preservation. 


AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF ALABAMA—STATUS UPDATE. Robert 
H. Mount , Dept, of Zoology and Wildlife Science, Auburn University, 
AL 36848-5414 

Since the last comprehensive report on the status of Alabama 
amphibians and reptiles, in 1986, only 7 of the 39 non-marine 
"priority forms" have received any research attention worthy 
of note. These are: 1. the Red Hills salamandei—status update; 

2. gopher tortoise-dispersion and population densities; 3. 
flattened musk turtle—effects of mining siltation and disease 
problems; 4. eastern indigo snake—continued monitoring of 
results of restocking efforts; 5. Alabama red-bellied 
turtle—conservation; 6. dusky gopher frog—population size, 
structure, and breeding activity and 7. Black Warrior 
waterdog—taxonomic studies. Additions to and changes in federal 
list have been: 1. Alabama red-bellied turtle (endangered); 

2. gopher tortoise (threatened in Mobile, Washington and Choctaw 
counties); 3. alligator (from endangered to "threatened due 
to similarity of appearance"). Decline of most terrestrial 
snakes and of some lizards continues to be a problem needing 
attention. 


116 






Abstracts 


NEMATODE-INDUCED DAMAGE TO COTTON ROOTS AS MONITORED BY SUDAN BLACK B. 
Roland R. Dute , Dept, of Botany and Microbiology and the Alabama Agri¬ 
cultural Experiment Station, Auburn University, AL 36849-5407 

Nematode gall development in cotton roots was studied to determine 
whether physical damage induced by root-knot nematodes could expose 
vascular tissue to potential fungal infections. Root damage is associ¬ 
ated with the development of protective, suberized, wound periderms. A 
suberized periderm also forms during normal ontogeny as the replacement 
dermal layer. Paraffin sections of infected roots from cotton varie¬ 
ties M8 (root-knot susceptible) and 634 RNR (root-knot resistant) were 
stained with Sudan Black B, a suberin stain. The latter variety is not 
immune as some galling occurs. In both varieties, gall development is 
caused by proliferation of stelar parenchyma cells near the nematode. 
The resulting increase in stelar diameter causes splits in epidermis and 
cortex. In such instances, a wound periderm protects the stele from 
exposure. Also a wound periderm is formed where the nematode enters 
the stele. Galls of both varieties initially have multinucleate giant 
cells. In roots of M8, the nematode continues to enlarge and eventu¬ 
ally forms an egg mass. This enlargement splits open the surface peri¬ 
derm and the stelar tissues within. This damage provides a direct 
pathway from rhizosphere to stele for fungi, provided the hyphae can 
grow between the nematode and the damaged root cells. In older galls 
of 634 RNR, nematodes generally are small and immature or degenerate. 
Thus, the surface periderm often remains intact, and stelar cells are 
seldom exposed. Lack of nematode development is associated with de¬ 
generate and crushed giant cells. Degenerate nematodes and crushed 
giant cells may be surrounded by wound periderms. These results with 
Sudan Black B provide confirmation of a previous study done without 
histochemical stain. 


STATUS OF FISHES IN ALABAMA IN NEED OF SPECIAL ATTENTION. 

J. Malcolm Pierson, Department of Environmental Affairs, Alabama 
Power Company, P. 0. Box 2641, Birmingham, AL 35291. 

Approximately 300 species of freshwater fishes have been 
documented from the State of Alabama. Ten of these fishes are 
found only in Alabama, and an additional 37 species utilize 
Alabama waters for over 60 percent of their total range. In a 
recent publication; "Vertebrate Animals of Alabama in Need of 
Special Attention" Mount (1986), 18 species of freshwater fishes 
were assigned some level of conservation status. The Cahaba 
shiner, Alabama cavefish, spring pygmy sunfish, and watercress 
darter were given endangered status, and the paleband shiner, 
slackwater darter, goldline darter, snail darter, and pygmy 
sculpin were assigned threatened status. An additional nine 
species were designated as either of special concern or poorly 
known. This report updates the status of these 18 species and 
suggests studies to assess the current status of these and other 
sensitive fishes in Alabama. 


117 



Abstracts 


DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPUTER LIBRARY OF IEF PROFILES OF SINGLE 
AQUACULTURED LARVAL STAGES OF STONE CRABS, Menippe adina, M. 
mercenaria , and their hybrid. George B. Cline and Mark E. Meade., 

Dept, of Biology, Univ. of Ala. at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294. 

Same stage zoeae of stone crabs resemble each other and are 
difficult to identify by species or by population using morphological 
features alone. Every zoeae, however, possesses all of the adult genes 
and begins to express some during larval development. These gene 
products can be useful markers (fingerprints) for stocks and species 
as well as biochemical indicators of growth and development. We 
analyzed individual zoeae and megalopae from known broodstock by 
isoelectric focusing (IEF) on Immobiline-^ gels. Ovigerous M. adina 
was obtained from Mississippi Sound, M. mercenaria from south Florida 
and their hybrid from Apalachee Bay, northeastern Gulf of Mexico. 
Aquacultured zoeae were prepared for analysis by our procedure 
reported elsewhere. Immobiline™ gels with identical pH ranges gave 
routine and reproducible separations which were readily scanned and 
analyzed by an LKB laser densitometer system. Gel uniformity makes it 
practical to set up computer libraries for lab to lab comparisons. We 
found quantitative changes in total protein profiles of individual 
Z1-Z5 of M. adina in pH 4-7 gels as growth and development occurs. 

M. adina profiles were different from M. mercenaria or their hybrid 
for the Z-stages examined. There were few differences among cohorts 
of the same stage. Graphics software permits editing, integration, 
overlaying, subtraction and/or other analysis of computer-stored IEF 
profiles. Part of this research was supported by Mississippi-Alabama 
Sea Grant Consortium project R/LR-22. 


STATUS OF INVERTEBRATES WITH RESTRICTED DISTRIBUTIONS 
IN ALABAMA. S.C. Harris, Biological Resources Division, Geological 
Survey of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35486-9780. 

Invertebrates were not included in the most recent compilations 
of rare and endangered animals in Alabama, although as a group they 
constitute about 95% of all species. Their exclusion stems in part 
from insufficient collecting in the state and also reflects the diffi¬ 
culties in assigning protected status to invertebrates. While those 
invertebrates with limited mobility, such as mollusks and crayfishes, 
can be placed with some assurance into such categories as endangered, 
threatened or special concern, insects are not easily categorized. 
With the winged insects particularly, which constitute the vast majority 
of the class, a category of rare or of limited distribution is probably 
a more applicable characterization. Specialists in individual taxa 
have been organized and efforts are underway to compile a list of 
invertebrates either rare or of limited distribution in Alabama, be¬ 
ginning with the aquatic forms. This list will be at best preliminary 
as much of the invertebrate fauna of Alabama remains unknown or 
poorly studied. 


118 












Abstracts 


WOMEN AND THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ZOOLOGISTS. Ellen W. 
McLaughlin , Dept, of Biology, Samford University, 
Birmingham, AL 35229. Elizabeth Conant, Dept, of 
Biology, Canisius College, Buffalo, NY 14208. 

The American Society of Zoologists (ASZ) traces its 
origin back to 1890 in Boston. Active members were 
elected by the Society and at one time a Ph.D. or the 
equivalent was required. Two women were elected in 1892 
and by 1906, 17 women (9.7%) were members. Although the 
number of women added to the rolls increased, the 
percentage did not and fluctuated between 10% and 13% 
until the early 1970's. From that time the percentage 
of women members increased reaching a peak of 23% in 
1988. The first woman serving in an official capacity 
in the ASZ was appointed to a 3-year term on the 
Editorial Board in 1924. In the 98 year history of ASZ 
there have been only nine different women elected as 
General Officers. They are: President (4) 1973, 1978, 
1979, 1985; Vice-President (2) 1937, 1953; Secretary (1) 
1985 and Treasurer (3) 1957, 1974, 1986. Data show that 
whenever a woman served as a General Officer, there was 
a noticeable increase in the number of women serving in 
other elective or appointed positions in the ASZ. Prior 
to 1915 almost all women had Ph.D. degrees, mainly from 
northern Universities, women's colleges or European 
Universities. Very few had academic appointments 
leading to professorships. They were employed as 
Demonstrators, Lecturers and Research Associates. 


HISTONES OF THE SEA STAR ASTERIAS VULGARIS : A CHARACTERIZATION OF 
BASIC NUCLEOPROTEINS ISOLATED FROM PYROLIC CAECA. Carl B. Massey and 
Stephen A. Watts, Dept, of Biology, Univ. of Ala. at Birmingham, 
Birmingham, AL 35294. 

Histones were acid extracted/ethanol precipitated from the lipid- 
rich pyloric caeca of the sea star Asterias vulgaris . Extracted 
samples were electrophoresed, with calf thymus histone (Sigma) as the 
standard, on acidic 15% polyacryamide gels. Gel system I contained 
6mM Triton X-100 and 6M urea. Gel system II contained 2.5M urea and 
no detergent. Proteins were stained with 0.27. amido black for 
visualization. In gel system I, nucleosomal histones (H2A,H2B,H3 and 
H4) from pyloric caeca exhibited mobilities similar to calf thymus 
histones. Subfraction HI was not apparent in this system. Gel 
system II provided a more conclusive assessment of the mobilities of 
subfraction HI. This subfraction migrated with calf thymus HI in gel 
system II. In this system, dye-binding properties suggest significant 
levels of HI were present in the pyloric caeca. These preliminary 
results are consistent with the conservative nature of histone 
proteins and studies of histones from other sea star species. Studies 
of minor variations in histone composition and comparisons of somatic 
and gametic histone protein populations are currently in progress. 


119 










Abstracts 


MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE HEMOCYTES OF THE SLIPPER LOBSTER, 
Scyllarides nodifer (Stimpson). George B. Cline, Dept, of Biology, 
Univ. of Ala. at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294. 

The slipper lobster Scyllarides nodifer inhabits the waters of 
the Gulf of Mexico and the Florida Keys. Details about its behavior, 
biochemistry and physiology are reported infrequently. We examined 
its circulating hemocytes and report here the first morphological 
description for this species. Hemolymph was withdrawn from the dorsal 
sinus into heparinized syringes to inhibit clotting for phase 
microscopy studies. Other samples were withdrawn into cold 10Yo 
formalin (in lobster balanced salt solution) for Giemsa staining. 

Cells were also stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Criteria for 
classification included: 1) relative morphology, specifically nuclear 
to cytoplasmic ratios, 2) presence or absence of refractile 
cytoplasmic granules, 3) relative size, shape and density of the 
granules, and, 4) staining characteristics with specific stains. Four 
cell types were present and closely resembled cells from Homarus 
americanus . Type 1 was a prohyalocyte or spherical lymphoid-like cell 
with large, highly-condensed nucleus and little cytoplasm with no 
granules. Type 2 was a spindle- or ovoid-shaped halocyte with dark- 
staining nucleus and fine basophilic cytoplasmic granules. Type 3 was 
a spindle- or ovoid-shaped granulocyte with many cytoplasmic 
eosinophilic granules. Type 4 was an eosinophilic granulocyte with 
pink cytoplasmic granules and light blue-staining nucleus. This cell 
undergoes an "explosive" change on contact and is associated with the 
hemolymph clotting reaction. Functions of the other cells are unknown 
at this time. 


Production and Characterization of Antibodies to Protein Kinase C 
Isoforms. Angela L. Wooten and Marie W. Wooten, Dept, of Zoology 
and Wildlife Science, Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL 36849 

Brain protein kinase C (PKC) is composed of several discrete 
isoforms as resolved by HAP column chromatography. Together these 
isoforms comprise a gene family consisting of alpha, beta and gamma. 
Using cDNA sequence information we have synthesized peptides to the 
third variable region of the gene family in which the greatest 
sequence divergence exists. These peptides were coupled to KLH and 
used as a source of antigen for immunizing rabbits. To test the 
specificity of the peptide antisera PKC isoforms alpha (Type 111= 

Peak III), beta (Type II=PeakII) and gamma (Type I=PeakI) were purified 
to homogenity and used as a reference to test for immunological 
reactivity by Western Blotting. Various cell lines were also tested 
for their reactivity with the peptide antisera. Serum IgG fraction was 
isolated and coupled to phenyl-sepharose; these affinity matrices were 
shown to bind respective PKC isoforms in their native form which 
displayed calcium/phospholipid sensitive acitvity. The isolation and 
characterization of specific antibodies will allow further study of 
the biological role these isoforms play in cellular responses, 

Supported by Auburn University Grant-in-Aid and The Alabama 
Agricultural Experiment Station. 


120 








Abstracts 


THE ECOLOGY OF THE COMMON SEA STAR ODONTASTER VALIDUS : AN 
INDICATOR OF PRIMARY PRODUCTION IN THE SHALLOW WATERS OF 
ANTARCTICA. James B. McClintock . Dept, of Biology, Univ. of 
Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham AL 35294. John S. Pearse, 

Inst. Marine Sciences, Univ. of Calif., Santa Cruz, CA 95064. 
Isidro Bosch, Harbor Branch Oceanogr. Inst., Fort Pierce, FL 
33450. 

The sea star Odontaster validus is one of the most abundant 
benthic macroinvertebrates in shallow antarctic waters. Mature 
females release large numbers of eggs which develop as 
planktotrophic larvae in the early spring and settle as juveniles 
in the austral summer. Size frequency distributions followed 
over 15 months at different sites and depths in McMurdo Sound 
revealed low levels of temporal variability in growth, 
recruitment, migration and mortality. Sea stars at shallow (10- 
20 m) sites were in superior nutritional condition, and had 
greater biomass and reproductive output than animals at deeper 
sites (30 m). Higher levels of chlorophyll in the nutrient 
storage organs of shallow animals indicated direct exploitation 
of primary production. Therefore, it may be possible to use this 
species as an indicator of levels of benthic primary production. 
Depth-specific differences in population structure reflect the 
mosaic nature of benthic habitats, with deeper sites constituting 
"sink habitats" (little of no contribution of gametes to the 
population) and shallow sites constituting "source habitats" 
(significant contribution of gametes to the population). It is 
hypothesized that the greatest proportion of the overall 
population of 0. validus occurs at depths greater than 20 m, 
implying that nearby shallow sites must provide enough recruits 
to balance annual mortality. Supported by NSF # DPP-8317082. 

THE INFLUENCE OF MAJOR WEATHER EVENTS ON AN ALABAMA COASTAL HERONRY. 
John J. Dindo, Dauphin Island Sea Lab, Dauphin Island, AL 36528. Ken 
R. Marion, Biology Department, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 
Birmingham, AL 35294. 

Cat Island, a 5.2 ha. island in Mississippi Sound, is home to 
more than three thousand nesting herons, egrets and ibises. The 
Island has the largest assemblage of Tricolor Herons (Hydranassa 
tricolor ) in Alab'ama. During the fall of 1985, hurricanes Elena, 

Juan, and Kate battered the Alabama coast after the nesting season 
and reduced the nesting vegetation (Iva frutescens and Baccharis 
halimifolia ) from an average height of seven feet to little more than 
two feet. The total number of nesting birds during the following 
season (1986) was reduced by 157., apparently due to a reduction in 
suitable nest sites. Nesting success rates for Tricolor Herons and 
Snowy Egrets were 597. and 567. during 1986, compared to 797. and 707. 
during 1985. This reduction was believed due to decreased vegetative 
cover over the nests, thus enhancing the predation of eggs and young 
by fish crows. An additional factor was the closing of an inland 
pond on Cat Island when the tidal creek feeding it was blocked by 
sand movement during the storms. The loss of volume exchange was 
evident in 1986 and is believed to have reduced the available food 
resources (fish), thereby contributing to increased nestling and 
fledgling mortality. 


121 















Abstracts 


SEASONAL OCCURRENCE AND ABUNDANCE OF BRACHYURAN LARVAE IN 
ELKHORN SLOUGH AND NEARSHORE WATERS OF MONTEREY BAY, 
CALIFORNIA. Pan-wen Hsueh, Dept, of Biology, Univ. of Ala. at Birmingham, 
Birmingham, AL 35294. 

Oblique plankton tows were taken biweekly at four slough and one offshore stations 
over 14 months to sample brachyuran crab larvae. In total, 12 taxa of brachyuran crab 
larvae were identified, representing five families; 7 taxa were identified to species, 4 to 
genus, and 1 to family. Ten brachyuran larval species were identified from the 
plankton. Larvae of Pinnixa franciscana and P. weymouthi were cultured through the 
megalopa stage to juveniles, and thus could be identified. Larvae of Pinnixa 
franciscana, Hemigrapsus oregonensis. Cancer gracilis, and P, weymouthi were the 
most abundant. Larvae of these four species comprised almost 97 % by number of the 
total larvae collected in the entire sampling period. The pea crab family Pinnotheridae 
had the highest number of species (6 species) followed by Cancridae (2 species) and 
Grapsidae (2 species). The Majidae and Xanthidae were each represented by a single 
species. Among the 12 species, Pinnixa franciscana, P. weymouthi. Cancer gracilis, C. 
productus, Hemigrapsus oregonensis, and Lophopanopeus bellus bellus were recorded 
at the study site for the first time. Brachyuran crab larvae were most abundant in late 
winter and early spring but the larvae of Pachygrapsus crassipes had a peak abundance 
in summer and early fall. Some of species appear to brood twice a year. Larvae of P. 
franciscana and P. weymouthi tended to stay within the slough. The presence of 
megalopae of several species provided evidence of local recruitment and the numerous 
first stage larvae of P. franciscana, H. oregonensis, and P. crassipes collected in upper 
slough stations (Red House and Kirby Park) indicate that adults spawned in Elkhom 
Slough. High abundances of the late larval stages of P. franciscana and P. weymouthi 
suggest a higher larval survivorship than the other three abundant species. Cancer 
gracilis, Hemigrapsus oregonensis, and Pachygrapsus crassipes ,which comprised less 
than 3% of the larvae collected. 

IMMUNOCYTOCHEMICAL DETECTION OF PROLACTIN IN REPRODUCTIVE TRACT OF 
MATURE MALE MOUSE. W.B. Brumlow and C.S. Adams, Biology Department, 
Auburn University at Montgomery, Montgomery, AL 36193. 

Prolactin (PRL) binds to the testis of mice and rats where it 
increases the number of luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors, increases 
the binding of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to the LH receptors, 
and enhances testosterone synthesis and secretion. PRL also binds to 
the prostate and seminal vesicles of rats and humans where it increases 
organ weight and stimulates growth and uptake of testosterone. PRL 
binds to the epididymis of rats but the effect of PRL on this organ is 
unknown. In the present study, standard immunoperoxidase (PAP) and 
avidin-biotin complex (ABC) techniques were used to detect the binding 
of endogenous and exogenous PRL to the epididymis of the mature mouse. 
Throughout the epididymal duct, a positive reaction for peroxidase, 
indicating PRL binding, occurred in the Golgi area of principal cells. 
In segment 1, positive reactions were also visualized in the 
perinuclear area and in the region located between the Golgi area and 
the apical surface of the principal cells (supra-Golgi area). In the 
corpus and cauda epididymidis, scattered entire principal cells were 
also positive. Throughout the epididymal duct, the reactions 
indicating the binding of exogenous PRL were slightly•stronger than 
those of endogenous PRL. The significance of PRL binding to the 
epididymis is uncertain but PRL may perform the same functions in 
epididymal principal cells as it does in the testis, prostate, and 
seminal vesicles. 


122 


Abstracts 


DETERMINATION OF THE POLYAMINES SPERMINE, SPERMIDINE AND PUTRESCINE 
IN SEVERAL INVERTEBRATE TISSUES. Kara ,J. Lee , Stephen A. Watts, and 
James B. McClintock, Dept, of Biology, U.A.B., Birmingham, AL 35294. 

Levels of spermine, spermidine and putrescine, recognized for 
their role in cell and tissue growth, were determined in tissues of 
larval and adult marine and terrestrial invertebrates. Species 
examined included echinoderms, molluscs, cnidarians and arthropods. 
Acid-extracted polyamines were derivatized with dansyl chloride and 
quantified using HPLC. Levels of polyamines in adult tissues showed 
intraspecific as well as interspecific variability, with levels of 
spermidine and spermine ranging from 2.3 to 165 nmol/g wet weight. 
These levels are comparable to those found in vertebrates. Levels 
of putrescine were more variable, ranging from 0 to 755 nmol/g wet 
weight. Highest levels of putrescine were found in digestive and 
secretory tissues, such as the pyloric caeca of the sea star Asterias 
vulgaris and the hepatopancreas of the mussel Geukinsea demissa and 
gastropod Thais harmostoma . Larval tissues ( Artemia spp. and Manduca 
sexta ) exhibited the highest levels of polyamines. High levels of 
putrescine and spermidine in larval tissues (up to 3.9 umol/g wet 
weight) may be necessary for sustaining cell proliferation and 
differentiation in these rapidly growing tissues. The spermidine/ 
spermine ratio, an indicator of biosynthetic activity, is <1.2 in 
adult tissues and should reflect maintenance-level biosynthesis. In 
larval tissues the ratio is >5, reflecting higher rates of protein 
synthesis during cell growth and proliferation. These data suggest 
that the levels and distributions of polyamines may reflect distinct 
ecological and physiological differences among species and functional 
differences among tissue types. 

DISTRIBUTION OF GLYCOLYTIC ENZYMES IN THE SEA STAR ASTERIAS VULGARIS . 
Naoyuki Saito and Stephen A. Watts, Dept, of Biology, U.A.B., 
Birmingham, AL 35294. 

The specific activities of hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase 
(PFK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) were determined in the pyloric caeca, 
tube feet and body wall of Asterias vulgaris . Specific activities 
were expressed as functions of wet 'weight and cytosolic protein. The 
average gravimetric distribution of the organs were calculated (wet 
organ weight/wet animal weight: pyloric caeca 16%; tube feet 3%; 
body wall 55%) to determine the total enzyme activities per organ. 

HK and PK activities were significantly higher than PFK activity in 
all organs studied. The highest HK activity as a function of wet 
weight was found in the pyloric caeca. Despite low PFK activity, the 
highest PK activity per gram wet weight as well as the highest total 
PK activity were found in the pyloric caeca. These results suggest 
that a high concentration of a glycolytic intermediate, probably 
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate derived through lipid catabolism, enters 
the pathway after PFK. Tube feet exhibited the highest PFK and PK 
activities as a function of cytosolic protein. This may reflect the 
high energetic requirements of the tube feet. As a function of wet 
weight, activities of HK, PFK and PK were minimal in the body wall, 
reflecting low organic content of the organ. However, the highest 
total PFK activity and highest HK activity per mg cytosolic protein 
suggest the importance of the body wall in the overall glycolytic 
activity of the organism. 


123 



















Abstracts 


PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES SPECIFIC FOR 
CILIARY MEMBRANES OF TETRAHYMENA PYRIFORMIS . Barbara H. Estridge and 
Christine A. Sundermann, Department of Zoology and Wildlife Sciences, 
Auburn University, AL 36849. 

Tetrahymena pyrifo rmis (ATCC 30005) were deciliated and ciliary 
membranes were purified by sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation. Balb/c 
mice were immunized with purified ciliary membranes and monoclonal 
antibodies (MAb) to ciliary membranes were generated by fusion of 
X63-Ag8.653 cells with immunized Balb/c spleen cells. Fused cells were 
cultured in 96-well plates, and supernatants were tested for antibody 
by enzyme immunoassay, using whole cilia as antigen and alkaline- 
phosphatase labeled secondary antibody (anti-mouse IgG, anti-mouse IgM). 
Cells from antibody-positive wells were cloned or frozen, and super¬ 
natants were retained. Thirteen MAb (7 IgG, 6 IgM) have been tested 
by indirect immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase staining. Five 
staining patterns were observed: 1) intense staining of cell body and 
cilia, 2) patchy staining of cell body and cilia, 3) intense staining 
of cilia but not cell body, 4) moderate staining of cell body with 
cilia unstained or weakly stained, and 5) moderate staining of cell 
body and cilia. Some MAb stained the Tetrahymena culture heterogeneous¬ 
ly. The culture was cloned to separate positive and negative staining 
subpopulations, and clones were tested repeatedly by immunoperoxidase 
staining. The variations in staining patterns suggest that 1) some 
determinants are present only on cilia or cell body, while others are 
present on both cell body and cilia, and 2) the culture contains two 
antigenic types, distinguishable by immunoperoxidase staining. This 
work was supported by NSF grant DCB-8718174 and Alabama NSF EPSCoR 
RII 8610669. 

NON-SPECIFIC HYPERPLASTIC RESPONSE IN L-M CELLS INDUCED BY 
VACCINIA VIRUS 

Lawrence Drummond * and Lyman Magee. *Biology Dept, Talladega 
College, Talladega, AL 35160. Dept. Biology, Liberal Arts, 
University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677 

L-M mouse fibroblast cells propagated in Yeast Extract 
Lactalbumin Hydrolysate Peptone (YELP) medium. Mediun-199 
or Eagle's minimal esential medium with or without fetal 
calf serum were infected with 5, 10, and 20 plaque-forming 
units (PFU) of vaccinia virus per culture. The cultures 
were examined microscopically daily. Areas of focal pro¬ 
liferation were observed in cultures propagated in YELP 
medium and Medium-199 supplemented with 3% fetal calf 
serum and infected with 5 to 20 PFU/culture 48-72 hours 
post-infection. There was a significant increase in the 
total protein concentration per culture infected with 
5, 10, and 20 PFU per culture demonstrating focal pro¬ 
liferation, Electron microscopy of thin sections of areas 
of focal proliferation revealed intracellular localization 
of vaccinia virus in all sections examined. These re¬ 
sults indicate that a virus-cellular interaction is involv¬ 
ed in the cellular proliferative response in L-M cells 
infected with varying PFU/culture of vaccinia virus. 

124 










Abstracts 


EIMERIA PAPILLATA (PROTOZOA: APiCOMPLEXA): EARLY DEVELOPMENT IN VIVO 
AND IN VITRO, Stephanie A. Stafford and Christine A. Sundermann, Dept. 
Zoology and Wildlife Science, Auburn University, AL 36849. 

The early development of Eimeria papillate in the mouse has not 
yet been described. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate 
early merogony and determine if spherical meronts (common to most eime- 
rians) or sporozoite-shaped meronts (multinucleate forms that retain 
the shape of a sporozoite) are produced. Mice were inoculated orally 
with 6 million oocysts of JL papillata and killed 30 hours later. Por¬ 
tions of the small intestine were excised, and mucosal scrapings from 
each animal were examined with Nomarski interference contrast micro¬ 
scopy (NIC). Motile sporozoite-shaped meronts were observed entering 
and leaving host cells and contained one large posterior refractile 
body and one small anterior refractile body and several nuclei. Twenty 
living specimens were measured, and the mean length and width were 
11.98um and 3.73um respectively. Stained slides revealed that the mer¬ 
onts were indeed multinucleate. In order to isolate and concentrate 
these meronts for further study, the small intestine was minced, placed 
in a solution of bile and trypsin at 37C and then column-filtered. The 
filtrate was centrifuged and the resulting pellet examined by NIC. 
Numerous sporozoite-shaped meronts were observed; they displayed for¬ 
ward motility and the bending and flexing movements often associated 
with excysted sporozoites. The isolated meronts will be inoculated on¬ 
to human fetal lung cells (passage 15) and primary fetal mouse brain 
cells to observe, in vitro, early merogony of JL papillata . The obser¬ 
vation of sporozoite-shaped meronts in the early development of JL pap¬ 
illata serves as a valuable laboratory model for further studies of the 
early developmental stages of similar coccidia. 

EVOLUTIONARY AND DEVELOPMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE STRUCTURE OF 
ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE FROM THE LAMPREY PETROMYZON MARINES . Leo 
Pezzementi , Birmingham, Southern College, Birmingham, Alabama 35254 

In the skeletal muscle of higher vertebrates, acetylcholines¬ 
terase (AChE) has been found to exist in globular forms, , G^. and 
, consisting of one, two or four catalytic subunits; and asyxmnetic 
forms, A^, Ag, and Aj^, consisting of one, two or three globular 
tetramers linked to a collagenous tail. In contrast, only globular 
forms of AChE have been reported in deuterostome invertebrates. To 
obtain information about the evolution of AChE, we studied the enzyme 
from the lamprey Petromyzon marinus , a member of the most primitive 
class of vertebrates, the Agnatha. Sequential extraction of enzyme 
and velocity sedimentation on sucrose gradients indicated that muscle 
from adult spawning lamprey contains G^, A^, Ag, and Aj 2 AChE. We 
confirmed the presence of asymmetric AChE by collagenase digestion 
and low-salt precipitation. Thus, muscle from representatives of all 
classes of vertebrates has asymmetric and globular AChE, possibly be¬ 
cause asymmetric forms are needed at the neuromusclular junction for 
rapid and coordinated muscle contraction. We also found that the 
muscle of the larval form of the lamprey, the ammoeoete, possesses 
asymmetric and globular AChE. In contrast to adult spawning lamprey, 
where globular esterase is almost all , ammoeoete muscle contains 
significant amounts of and G 2 . The absence of these globular 
forms in the spawning lamprey may be due to the degenerative state 
of the lamprey in this stage of its life cycle. 

125 


















Abstracts 


STEROID METABOLISM IN SOMATIC AND GAMETIC TISSUES OF THE SEA 
STAR ASTERIAS VULGARIS . Gene A. Hines and Stephen A. Watts, Dept, of 
Biology, U.A.B., Birmingham, AL 35294, Charles W. Walker, Univ. of New 
Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, Peter A. Voogt, State University, Utretch, The 
Netherlands. Supported by NSF #DCB-8711425. 

Tissues were obtained in the fall during early stages of gametogenesis when gonads 
and, presumably, somatic tissues are metabolically active. Microsomal preparations of 
male and female pyloric caeca, body wall, testis and ovary were incubated with 
radioactive androstenedione to evaluate androgen and estrogen metabolic pathways. 
Testis, ovary, and body wall homogenates were incubated for eight hours; pyloric 
caecal homogenates were incubated for two hours. Product identification was 
determined via TLC and recrystallization to constant specific activity. Androstenedione 
was converted primarily to testosterone and also to androstanedione and 
epiandrosterone in all homogenates, indicating high 17(3-hydroxysteroid 
dehydrogenase (HSD) activity relative to 5a-reductase ana 3J3-HSD. Trace levels of 
unidentified products were found which may represent other androstane derivatives, 
steroid esters, or degradation products. Highest rates of androstenedione conversion 
were found in the pyloric caeca. It is not known whether high levels of androgen 
metabolism in the pyloric caeca are related to cholesterol catabolism associated with 
digestion, or production of metabolically active steroids. 5a-androstane-3|3,17j3-diol, a 
potent androgen, was produced in male and female pyloric caeca. Homogenates of male 
and female body wall showed relatively low rates of androstenedione conversion. 
Homogenates of testes and ovaries produced the highest levels of androstanedione and 
epianairosterone relative to somatic tissues. In gonadal tissues, highest rates of 
androstenedione conversion were found in the testes. No estrogens were detected by 
TLC, however, preliminary RIA has detected significant levels of estradiol in male and 
female gonads and pyloric caeca with highest levels noted in ovaries. Sex-specific 
differences in androgen metabolism were most apparent in gonadal tissues; these 
differences were not apparent in somatic tissue. 

ACTIN AND MYOSIN GENE EXPRESSION IN CHICK CARDIAC CELL CULTURES. 

Ronald £. Young . Lee L. Zwanziger and Debra M. Moriarity. Department 
of Biological Sciences, Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 

Cells from the ventricles of thirteen-day chick embryos were 
cultured for 1, 4, 8, and 12 days in a serum-free, chemically defined 
culture medium. The quantity of total protein per cell increased 
approximately three-fold with time in culture compared to the level in 
intact ventricles, whereas the quantity of myosin heavy chain per cell 
decreased approximately four-fold. The quantity of myosin heavy chain 
mRNA also decreased during the 12-day culture period. Changes in 
expression of the alpha, beta and gamma isoforms of actin were also 
investigated. The sarcomeric alpha-actin isoform predominated in 
homogenates of intact ventricular tissue, but the ratio of alpha-actin 
to beta- and gamma-actins decreased with time after the cells were 
placed in culture. Because avian ventricular cells do not undergo 
gene switching to different isoforms of sarcomeric myosin heavy chain 
or actin when placed in culture, these results show that cardiac cells 
quantitatively readjust the levels of individual contractile proteins 
downward by several-fold in response to the serum-free, chemically 
defined conditions in the cell culture environment. This culture 
system therefore provides an assay for quantitative effects-of 
exogenous pharmacological agents on the synthesis or degradation of 
individual cardiac sarcomeric proteins or their mRNA's, without 
concern for effects on gene switching. Supported by the Alabama Heart 
Association. 


126 







Abstracts 


SEED ORCHARD ESTABLISHMENT EFFECTS ON THE GOPHER TORTOISE (GOPHERUS 
POLYPHEMUS): A PRELIMINARY REPORT. T^ W. Bryan , Dept, of Zoology & 

Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849. Dr. Craig 
Guyer, Research Advisor, Dept, of Zoology and Wildlife Sciences, 

Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849. 

Establishment of the Black Creek Seed Orchard in DeSoto National 
Forest, Mississippi, began in June 1988 with the clearcutting of 
approximately 300 acres. A two-year study was contracted by the US 
Forest Service to determine the effects this seed orchard establish¬ 
ment had on gopher tortoises ( Gopherus polyphemus ). Several strict 
rules governed the cut, including a 3 m buffer zone around each tor¬ 
toise burrow, in hopes of reducing the impact on the tortoises. We 
present preliminary data regarding population structure, movement, 
and activity. Data from the seed orchard site are compared with sim¬ 
ilar data from an unaltered control site. The two populations closely 
match in mean body size, with only a 1 cm difference in male carapace 
length (n=15 for the study site, n=ll on the control) and no difference 
in carapace length for females (n=19 for study site, n=6 on control). 
The relative numbers of active versus inactive burrows on the seed 
orchard site did not differ from numbers recorded prior to the clear- 
cut. This indicates that the tortoises have remained on the study 
site. Daily use of active burrows on the two sites was not signifi¬ 
cantly different. Ten hatchlings were found on both the control and 
study sites showing the two populations to be reproductive. This 
study is funded by USFS contract 53-44-7U-8-4372. 


THE BIOCHEMICAL AND ENERGETIC COMPOSITION OF BLADES, STIPES 
AND PNEUMATOCYSTS OF LIVING AND DECOMPOSING SARGASSUM FLUITANS 
FROM THE GULF OF MEXICO. Michael J. Lares and James B. 
McClintock, Dept, of Biology, Univ. of Alabama at Birmingham, 
Birmingham, AL 35294. 

The biochemical composition of individual components of 
Saraassum fluitans was variable, with stipes having more 
soluble and insoluble carbohydrate and ash than blades. 
Pneumatocysts were similar in composition to stipes, but had 
higher levels of insoluble carbohydrate than blades. 
Decomposing pneumatocysts had greater levels of ash than 
either decomposing stipes or blades, and less insoluble 
carbohydrate than decomposing stipes. Although there were 
differences in the qualitative composition of living and 
decomposing plant components, there were no significant 
differences in the overall energy contents of living and 
decomposing plant components (mean kJ/g dry wt of all plant 
components ranged from 13.4 to 14.6). A representative plant 
weighing 13 g wet wt would contain a total of 22.6 kJ, 
allocating 13.7, 6.0 and 2.9 kJ to blades, stipes and 
pneumatocysts, respectively. The retention of energy within 
tissues throughout the decomposition process is important, as 
this abundant pelagic species is widely distributed and may 
provide a significant amount of imported energy to shallow 
and deep sea benthic communities. 


127 













Abstracts 


TRIALS OF SEVERAL DRUGS FOR THE CONTROL OF COCCIDIOSIS IN GOATS. 

John C. Frandsen , USDA, ARS, Animal Parasite Research Laboratory, 
Auburn, AL 36831-0952. Byron L. Blagburn, Dept. Pathobiology, College 
of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, AL 36849. 

Goats in the Southeast harbor infections by several species of 
coccidia, especially Eimeria arloingi , E. christenseni and E. Parva , 
almost continuously throughout most of their lives. Though these 
infections rarely produce clinical disease in adult goats, they are 
responsible for morbidity and mortality in young kids, skeletal weak¬ 
ness in goats of breeding age, and unevaluated losses of productivity 
in both juveniles and adults. Control or elimination of these in- 
fectons by drugs is hampered by a paucity of chemotherapeutics cleared 
for use in goats and by the low efficacy of those that are cleared. 
Trials of monensin (Rumensin(R)), amprolium (Corrid(R)), decoquinate 
(Deccox(TM)), sulfaquinoxaline (Sulfa-Q(R)), clindamycin (Antirobe(R)), 
and Tribrissen (R), a mixture of 1 part trimethoprim with 5 parts of 
sulfadiazine, have shown a general lack of significant efficacy in re¬ 
ducing fecal oocyst production over a period of time, indicating that 
the use of these drugs as a means for reducing the exposure of young 
kids to infection is of limited - if any - value. Recently, trials 
with toltrazuril (Bay Vi 9142, Baycox(R)), a triazinetrione synthe¬ 
sized as a coccidiostat for broilers, have indicated that this drug 
has promise and warrants further evaluation. Administered either as 
a drench or in drinking water, at 15 ppm for 14 days, it leads to a 
reduction in oocyst production. 


ALTERED CRICKET FAT BODY PROTEIN METABOLISM AFTER OVARIECTOMY. James 
T. Bradley, Patrizio Caturegli and Barbara Estridge, Dept, of Zoology 
and Wildlife Science, Auburn University, AL 36849. 

Vitellogenesis in Acheta domestious begins with induction of 
vitellogenin (VG) synthesis soon after ecdysis to the adult. Pre-VGs 
are synthesized and processed in the fat body, secreted into the 
hemolymph, and sequestered by vitellogenic follicles. Pre-VG 
processing includes glycosylation, phosphorylation, and specific 
proteolytic cleavages. Ovariectomy before adult ecdysis effects 
neither the timing of later VG induction nor the rate of fat body VG 
synthesis, but the rate of secretion of newly made VG is attenuated 
after ovariectomy. This phenomenon is being exploited to gain insight 
into regulation of protein secretion in eukaryotic cells. Fat body 
proteins were labeled in vivo with [35S]-methionine at various times 
after ovariectomy or sham operations, separated by SDS-PAGE, and 
analyzed by fluorography and Western blotting. Ovariectomy resulted 
in changes in the pattern of incorporation of label into fat body 
polypeptides, and electron microscopy revealed an above normal 
accumulation of secretory vesicles in fat body cell cytoplasm. 
Immunological approaches are being used to learn how 
ovariectomy-induced alterations in fat body protein metabolism are 
related to steps in pre-VG processing. 

Supported by Alabama NSF/EPSCoR Program in Molecular, Cellular and 
Developmental Biology (Grant #RII-8610669) and the Alabama 
Agricultural Experiment Station. 


128 








Abstracts 


UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FLORA OF PITCHER PLANT 
HABITATS IN THE GULF COAST AREA. George W. Folkerts . Dept, 
of Zoology and Wildlife Science, Auburn Univ., AL 36849-5414 

Pitcher plant habitats have been largely neglected by 
ecologists because they are not traditional wetlands, nor 
are they typical terrestrial habitats. This, along with the 
fact that fire restriction has allowed successional changes 
to essentially obliterate many sites, has resulted in a lack 
of appreciation of their uniqueness. The flora of pitcher 
plant habitats is unique in a number of its characteristics. 
In life form, essentially all species are perennial 
herbaceous geophytes. Almost none of the species are shade 
tolerant. All are fire tolerant, mainly as a result of 
their geophytic habit. The community is conspicuously 
microspermous, nearly 60 percent of the species having 
diaspores less than 2mm in length. The dispersal spectrum 
differs conspicuously from that of adjacent communities, an 
unusually high percentage of the species having rainwash 
hydrochory as their primary dispersal method. Sedges 
(Cyperaceae) comprise approximately 20 percent of the flora. 
Many of the species are highly lignified, a feature which 
may relate to their flammability, their low nutrient 
content, and the relatively low incidence of herbivore 
damage. These characteristics, along with the high 
diversity of carnivorous plants, indicate that the flora of 
pitcher plant habitats possesses unique features which make 
it, as an abstract unit, as distinct as any other plant 
community on the Coastal Plain of southeastern North 
America. 


STATUS OF ALABAMA BIRDS AND MAMMALS. Dan C. Holliman, 

Division of Science and Mathematics, Birmingham-Southern College, 
Birmingham, Alabama 35254 


The status of those birds and mammals listed in Vertebrate 
Animals of Alabama in Need of Special Attention (Al. Agri. Exp. St. 
Auburn, University, Auburn, Al, 1986) is reviewed. Status changes 
and data gaps are detailed for other birds and mammals that were not 
included in the proceedings of the 1983 Alabama First Nongame Wildlife 
Conference. Critical habitats and stress sources are described. A 
research and management program along with specific jobs within these 
programs are listed by priority. A basic philosophy relative to the 
implementation of the program encourages rangewide studies, coopera¬ 
tion among educational institutions and the utilization of ongoing 
state and federal activities. 


129 








Abstracts 


INVESTIGATION OF THE CARYOCYST OF CARYOSPORA BIGENETICA (APICOMPLEXA: 
EIMERIIDAE). Christine A. Sundermann , Dept. Zoology & Wildlife Science, 
Auburn University, AL 36849. David S. Lindsay, USDA, Beltsville, MD, 
20705. 

Caryospora bigenetica is a coccidian with a heteroxenous life cycle 
involving viperine snakes and rodents. When rodents are experimentally 
infected with snake-derived oocysts, asexual and sexual reproduction 
occur in a variety of extraintestinal sites. Sporulated oocysts in the 
tissues release motile sporozoites that then enter other host cells. 

The final developmental stage is the formation of caryocysts - host 
cells, containing a sporozoite(s), that round-up and become enclosed 
by a thick wall. In this study, a male cotton rat was inoculated with 
snake-derived oocysts and then sacrificed 16 days later (DPI). Portions 
of the scrotum, footpad, and muzzle were processed for histological and 
electron microscopical (TEM) observation. TEM revealed that the sporo¬ 
zoite had an anterior and posterior refractile body, centrally-located 
nucleus, posterior pore, micronemes, rhoptries, a conoid, a micropore 
at the level of the anterior refractile body, amylopectin granules, and 
lipid bodies. Also present were a Golgi body, a mitochondrion, and 24 
subpellicular microtubules. The infected host cell was spherical and 
surrounded by a fibrous wall-like covering that was 0.35 - 1.00 um thick 
and PAS-positive. It is not known if this wall forms by secretory ac¬ 
tivity of the host cell or is built by incorporation of material from 
the extracellular matrix. To test longevity of the caryocysts, mice 
were inoculated with sporulated oocysts; all animals developed clinical 
signs of dermal coccidiosis 8-12 DPI and then recovered. The mice were 
sacrificed more than a year later, and fresh tissue scrapings were 
treated with bile/trypsin. The wall of the caryocyst quickly disinte¬ 
grated and the sporozoites became motile. Supported by the AAES. 


A MURINE SPERM COMPONENT WHICH RECOGNIZES THE ZONA 
PELLUCIDA. Holly L. Boettqer and G.R. Poirier, Dept, of 
Biology, Univ. of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 
35294. 

The murine zona pellucida consists of three glyco¬ 
proteins ZPl, ZP2 and ZP3, with molecular weights of 
200,000, 120,000 and 83,000 daltons. Both ZP2 and ZP3 
function in the binding of sperm to the zona. ZP3 is 
responsible for initial binding, while ZP2 functions to 
bind sperm during zona penetration (Bleil et al, 1988). 
This presentation demonstrates that a 15,000 MW component, 
the acceptor, localized on the head of murine spermatazoa 
binds to whole and heat solubilized zonae as well as to 
purified ZP2 and ZP3. These observations indicate that 
the acceptor may play a major role in the sperm-zona 
interactions which lead to fertilization. 


130 








Abstracts 


THE PHYLOGENETIC POSITION OF THE FOSSIL TELEOST FISH MICROCAPROS 
LIBANICUS . Steven J. Zehren, Dept, of Cell Biology and Anatomy, 

Univ. of Ala. at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294. 

The Family Caproidae (boarfishes) contains two living genera, Capros 
(with one species, C^ aper ) and Antigonia (with 11 species). A number 
of fossil species have also been assigned to the Caproidae including 
three of the genus Capros , three of the genus Antigonia and one of the 
genus Microcapros (M. libanicus from the Cenomanian of Lebanon). Twen¬ 
ty-four characters are noted in the literature as being indicative that 
Microcapros is a caproid. However, osteological examination of aper 
and seven of the living species of Antigonia reveals that only two of 
these characters are derived and common to all three genera (frontals 
ornamented with tubercles; dorsal spines alternately inclined). None 
of the other characters is indicative that Microcapros is a caproid 
because they are of questionable polarity (spines on cleithrum, supra- 
cleithrum and posttemporal; dorsal spines grooved), primitive (frontals 
high; supraoccipital crest thornlike; lacrimal articulates with lateral 
ethmoid; last dorsal spines diminished in height; strong pelvic spine 
present) or absent in one or more of the three genera (frontals orna¬ 
mented with spinous ridges; infraorbitals of constant height; subocular 
shelf present; mouth large and oblique; ascending process of premaxilla 
well-developed; one supramaxilla; mandibular canal in a groove; post¬ 
temporal bifid; six pelvic rays; nine dorsal spines; scales not cover¬ 
ing bases of spinous dorsal and anal fins; presence of thickened scales 
in front of pelvic fins). It is concluded that Microcapros should be 
removed from the Caproidae and placed in the position incertae sedis . 


GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN LARVAE OF THE SOUTHERN LEOPARD FROG ( RANA 
UTRICULARIA) AT CONSTANT AND FLUCTUATING TEMPERATURES. David H. 
Nelson, Department of Biology, Univ. of South Ala., Mobile, AL 
36688. 

Larvae of the Southern leopard frog were reared (from eggs) 
for six weeks in environmental chambers at constant (10°C, 17°C, 
25°C) and fluctuating (cyclic and non-cyclic) temperature regimes. 
Fluctuating temperatures varied from 10°C to 25°C with mean values 
of 17.5°C. Stages of development and body lengths were compared 
after three weeks. At the termination of the six-week study, the 
stages of development, body lengths and body weights were recorded. 
Among the constant temperatures (as expected) , the values for all 
parameters were directly related to temperature. Although the 
differences in some cases were slight, values for all parameters 
were greater at the noncyclic, fluctuating temperature regime than 
at the cyclic, fluctuating regime. 


131 






















Abstracts 


CHEMISTRY 

ELECTRON DENSITY ANALYSIS OF BONDING BETWEEN 
INVERTED-TRICOORDINATE CARBONS. Osman F. Griner and 
Koop Lammertsma; Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama at 
Birmingham, University Station PHS-219, Birmingham, AL 35294. 

Rhombic dicarbides contain two inverted tricoordinate carbons at the bridge¬ 
head positions that are separated by a distance shorter than a typical C-C 
single bond. The bonding nature of rhombic dicarbides, C 2 X 2 where X = 
Li, Be, B, C, and CH + , are investigated using Bader’s topological electron 
density approach. While the electron density for bridgehead C-C bond of 
C 2 Li 2 is high, it gradually decreases for C 2 Be 2 and C 2 B 2 . Particular empha¬ 
sis is given to rhombic C4 since the interpretation of stability, bonding, and 
spectroscopic characteristics of this species have been controversial. At the 
HF/6-31G* level of theory, a bond path between the inverted-tricoordinate 
carbons is located and the corresponding bond critical point has a close re¬ 
semblance to a catastrophe point. However, when the electron correlation 
effects is included in the calculations by means of second order Mpller-Plesset 
perturbation theory (MP2-FU/6-31G*), it is determined that there is no bond 
path connecting the inverted-tricoordinate carbons of rhombic C4. Since the 
existence of a bond path is a “necessary condition” for the existence of a bond, 
it is concluded that there is no formal bond between the bridging carbons of 
the rhombic C4 which is in contrary to the earlier assumptions. 


COPING WITH REGULATIONS. Mary Frances Dove , Div. of Natural Sciences, 
Mobile College, Mobile, AL 36613. 

Small colleges, both public and private, are under regulation by 
both OSHA and EPA. Unlike larger universities which usually have 
special departments whose responsibility is regulatory compliance, 
small colleges often suffer from a lack of specific information about 
regulations and the process of compliance. Our experiences at Mobile 
College, a small private college, have demonstrated the importance of 
organizing campus activities to ensure that reporting deadlines and 
safety standards are met. Small colleges need to develop up-to-date 
inventory and compatible storage systems, responsible waste disposal 
procedures, safety inspection routines, and worker right-to-know 
training programs for all campus personnel and areas involved in the 
handling and storage of chemicals. These activities should be carried 
out by a permanently designated site coordinator or safety officer 
who represents the college on the local emergency planning committee. 


132 






Abstracts 


Competitive Adsorption of Corrosion Inhibitors 
on Metal Surfaces 


A.Ibrahim , C.Jenkins, M.Emerson, and B.H.Loo 

Chemistry Department 
University of Alabama in Huntsville 
Huntsville, AL. 35899 
(205) -895-6023 


Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopic (SERS) studies of 
corrosion inhibitors on a copper electrode surface are 
reported. Competitive adsorption of benzotriazole (BTA) and 
tolyltriazoles (1-TTA, 5-TTA, 6-TTA) has been studied using 
Raman microprobe SERS. Preliminary results support the 
hypothesis of bidentate coordination to the metal surface 
through the 1,3 -nitrogens. SERS spectra of individual 
compounds on the surface of a copper electrode are compared 
with the spectra of mixtures taken under the same 
conditions. A Fast Fourier Transform algorithm is used to 
estimate the relative contribution of each component to the 
spectrum of the mixture. 

Studies of other similar corrosion inhibitors (e.g. 
benzothiozole) will also be reported. 


Diimide Kinetics In Aqueous Solution. David M. Stanbury, Department of Chemistry, 
Auburn University, AL 36849 

2 — 

The acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of azodiformate ((NC02)2 X which has diimide 
(N 2 H 2 ) as an intermediate, has been studied by stopped-flow spectrophotometry. When 
the hydrolysis is conducted at sufficiently low pH (= 6), the second-order dismutation of 
diimide occurs on a time-scale slower than that of its generation. The reduction of 
azobenzene-4,4'-disulfonate (ABDS) by diimide provides a convenient indicator of these 
reactions. The consumption of ABDS gives the relative rate constants of reduction and 
dismutation, and the kinetics gives the absolute rate constants. At 25 °C these rate 
constants are 2.5 x 10 4 M ^s * and 2.3 x 10^ M *s \ respectively. A mechanism is 
proposed in which the high-energy cis-diimide is in rapid solvent-catalyzed 
equilibrium with (ground-state) frcms-diimide; the cis-isomer reduces the azobenzene 
and trans-diimide competitively at rates near the diffusion limit. 


133 






Abstracts 


AN EXPERT SYSTEM FOR WASTE DISPOSAL: TOSS IT! USING EXSYS. Ann E. 
Stanley, Research Directorate, U.S. Army Missile Command, Redstone 
Arsenal, AL 35898-5248. 

About two years ago, we learned that we must adhere to a regu¬ 
lation called HAZCOM. This regulation requires employers to notify 
employees of the hazards to which they are exposed during work or in 
storage areas. We reacted in several ways to this measure. We in¬ 
ventoried all materials and placed Material Safety Data Sheets in work 
areas and storage areas. We initiated a program to educate employees 
about this regulation and how it impacted them. We began a program 
to identify all excess materials and to turn in those materials 
through our appropriate channels. A great deal of time was spent in 
the identification, cleanup and disposal of hazardous chemicals and 
other materials. This involved sorting through old and hazardous 
chemicals and packing the chemicals for transport to those responsible 
for disposal. We have only a few materials left to eliminate. In 
the course of this experience, I and members of my group, learned a 
great deal about the proper disposal of hazardous waste materials at 
the U.S. Army Missile Command. The expert system described herein 
is an attempt to incorporate our experiences into an expert system 
which will assist others in accomplishing the same task. Some of our 
activities were strictly regulated by MICOM Regulation 200-2. Others 
were discovered as we attempted to fathom our way through the maze 
of organizations involved. In my discussion I intend to relate some 
of my experiences during this time and to describe the expert system 
which I developed to assist others in this task. 


METAL COMPLEXES OF ALKYLATING AGENTS CONTAINING THE BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL) 
AMINE FUNCTIONAL GROUP. Jamie B. Neidert, Melvin D. Joesten, and 
Ethel L. Krasney, Dept, of Chemistry, Vanderbilt University, 

Nashville, TN 37235. 



0 


Cyclophosphamide (shown above) is a widely used anticancer drug. 
The active metabolite of this drug is phosphoramide mustard, (HO)(^N) 
P(O)N(CH„CH„C1)„. Metal complexes of phosphoramide mustard deriva¬ 
tives with the general formula RR'P(O)N(CH-CH-Cl) where R=R'=NH 2 ; 
R=-0-P (R') (O)N (CH^CH^Cl) 2 and R'^N^H^^ have been prepared. 

Complexes with two other anticancer drugs, melphalan and chlorambucil, 
have also been prepared and characterized. Transition, alkali, 
alkaline-earth, main group, and lanthanide metal ions have been 
employed, with the emphasis given to metal ions which exhibit anti¬ 
cancer activity such as Au(III), Cu(II), Pt(II), and Rh(II). The 
stoichiometry and spectral data for these complexes will be presented. 
The results of this study indicate that the phosphoramide mustard 
group in the ligands remains intact in the metal complexes. 


134 





Abstracts 


RADON SITUATION TODAY. Carlton D. Whitt , Retired Chemist and Teacher, 
407 E. Washington St., Athens, AL 35611. Donald R. Payne, Dept of 
Physics, Athens State Col., Athens, AL 35611 


The large amounts of money spent in testing for radon and for protect¬ 
ion against its hazards, the widespread concerns of the public and the 
many conflicting test results obtained to date, warrant an indepth 
study of the situation. The basic properties of radon gas and all the 
daughters of uranium were studied in detail. Simple calculations of 
the possible amounts of radium, radon and the daughters of radon based 
on the uranium contents of soils and minerals are presented. For 
example the amounts of radon gas contained in the total 10 feet of air 
over a one acre area and over a square mile at levels of 4.0 & 4,000 
pico curies per liter of air were caculated to be: 

ACRE SQUARE MILE 


4 P Ci _ 1n 4 > 000 P Ci 7 

Radon, g. 3.21 X 10~J U 3.21 X 10"' 

Radon, ml. 3.25 X 10' 8 3.25 X 10~ 5 


4 pCi _ 4,000 pCi , 
2.06 X 10'; 2.06 X 10"; 
2.08 X 10" 5 2.08 X 10' 2 


The amounts of uranium in the locale under study rigorously control 
the maximum amounts of each of its daughters including radium, radon 
and the short half-life daughters of radon. The disintegrations of 
atoms of uranium per second is the same as the number of atoms of 
each of the 14 daughters which react per second. It is independent 
of the half-life of each element. The authors will show that the 
amounts of radon and the daughters of radon as gaseous atoms or as 
dispersed atoms in the air are of little threat to our health. 


BON^ ENERGIES AND ENTROPIES OF GAS-PHASE ION-MDLECULE CLUSTERS: 
SO 2 COp, SO^ N 2 O AND SO 2 SO 2 . Andreas J. lilies . Kevin Snowden 
ana Matthew scanlon, Chemistry Department, Auburn University, AL 
36849-5312. 


Ion-molecule clusters have been extensively studied, partly 
because of the,role they play in the chemistry of planetary 
atmospheres. Reactions of sulfur containing molecules are 
relevant to both the earth's and the Venusian atmospheres. 
Studies of clusters are also important from the fundamental 
point of view. We have studied, and continue to study, neutral 
clustering to sulfur containing ions by experimental equilibrium 
methods using high pressure mass spectrometry. Fran the van't 
Hoff plots one can determine heats of reaction (and hence 
binding energies) and entropies of reaction. Exanples of the 
ions we have studied with preliminary experimental binding 
energies in kcal/mol are: SCu CCt (10.2), SCL |~12), and 

(~22) . The present binding energy for sCt SCu is higher 
than previous photoionization results. This difference can be 
explained by examining the Franck-Condon overlap in the 
photoionization experiments. Our results on reaction entropies, 
enthalpies and cluster binding energies of these and similar 
clusters will be presented. 


135 













Abstracts 


BORANE COMPETITION REACTIONS TOWARD N, P, AND As DONOR SITES. 
Larry K. Krannich , Dileep K. Srivastava, and Charles L. Watkins, 
Dept, of Chemistry, Univ. of Ala. at Birmingham, UAB Station, 
Birmingham, AL 35294. 

Prior research has established that BH 3 binds to the nitrogen 
atom in Me 2 AsNMe 2 - We have recently shown that, depending upon the 
reaction stoichiometry, P-B, N-B, and B-P-N-B bonded BH 3 adducts of 
Me 2 PNMe 2 are formed. These studies have established the 
intramolecular competition of the As, N, and P atoms toward BHg. 
In the present work, we have focused on the intermolecular 
competition of N, P, P-N, and As-N base sites toward BHg. The 
reactions of BH-^’THF toward a series of solutions containing 
competing Group 15 Lewis base site compounds were studied using 
multinuclear nmr to establish the relative order of reactivity. 
Our data indicate the following order 

Me 3 N = Me 2 AsNMe 2 > Me 2 PNMe 2 = Me 3 P > Me 3 As 

toward BH 3 in dg-toluene. This ordering will be discussed using 
electronegativity arguments for Me 3 E (E = N, P, As), group 
substitution effects, and the relative significance of dir-piT 
bonding in the As-N and P-N bonds. The results are in contrast to 
those determined previously from displacement reactions, i.e. Me 3 E 

+ Me 3 E''BH 3 -> Me 3 E' + Me 3 E'BH 3 , for establishing relative base 

strengths. 


MOLECULAR STRUCTURES AND DIMERIZATION ENERGIES 
OF DIGALLANES. Jerzy Leszczvnski and Koop Lammertsma; 
Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 
University Station PHS-219, Birmingham, AL 35294. 


The heavier atom analogues of diborane(6) are of both experimental and 
theoretical interest. Only as recent as 19SS has dichlorodigallane(6) been 
synthetized and studied by means of i.r. spectroscopy as well as gas-phase 
electron-diffraction. However, the information on digallanes is extremely 
limited. 

Our ab initio study supplies theoretical information about the molecu¬ 
lar structures, vibrational spectra and dimerization energy of these digallane 
species. The di-bridged molecule has been found to be minimum on the poten¬ 
tial energy surface, triply- and singly-bridged isomers were also investigated 
and characterized as first and second order transition structures. The com- 
parision between experimental and our theoretical data on H 2 Ga-/iCl 2 -GaH 2 
is quite satisfactory and shows that 3-21G* basis set describes the molecular 
structure and the vibrational frequencies of these gallium species adequately. 


136 




Abstracts 


YOUR RIGHT TO KNOW. Johnnie Marie Whit field , Department of Chemistry, 
Millsaps College, Jackson, MS 39210. 

As of August 1, 1983, OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard (29 
CFR 1910.1200), also known as Worker's Right-to-Know, went into effect. 
Originally.intended for the chemical manufacturing industry, litigation 
broadened its scope. Now employers, including private colleges and 
universities, must design and implement programs for their employees. 
The American Chemical Society is strongly encouraging the public acade¬ 
mic laboratories to adhere to the spirit of this program if they exist 
in states without comparable plans. The HAZ COM Standard also triggers 
nonmanufacturer compliance with Sections 311 and 312 of SARA Title III. 
Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization ACT (SARA) was signed into 
law on October 17, 1986. SARA Title III is also known as the Emergency 
Response and Community Right-to-Know (RTK) law. This talk will 
address the main requirements and impact of these RTK regulations. 

For HAZ COM these are:'(1) development and implementation of a written 
Hazard Communication Program; (2) Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS); 
(3) container labeling requirements; and (4) employee information and 
training. For SARA Title III these will include an audit of all 
hazardous chemicals (any element, chemical compound, or mixture of 
elements and compounds that is a physical or health hazard), whether 
these hazardous chemicals exceed specified thresholds and thus require 
reporting of Tier I or Tier II to Local Fire Department, Local Emer¬ 
gency Planning Committee (LEPC), and State Emergency Response 
Commission (SERC). 


SERS of Dicyanogroups on Metal Surface 


Y. L. Pay , A. Ibrahim,, D. H. Burns and B. H. Loo 


Chemistry Department 
University of Alabama in Huntsville 
Huntsville, AL. 35899 
(205) 895 -602 3 


Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is used 
to study the molecular interactions of dicyanoalkanes 
with a copper electrode surface. The double degeneracy 
of the J (C—N) in the free molecule is removed when 
the cyano groups are adsorbed onto copper, showing that 
the two C=N groups are no longer chemically equivalent. 
Shifts in the nitrile peak position indicate that CN 
groups are pi-coordinated to the copper surface. 


137 





Abstracts 


STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF POLYETHYLOXAZOLINE-CO-POLYETHYLENIMINE AND ITS 
PRECURSOR. Key in W. Carter . Adriane G. Ludwlck and M. A. Salam 
Biswas, Chemistry Department, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088. 

The objective of this research is to examine the structure of 
poIye+hyIoxazoIine-co-poIye+hyIen!mine (PEOX-co-PEI), a potential 
therapeutic agent, and its precursor poIyethyIoxazoIine (PEOX). 
PEOX-co-PEI is synthesized from the hydrolysis of PEOX. PEOX (Dow 
Chemical Company) is a commmerica I 1y available water-soluble adhesive 
represented as repeat unit 1 , sold in three molecular weight ranges. 
The PEOX-co-PEI can be consTdered a copolymer with the repeat unit 2. 


CH - -N-CHCH-N-CHCH- 

2 ! 2 2 > 2 2 
H 9 = 0 

CH 2 

1 1 

Preliminary NMR studies showed 2_ had been synthesized. Low angle 
laser light scattering (LALLS) measurements of the PEOXs gave weight 
average molecular weights similar to those reported by Dow. The 
PEOX-co-PEI results, however, Indicate that the PEOX backbone breaks 
during hydrolysis. Viscosity measurements of the PEOX-co-PEI polymer 
showed polyelectrolyte behavior in water and methanol. Huggins 
constants calculated for the PEOX systems indicated branching. 
Chromatograms from GPC studies of the PEOXs imply that PEOX is a 
mixture of components. The copolymers could not be distinguished by 
the columns used. From the results it Is concluded that the PEOX 
system appears to be a branched polymer with amide functional groups 
incorporated Into its backbone. The copolymer is inferred to be a 
mixture of linear polymers, some containing carboxylic acid end 
groups. (Supported by NIH RR 08091) 


-n-ch 2 - 
C = 0 


CH, 


TERTIARY ARSINES: NOVEL SYNTHESIS. Dileep K. Srivastava , Larry K. 
Krannich, and Charles L. Watkins, Dept, of Chemistry, Univ. of Ala. 
at Birmingham, UAB Station, Birmingham, AL 35294. 

Recently there has been intense interest in organoarsine 
synthesis, since alkylarsines and designer III-V adduct precursors 
are being evaluated in the MOCVD production of GaAs for 
microelectronic technologies. Electronically pure arsines are 
reguired for this work. Although numerous synthetic pathways to 
organoarsines are known, undersirable side-reactions produce low 
yields or contaminants that are difficult to remove in the 
purification processes. We have been successful in developing a 
versatile, high yield novel synthetic route to highly pure tertiary 
arsines. Twelve alkyl and aryl tertiary arsines [R^As, where R = 
Et, Pr n , Pr\ Bu n , Bu sec , Bu 1 ", vinyl, allyl, Ph, Bz, mesityl, and 
Me^SiC^] have been synthesized in good yields (65-90%) by reacting 
a stoichio metric exc ess of the alkyla ting agent (RMgX, RLi, or 
R 2 Zn) with OO^C^OAsCl and OCMe2CMe20AsCl. Furthermore, the mixed 
alkyl tertiary arsine, Et ? AsMe, was prepared in 75% yield from the 
reaction of EtMgBr with OCT^CT^OAsMe. The desired products are 
easily isolated by distillation or recrystallization. All the 
synthesized arsines have been completely characterized by their IR, 
NMR, and mass spectra. Regardless of the alkylating agent, the 
tertiary arsine yield increased in the order Et < Pr n < Bu 11 < Ph. 


138 







Abstracts 


STOCHASTIC EVALUATION OF ALGORITHMS PROPOSED FOR REMOVING 
INTERFERENCE IN CHEMICAL KINETIC DATA. Michael L. Gibson and 
Michael B. Moeller, Department of Chemistry, University of North Alabama, 
Florence AL 35632. 

The dilute acid hydrolysis of cellulose involves a series of sequential 
reactions. Reaction products formed in the later phases of the reaction series 
interfere with the measurement of the hydrolysis rate by weight loss. We have 
developed a computer simulation of the reaction system in order to investigate 
and optimize two methods proposed for removing interference in kinectics data. 
The first of these methods involves fitting the data to a series of polynomial 
functional forms and estimating the hydrolysis rate constant from the average of 
the initial slopes. This method produced reliable values if there was little 
random error introduced in the simulated data, but this polynomial regression 
technique became unstable when the standard deviation was increased in the 
stochastically generated data points. In the second method examined, the 
effect of the interference was systematically reduced by using a conventional 
semilog plot and sequentially removing the last data points. The rate constant 
without interference was estimated by a linear extrapolation. After optimization, 
the simulations indicate this second method will give reliable values even with 
considerable scatter in the data. 


The Synthesis of Some New Derivatives of 
Acetophenonetricarbonylchromium. 

B. Armstrong , M. Bowen, J. Hamilton, C.A.L. Mahaffy 
and J. Rawlings. 

Department of Chemistry, Auburn University at Montgomery, 
Montgomery, Alabama, 36193-0401, USA. 

A large number of alkyl and alkoxy substituted 
derivatives of acetophenonetricarbonylchromium have been 
been prepared. The preparations together with some of the 

spectral properties will be 
described. One noticeable 
feature of these complexes 
is that 2,6-di-substituted 
compounds are yellow while 
complexes containing other 
substitutent patterns are 
orange to red. The extent of 
the requirement for bis-ortho 
substitution to restrict 
acetyl group rotation as an 
explanation for this phenomenon 
will be discussed. 



139 





Abstracts 


SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FLUORINATED EPOXY RESINS CONTAINING 
THE ESTER FUNCTIONAL GROUP. Derrick R. Dean and Adriane G. Ludwick, 
Chemistry Dept., Materials Research Lab, Tuskegee Univ., Tuskegee, AL 
36088 . 


The objective of this study Is to synthesize a fluorinated epoxy 
resin containing the ester functional group. Based on the kinetic 
results from an experiment done by Griffith and O'Rear ( Ind, Eng, Chem. 
Prod. Res. Dev., 1974 , 13, 148-149), It is thought that such a resin 

s hou Id cure we I I with most common curing agents. Two synthetic 
approaches were used in this work. The first approach was aimed at 
developing a novel route for obtaining an ester-containing fluorinated 
resin 1. The proper conditions were determined using nonfIuorInated 



analogs and then attempting each reaction with the fluorinated 
compounds. The first step in this synthetic scheme involved reacting 
benzene and hexafIuoroacetone in the presence of aluminum chloride to 
obtain the monofunctional alcohol, 

(1 11 , 333-hexafIuoro-2-hydroxypropyI ) bezene , which was esterified by 
reaction with chloroacetyl chloride. This {(-haloester was then reacted 
with more hexafIuoroacetone in an attempt to form the ester-containing 
epoxide. This final step proved unsuccessful, however. A second 
approach, the method of Maerker, Carmichael, and Port ( J , Orq. Chem, , 
1961 , 55 , 2681-2688 ), which called for preparing a g I y c i d i c ester From 
the saIts of some long-chain fatty acids as we I I as from the acid 
itself, was employed. However, the acid used in this experiment, 
perfIuorogIutaric acid, contains only five carbons. This work is still 
underway. (Supported by DOD/URI/ONR, contract no. N0014-96-K-0765) 


SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYCARBOSILANES. Taleb H. Ibrahim 
and Adriane G. Ludwick, Chemistry Department, Materials Research 
Laboratory, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088. 

Polycarbosilanes are potential precursors for silicon carbide 
fibers and can be sintered to give materials which can be used as 
matrices for ceramic composites. The commercial method for the 
conversion of polydimethylsilane (PM) to a hexane-soluble 
polycarbosilane (reportedly 450 C, 14 hours, Ar atmosphere) gave a 
hexane-insoluble material in our laboratory. Reasoning from the 
thermal gravimetric analyses of PM and of the commercial 
polycarbosilane, modified conditions (350 C, 10 hours) were 
established for the PM to polycarbosilane conversion to give a product 
essentially identical to the commercial polycarbosilane. This 
approach has been used to establish the conditions for the production 
of polycarbosilanes from polymethylphenylsilane and from copolymers of 
dimethylsilane and methylphenylsilane. Polydiphenylsilane and 
polyborodiphenylsiloxane have been found to convert to a product 
containing polycarbosilane features in their infrared spectra. The 
molecular weights of the polycarbosilanes from polymethylphenylsilane 
and polydiphenylsilane have been found to increase as the reaction 
temperature increases. The influence of phenyl content on the 
properties of ceramic matrices prepared from polycarbosilanes is under 
investigation. (Supported by DOD/URI/ONR, Contract No. 
N0014-86-K-0765) 


140 







Abstracts 


LANGMUIR EQUATION AS A MODEL FOR P SORPTION BY ALUMINUM OXIDE SURFACE, 
Robert W. Taylor , Ala. A&M Univ, s Normal, AL 35762. William Bleam, 
USDA/ARS-ERRC, Philadelphia, PA. 


P adsorpton on soil mineral surfaces is of concern in plant 
nutrition as well as environmental quality. Much research has been 
done to find a model to accurately describe this phenomenon. We 
studied P adsorption on laboratory synthesized Boehmite [ -A10(0H)], 
a soil mineral, at pHs 3.25, 4.00 and 5.50 using the Langmuir model 
and comparing its calculated adsorption maximum to that determined 
by direct measurement. The specific surface area determined by N 2 
adsorption and BET monolayer capacity was 187.25 M^/gm. P concen¬ 
trations used were below the Ksp of amorphous varascite, ALPO 4 H 2 O, 
at all three pHs in a system designed to eliminate precipitation as 
a factor in the surface reaction(s). The adsorption reactions con¬ 
formed to the linear Langmuir equation and peaked at pH 4.0. This 
suggested monolayer adsorption at singular sites but other surface 
techniques need to be used to explain the peak in adsorption at pH 
4.0. 


TRANSITION METAL COMPLEXES CONTAINING N-D0N0R HETEROCYCLIC LIGANDS. 
Lee Warren and Nick Thomas, Department of Physical Sciences, 

Auburn University at Montgomery, Montgomery AL 36193. 

The reaction of the rhodium octaethylporphyrin complex 
Rh(0EP)Cl with 4,4'-bipyridyl (BPY) yields a homobimetal 1ic 
complex. Cl(OEP)Rh(BPY)Rh(OEP)C1, which contains a bridging 
bipyridyl ligand. The complex has been characterized by 
: H n.m.r. and FAB mass spectrometry. 


OPTICAL AM) MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF RARE EARTH SUBSTITUTED Y i Ba 2 C V3°6+x. ’ 
Terry D. Rolin, B.H. Loo, D.R. Bums and N. Wang, Dept, of Chemistry, 
Univ. of Ala. in Huntsville,Huntsville, AL 35899. 

We have investigated the optical and magnetic properties of some 
rare-earth substituted Y,Ba p CuoO^ (Y123) compounds using a SQUID 
magnetometer and a Raman~microprdbe spectrophotometer, respectively. 
SQUID measurements were performed to determine values for diamagnetic 
shielding which gives the volume fraction of superconducting phase. 
Transition temperatures for each sample were also determined. The 
Raman spectra of these samples reveal modes centered approximauej_y at 
320, 50*0 and 580 cm" 1 . The presence of thes modes correlates well with 
the presence of large values for diamagnetic shielding which suggests 
that these oeaks belong to the superconducting phase. 


141 




Abstracts 


ION MDLECULE CLUSTERING OF H 3 0 TO C0 2 AND N^O. BOND ENERGIES 
AND ENTROPIES OF REACTION. Kevin Snowaen ana Andreas lilies; 
Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5312. 

Ion-molecule reactions have been extensively studied mainly due 
to their relevance to astrophysical chemistry, atmospheric 
chemistry, nucleation phenomena and the chemistry of high energy 
environments such as plasmas, lasers and flames. Here we 
present new results on high pressure (<2.0 torr) ion-molecule 
reactions. H^O is an extremely important ion in our 
atmosphere. Many proton-bound molecules involving the H^O 
species have been reported, yet very few studies with H^O and 
inorganic molecules of atmospheric importance have been 
investigated. We studied the binding of H 3 0 N 2 0 and H^O CCu by 
high pressure ion-molecule equilibrium methods Z and found the 
binding energies to be 11.1 Kcal/mole and 12.1 Kcal/mol 
repectively. The experimental entropies of reaction are higher 
(less negative) then previous reports on similar molecules. 
Arguments which support the higher entropies of reaction are 
presented. 


MODEL COMPLEXES OF METAL NUCLEOTIDES. J. Rawlings , Chemistry Dept., 
Auburn University at Montgomery, Montgomery, AL 36193. 

2 + 

Models for the Mg -ATP system have been synthesized using 
cobalt(III) or chromium(III) in place of magnesium. For example, 
the Co(NH 3 ) 3 ATP complex resulting from the reaction of 

mer-[Co(NH 3 ) 3 (H 2 0)Cl2]Cl with ATP has been prepared. These 

substitution inert complexes have been purified using a variety of 
chromatographic techniques and have been characterized by their 
uv-visible and NMR spectra. The ability of these model complexes 
to inhibit the reaction of hexokinase with glucose has then been 
studied. 


COMPARATIVE RADON DANGERS. Donald R. Payne , Dept of Physics, Athens 
State College, Athens, AL 35611. Carlton D. Whitt, Retired Chemist 
and Teacher, 407 E. Washington St. Athens, AL 35611 

The large sums of money spent testing for and modifying buildings to 
protect against radon appears to be far out of proportion to the real 
threat for most US citizens. The radiation from radon and its 
daughter products can cause few problems greater than those caused by 
natural background radiation, cosmic radiation, x-rays, microwaves, 
or the world increase in radioactive elements released into the 
environment from nuclear power plants (naval and shoreside), weapons 
testing, and neutron activiation. Several waste disposal and energy 
use problems are far more significant in their effect on ever y person 
on the earth. 


142 







Abstracts 


GEOLOGY 

GEOCHEMICAL IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ORIGIN OF THIN-LAYERED AMPHIBOLITES 
WITHIN THE ROPES CREEK AMPHIBOLITE, WESTERN LEE COUNTY, ALABAMA. Greg 
D. Hall and Peter A. Salpas, Dept, of Geology, Auburn University. 

The Ropes Creek amphibolite is the largest exposure of rock in 
the Dadeville Complex of Alabama's Inner Piedmont, and is interpreted 
to be metamorphosed, obducted sea-floor basalt. Our mapping has re¬ 
vealed two rock types - a massive amphibolite (MA) and a thin-layered 
amphibolite (TLA). There are three mechanisms by which layers in 
metamorphic rocks may be produced: (1) metamorphic differentiation of 
a homogeneous rock (2) alternating layers of meta-igneous and meta¬ 
sedimentary material; and (3) alternating layers of meta-igneous ma¬ 
terial and felsic tuffs. 

The TLA is composed of alternating bands (1-50 cm thick), contin¬ 
uous along strike, of well foliated mafic layers (ML) composed of 57% - 
61% nematoblastic hornblende, 17%-23% plagioclase, and 14-18% quartz, 
and slightly foliated felsic layers (FL) containing 49%-55% subhedral 
plagioclase, and 40%-44% quartz. The ML and FL have distinctly dif¬ 
ferent major element compositions, and mass balance calculations pre¬ 
clude derivation of the TLA by metamorphic differentiation of the MA 
or any reasonable basaltic composition. The modal mineralogies of the 
FL plot in the dacite field on Steckeisen's diagram, consistent with 
their major element compositions which are enriched in Si and depleted 
in Mg, Ca, Fe, and Al relative to the ML. Major element compositions 
of the ML are similar to tholeiite basalts. REE compositions are also 
different between the ML and FL. The ML exhibit flat to slightly 
LREE-depleted patterns. The FL are slighty LREE- and MREE-depleted 
and have large positive Eu anomalies. Mass balance calculations using 
REE also prohibits deriving the ML and FL by segregation of a common 
basaltic parent. 

SINKHOLE OCCURRENCE IN ALABAMA AND THE EASTERN UNITED STATES. J. G. 
Newton and Philip E. LaMoreaux, P. E. LaMoreaux and Associates, Inc. 

P. 0. Box 2310, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35403. 

More than 1,000 sites of sinkhole development have been identified 
during a series of investigations in Alabama and the eastern United 
States. It is estimated that more than 8,000 collapses have occurred 
at these sites with most occurring since 1950. Costs of damage and 
safety measures reported for a limited number of sites exceeded $170 
million. 

Sinkhole occurrence is both natural and induced (accelerated or 
caused by man). Almost all occurrences result from the collapse of. 
soil cavities or the downward migration of unconsolidated deposits into 
openings in bedrock. Most occurrences and damage are induced. These 
man-related collapses are divided into two types: those resulting 
from ground-water withdrawals and those resulting from construction. 
Sinkholes resulting from water-level declines due to pumpage are 
caused by loss of buoyant support, increase in velocity of water 
movement, water-level fluctuations, and recharge. Most induced sink¬ 
holes resulting from construction are caused by the diversion or 
impoundment of surface drainage over unconsolidated.deposits resting 
on openings in the top of bedrock. Collapse mechanisms include 
loading, saturation, and piping. 


143 




Abstracts 


FUNCTIONAL HEARING IN MOSASAURS REASSESSED. James P. Lamb, Jr. , Red 
Mountain Museum, 1421 22 nc * St. So., Birmingham, AL 35205 

Most researchers studying mosasaurs have concluded poor hearing for 
these animals since mosasaurs lack the specialized adaptations of ce¬ 
taceans for underwater hearing. Mosasaurs, being reptiles, could not 
possess the underwater hearing adaptations of the cetacea, since their 
immediate ancestors did not have a similar middle ear system to that 
of cetacean ancestors. The middle ear in mosasaurs differs from that 
of their terrestrial lizard ancestors in that the stapes proper has 
been shifted from its articulation with the extracolumellar process of 
the stapes ( hence with its articulation to the tympanic membrane ), 
to fit into a pit ( the stapedial pit ) on the quadrate. The extra¬ 
columella and tympanic membrane have fused to each other and ossified, 
and the extracolumella runs through the peculiar stapedial notch of 
the mosasaur quadrate to articulate ligamentously with the mid-shaft 
of the stapes proper. This system allowed mosasaurs to recieve audi¬ 
tory vibrations in two ways, the " normal " way, via the stimulation 
of the tympanic membrane, and by low-frequency vibrations recieved by 
the lower jaw unit. These vibrations would pass the length of the jaw 
( as they do in some cetaceans by the way ) to the dense quadrate, 
then to the stapes and inner ear. This system allowed for probably ex¬ 
cellent reception of low-frequency sound, which would be most impor¬ 
tant for aquatic predators.The fact that the stapedial pit is in abso¬ 
lute terms as large in newborns and juvenilles as adults indicates 
that young were born with a well-developed hearing apparatus, and may 
indicate birth at an advanced stage of development. This research 
based in part on specimens from the Tyrell Museum of Paleontology, 
Canada, and from specimens in the collections of Red Mountain Museum. 


CORRELATION OF SOIL ASSOCIATIONS TO GEOLOGY AND MINERAL 
RESOURCES OF ELMORE COUNTY, ALABAMA. Lewis S. Dean , Geological 
Survey of Alabama, P.O. Box O, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35486 

During an evaluation study of the mineral resources of Elmore County, 
Alabama, a preliminary correlation was made between previously mapped 
soils and their related parent lithologies. Elmore County, Alabama, located 
in the east-central part of the state, contains a variety of mineral resources 
situated in two physiographic/geologic regions--the Piedmont and Coastal 
Plain provinces. A regional unconformity separates the two geologic pro¬ 
vinces. Sand and gravel, clay, and silica sand have been produced from 
Coastal Plain sediments. Stone has been produced from the Piedmont 
Province, and gold, mica, and garnet occurrences have been prospected. 
Elmore County is one of the State's leading producers of sand and gravel 
and clay in Alabama. Three major groups of soil associations are recognized 
in the county, those of- the Piedmont Plateau, Coastal Plain, those of 
the major flood plains and terraces. Soil associations are useful in distin¬ 
guishing variation in Coastal Plain and Piedmont lithologies, particularly 
along the Fall Line, and in mapping different Quaternary terrace deposits 
from which the principal production of clay, sand, and gravel is derived. 
Correlation of soils with geologic lithologies, including Quaternary terrace 
and alluvial deposits, Cretaceous sediments of the Tuscaloosa Croup, 
and igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Piedmont can provide information 
on thickness, areal distribution, overburden, texture, topographic position, 
and parent material of potential mineral resource deposits. 


144 




Abstracts 


MONTGOMERY THEROPOD: A STATUS REPORT. James P. Lamb, Jr., Red 
Mountain Museum, 1421 22 n St. So., Birminham, AL 35205 

In the summer of 1982, David and Janet. King ( Auburn Univ. , Auburn, 
A1 ), discovered the bones of a carnivorous tyrannosaurid dinosaur in 
Montgomery County, Alabama. The specimen, found in a 77-million year- 
old stratum of the Demopolis Chalk Formation, ( normal-nearshore ma¬ 
rine ), represents a carcass which was transported via currents into 
the offshore marine environment where it sank and was preserved by 
rapid sedimentation. Jim Dobie and Dan Womochel ( Auburn Univ., Auburn 
AL, and Univ. TX, Odessa ) excavated portions of the specimen in 1982. 
The. author, Gorden Bell ( previously of Red Mountain Museum, now Univ. 
Tx, Austin ), and field crew of Red Mountain Museum, Birmingham, AL, 
excavated the majority of the specimen in 1984 and 1986. Currently, 
the specimen resides at Red Mtn. Museum, where it is being prepared 
from the rock matrix. The specimen is represented by approximately 1/2 
of the skeleton. Elements so far identified are: right dentary, left 
maxilla-premaxilla, two complete pes units , both tibiae, both fibu¬ 
lae, and portions of the pelvic girdle. Also numerous teeth and rib 
fragments are represented. Bones still in jackets may include: Left 
dentary, right maxilla, basicranium and skull roof, as well as a par¬ 
tial humerous. Both femora and most of the vertebral column are miss¬ 
ing. While recognizing that there may be some problems with the vali¬ 
dity of the tyrannosaurid genus name Albertosaurus , the specimen is 
provisionally referred to that taxa based on measurements and direct 
comparison with material from the Tyrell Museum of Paleontology, Al¬ 
berta, Canada, This specimen most complete, best preserved theropodous 
dinosaur from the eastern U.S, and the only substantiable record of 
Albertosaurus . 

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS ON THE ORIGIN OF RHYTHMIC BEDDING IN THE 
PALEOGENE CLAYTON FORMATION. Richard A. Huchison , Jr. , and Charles E. 
Savrda, Dept. of Geology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5305 . 

The Pine Barren Member of the Lower Paleocene Clayton Formation of 
Alabama is characterized by well-developed rhythmic alternation of 
poorly resistant, olive-gray, silty, organic-rich, calcareous mudstones 
and indurated, light gray, organic-poor limestones. Average bedding- 
couplet thickness is approximately 65-70 cm. Similar decimeter-scale 
rhythmic bedding of carbonate-rich and carbonate-poor lithologies is 
common in many fine-grained stratigraphic sequences, particularly of 
Cretaceous age, and has been attributed to a variety of paleoenviron- 
mental mechanisms including cyclic variations in 1) bottom-water redox 
conditions, 2) degree of carbonate dissolution, 3) influx of fine¬ 
grained elastics, 4} carbonate productivity, and 5) bottom-current 
activity. These cycle types can often be distinguished through detailed 
study of general bedding characteristics, primary and biogenic 
structures, macro- and microfossil content, and sediment texture, 
composition, and geochemistry. This approach is currently being 
employed on a continuous and well-exposed section of the Pine Barren in 
Lowndes and Butler Counties, central Alabama. In conjunction with 
lateral stratigraphic relationships established through the analysis of 
additional outcrops and water-well data from across the state, this 
study will provide an improved understanding of the paleoceanographic 
and paleoenvironmental processes that influenced deposition on the 
Alabama shelf during the Paleocene. 


145 







Abstracts 


TRACE FOSSILS WITHIN A LOWER PALEOCENE TRANSGRESSIVE SEQUENCE, WESTERN 
ALABAMA. Charles E. Savrda , Department of Geology, Auburn University, 
Auburn, AL 36849-5305. 

Trace-fossil assemblages in the Lower Paleocene Clayton and 
Porters Creek Formations of western Alabama reflect sea-level-modulated 
changes in paleoenvironmental conditions. The basal "Clayton sands" 
contain pervasive box-work systems of Thalassinoides that were emplaced 
during times of relative quiescence in high-energy, shallow marine 
environments generated during initial pulses of rapid transgression. 

The bulk of the Clayton Formation overlying the basal sand is 
characterized by alternating mudstones and indurated sandy limestones 
that record later-stage transgressive, highstand, and possibly minor 
regressive phases. Diffuse burrow mottling and rare, small discrete 
burrows (e.g., Chondrites and Planolites ) characterize the mudstones 
and indicate relatively quiet conditions, soupy substrates, and oxygen- 
depleted pore waters. Vertically extensive Thalassinoides dominate the 
limestones and reflect periods of slower sedimentation and/or winnowing 
associated with intensified bottom-current activity. Rhythmic bedding 
in this interval may be in response to minor sea-level fluctuations 
and/or climate-induced scour cycles. The upper few meters of the 
Clayton Formation and the lower part of the overlying Porters Creek 
Formation reflect sea-level rise of a higher magnitude. This package 
includes, in ascending order, a relatively clean white chalk, gray 
marlstones, and olive black clays. The chalk bed contains Thalassi¬ 
noides , Planolites , Chondrites , and Zoophycos . As carbonate decreases 
and organic carbon increases up-section away from the chalk, the diver¬ 
sity, size, and depth of penetration of burrows decrease, reflecting a 
progressive, sea-level controlled decrease in benthic oxygen levels. 


GEOMETRIC MODEL OF A RAVINEMENT SURFACE IN THE UPPER POTTSVILLE 
FORMATION, NORTWESTERN ALABAMA. Yuejin Liu and Robert A. Gastaldo, 
Department of Geology, Auburn University, AL 36849 

A ravinement surface was recently discovered above the Mary Lee 
coal zone of Lower Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation in the Black 
Warrior Basin of northwestern Alabama. This ravinement surface is 
disconformably underlain by lagoonal and alluvial swamp deposits and 
overlain by a thin ravinement bed. Two types of ravinement beds are 
identified: (1) shale beds with in situ bivalve and brachiopod 

assemblages, and (2) sandstone beds characterized by Zoophycos and 
allochthonous trilobite-crinoid-brachiopod assemblages. The ravine¬ 
ment surface was produced as a result of the migration of an erosional 
shoreface during sea-level rise. Under subcritical conditions wherein 
the shoreface angle is greater than its climbing angle, gradual rise 
of sea level causes erosion of the existing shoreface. This continuous 
process produces two final results: (1) the formation of a ravinement 
surface consisting of a series of erosional surfaces, and (2) the 
deposition of ravinement beds. The geometry of the ravinement surface 
is controlled by the climbing angle of the shoreface. The ravinement 
bed sediments are derived from material eroded from the shoreface, 
and controlled by the properties of the shorelines within the coastal- 
deltaic systems. Shale beds are associated with lagoonal and alluvial 
swamp shorelines, whereas sandstone beds are connected with barrier 
island shorelines. 


146 

















Abstracts 


TOPOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF STREAMS TO DETERMINE GROSS CHARAC¬ 
TERISTICS OF BEDROCK FRACTURE-ZONE PATTERNS. Thomas J. 
Carrington , Carleton W. Degges, and Steven C. Bearce, 
Department of Geology, Auburn University, AL 36849-5305. 

Orientations of 551 rectilinear stream segments (RSS) 
were obtained from 7.5 minute, U.S.G.S. topographic maps 
covering the Piedmont portion of the Little Uchee Creek 
basin, Lee County, AL. RSS peaks equal to or greater than 
the mean concentration factor were compared with similar 
peak concentrations of 1,349 joints and 493 foliations 
from the same area, showing a correlation of 77.7%. Com- 
parisions of RSS-to-joint/foliation from the structural 
units comprising the area [Pine Mountain (PM), Bartletts 
Ferry fault zone (BF), amphibolite sequence (AS), Goat 
Rock fault zone (GR), and Motts gneiss (MG)] revealed, 
respectively, 70, 42.8, 58.3, 54.5, and 58.3 percent cor¬ 
relations. Only on the AS, GR, and, MG blocks did major 
RSS peaks correlate with major peaks of joints and/or 
foliation. Comparison of major RSS peaks with relatively 
minor joint/foliation peaks improved correlations signifi¬ 
cantly. This suggests control of stream-valley erosion by 
the relative degree of "openness" of preferred joint di¬ 
rections. Major RSS concentrations in the area are from 
N. 6-22° w. and range between 71° and 87° from major foli¬ 
ation peaks, indicating that stream valleys are preferen¬ 
tially developed along extension joints. This work was 
supported by grants from the Water Resources Research 
Institute, Auburn University. 

THE PERSISTENCE OF FORESTED SWAMP ENVIRONMENTS IN A PENNSYLVANIAN 
COASTAL-DELTAIC SYSTEM, NORTHWESTERN ALABAMA. Timothy M. Deroko and 

Robert A. Gastaldo, Dept, of Geology, Auburn Univ., AL 36849 

Tine sediments of the Mary Lee coal zone of the Lover Pennsylvanian 
"Pottsville" Formation in Walker County, Alabama record deposition in 
peat swamp and alluvial swamp environments. Peat swamp environments 
are represented by the dagger, Blue Creek, Mary Lee, and Newcastle 
coal seams. These coals are low to moderate in ash, indicating isola¬ 
tion from clastic deposition. Standing forests of erect lycopods and 
calamites, along with lycophyte-dominated forest-floor litter horizons, 
are preserved immediately above these coals. These accumulations of 
autochthonous plant material represent the last vegetational elements 
of the peat-accumulating swamps and mark the senescence and death of 
these swamps due to incursion by clastic material, initially by high 
magnitude floods. Although these swamps no longer accumulated peat, 
growth of forest vegetation continued in alluvial swamp environments. 

Alluvial swamp environments are represented by mudstone, shale, 
and silty shale sequences between coal seams. These facies contain 
multiple forest-floor litter horizons identified by : 1) pteridosperm- 
dominated litter accumulations, 2) mud-cast prostrate logs, 3) stig- 
marian root axes and other rooting structures, and 4) erect, in situ 
lycopod. and calamites trunks. 

Probable regulatory mechanisms for alteration of peat swamp and 
alluvial swamp facies involve fluctuating clastic depocenters due to 
subsidence on two scales. Subsidence on a local scale, over a 
relatively short period of time, was probably due to differential 
compaction of buried peat swamps. Subsidence on a regional scale, 
over a longer period of time, may have been tectonically controlled. 


147 








Abstracts 


FORESTRY, GEOGRAPHY, CONSERVATION, AND PLANNING 


"DRASTIC" MODEL AS A TOOL FOR PLANNERS CONCERNED WITH GROUNDWATER 
PROTECTION, Frank N, Himmler and Priscilla Holland, Department of 
Geography, University of North Alabama, Florence, AL 35632-0001. 

The "DRASTIC" model is a standardized system for evaluating 
groundwater pollution potential using hydrogeologic settings. The 
model was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 
cooperation with the National Water Well Association at the Robert S. 
Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory in Ada, Oklahoma. "DRASTIC" 
employs seven parameters, Depth to water table, net Recharge, Aquifer 
media, j>oil media, Typography, _Impact of the vadose zone and hydraulic 
Conductivity of the aquifer. The seven parameters create the acronym 
from which the model acquires its name. Each parameter is mapped, 
weighted and rated. The sum of weighted rates for each unit of area 
on the map is its pollution potential index. The "DRASTIC" model is 
being integrated into a geographic information system (GIS) which is 
run on an IBM PC/AT micro-computer using Earth Resources Data Analysis 
Systems (ERDAS) software. The results will eventually become part of 
the already existing Shoals Industrial Development Information System 
(SIDIS) data base housed at the Geographic Research Center of the 
University of North Alabama. Planners may use these results as a basis 
for locating activities such as heavy industry or landfills which may 
pose a threat to groundwater supplies. This pilot study focuses on the 
"Tuscumbia Quadrangle - 7.5 Minute Series (Topographic)" produced by 
the U.S. Geological Survey. This location is in the Tennessee Valley 
of northwestern Alabama. Funding for this research has been provided 
by a grant from the Alabama Universities — TVA Research Consortium 
(AUTRC). 


URBANIZATIONAL INFLUENCE ON THE CAHABA RIVER BASIN SINCE 1930. 
William Timothy Wynn, Department of Geography, University of 
Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, 

Over the past fifty years the Birmingham Metropolitan area has 
grown at a steady rate with urban sprawl and population growth being 
at an all time record high. Urbanization brings with it changes in 
land use, which disrupts the natural landscape, replaces it with 
impervious surfaces, and redistributes the land surface flows of the 
hydrologic cycle (Lazard, 1979). The objective of this research is 
to examine the urban factors that have presented water quantity 
problems for the Cahaba River Basin and to develop coefficients to 
be used in rainfall/runoff relationships for three different time 
periods(1920's, 1950's, and 1980's). 


148 





Abstracts 


COMPUTER AIDS FOR PLANNING COMMUNITY SOLID WASTE 
RECYCLING PROGRAMS. Michael William Mullen , Center 
for Environmental Research and Service, Troy State 
University, Troy, Alabama 36082. 

Due to decreasing landfill capacity and 
increasing landfill costs many communities are 
beginning to look at recycling as a partial 
solution to their solid waste management needs. 

Both the opinions about the capability of recycling 
to help meet solid waste management needs and the 
options for recycling programs are numerous and 
diverse. The only real way for a community to 
assess the potential recycling has in their solid 
waste management system is to examine recycling in 
a broader planning context. Since so many 
variations or options exist for recycling programs 
it would be inefficient and unwise to perform a 
detailed evaluation of every option. Fortunately, 
simple computer models are available which can be 
used early in the planning process to reduce the 
number of options which should be examined in a 
detailed manner. This paper describes how one such 
model, the RECYCLE model, can be applied to 
planning. It also presents some model inputs and 
outputs which show how local factors influence the 
economic feasibility of different recycling 
options. 


EVALUATION OF UPPER CRETACEOUS WATER RESOURCES OF 
THE MONTGOMERY AREA, ALABAMA. Scott B. Couch, Dept, 
of Geography, University of Alabama, University, AL 35487. 

Water levels fluctuate on an almost continual basis. This 
is in response to discharge from and recharge to aquifers by 
natural and artificial means. Water level changes may be affected 
by atmospheric conditions, changes on the earth's surface, and 
subsurface processes operating within the earth itself. In recent 
years, there has been much concern about the ground water 
resources available within Alabama and the susceptibility of these 
resources to contamination. This author will focus on evaluating 
the characteristics of the major aquifers within the Upper 
Cretaceous depositional sequences of the Montgomery area. 


149 





Abstracts 


FUNCTIONAL CHANGE IN THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT: A CASE STUDY OF 
TUSCALOOSA, ALABAMA. Jeffrey P. Richetto, Dept, of Geography, Univ, 
of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0322. D. Michael Henderson , Dept, of 
Geography, Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0322. 

Since the mid 1950s there has been a significant spatial 
reorganization of human and economic activities within the North 
American city. In response to the continuing suburbanization of the 
urban population; retail, commercial, and ancillary activities have 
decentralized. In the wake of this abandonment of the central business 
district by the economic activity sector, several office and service- 
related functions have found the rental opportunities in the central 
business district attractive. Thus, in order for local government and 
booster organizations to more effectively target their resources for 
reinstating the economic competitiveness of the central business 
district, it is necessary to identify those traditional tertiary 
activities responding to decentralisation forces and those office and 
service activities that are sensitive to the centripetal forces 
operating within the central business district. Within this context, 
this study (1) traces the extent of economic activity decline in the 
central business district by type of activity and where, in general, 
relocation occurs, (2) examines the in-migration of office and service 
activities into the central business district by type of activity as 
well as factors underlying this pattern, and (3) investigates the 
extent to which the availability and patterns of low-cost rental 
opportunities affect the spatial distribution of both retail and office 
activities.- The City of Tuscaloosa, Alabama serves as a case study. 


RE-USE OF ABANDONED RAILROAD RIGHTS-OF-WAY FOR RECREAT¬ 
IONAL OPEN SPACE. Timothy C. Balentine , Univ. of Ala., 
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487. 

Since the heyday of the Railroad Age in the 1920's, 
thousands of rails have been abandoned. Many of these 
railroads have been converted to trails for recreational 
open spaces. Most of these conversions in the United 
States have taken place in the Northeast and Northwest. 
Many obstacles must be overcome in the creation of these 
trails. Each project is unique; topography, status of the 
tracks, and the aesthetics provide both positive and neg¬ 
ative aspects to each project. After a general foundation 
is layed, the basic principals will then be applied to the 
Holt Junction of the L & N line in Tuscaloosa to illus¬ 
trate the potential and problems that abandoned railroad 
beds offer. 


150 







Abstracts 


D £v U ?mI. f N ° PR0SPECTS F ° F SUSTAINABLE FOOD PRODUCTION 
?™^ ALL SCALE PARSERS IN ZIMBABWE: THE INFLUENCE OF 

eFO^SfiPwv R n L P0LICIES - PETER S. NGWAZIKAZANA, DEPT. OF 
GEOGRAPHY,Uni v of Ala. ,University,A1.35486-3958. Professor 
J. Harlin of The Dept, of Geography,Univ.of Alabama 
provided much appreciated advice and help in the course of 
this research. 


Typically,the mass media highlights the food shortages 
that periodically ravage different regions of sub-Saharan 
Africa and ignores the apparent successes of such 
countries as Zimbabwe since 1980 to be self-sufficient in 
their food requirements. This means that whatever "lessons" 
these rare cases might hold for the rest of the region go 
unheeded. A judicious mix of policies seems to have 
successfully brought an increasing number of small scale 
farmers into food production for both the home and export 
market inspite of the drought.However new imbalances and 
constraints threaten the long term sustainability of 
Zimbabwe’s initial gains. Flexible approaches to policy 
formulation and implementation are needed to minimise these 
threats. 


A CENTER OF EXCELLENCE IN GEOGRAPHIC EDUCATION. William 
R. Strong, Dept of Geography, Univ. of North Alabama, 
Florence, Alabama, 35632. 

A program funded in 1987 by the Fund for the Improve¬ 
ment of Post Secondary Education established eight Centers 
of Excellence including the University of North Alabama. 
The original proposal title read as follows: " The project 
aims primarily to improve the degrees of correspondence 
between the geographical content of the middle school 
curriculum and the content of college-level geography 
courses which are used to educate teacher candidates in 
social studies and geography. During the three year 
project, each Center is to design a course syllabus that 
is sensitive to the requirements of the state social 
social studies course of study, teach that syllabus on a 
trial basis in special graduate courses or summer 
institutes, publish the results, and incorporate the 
syllabus into pre-service geography courses at the college 
level. This paper reports on the proposal, objectives, 
instructional programs, results of the first year in 
Alabama, and future directions. 


151 



Abstracts 


PHYSICS AND MATHEMATICS 


CALCULATION OF VELOCITY PERTURBATIONS AND DIRECTIONALITY OF THE 
FRAGMENTS IN SATELLITE FRAGMENTATION EVENTS. R. C. Reynolds, Lockheed 
Engineering & Science Company, Houston, TX 77058, G. D. Badhwar, NASA 
Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 07758 and A. Tan , Department of 
Physics, Alabama A & M University, Normal, AL 35762. 

The magnitude, variance and directionality of the velocity 
perturbations of the fragments of a satellite can shed valuable 
information regarding the nature and intensity of the fragmentation. 

Up until now, the only method used to calculate the three orthogonal 
components of the velocity change consisted of inverting the process 
of evaluating the changes in the orbital elements of the fragments due 
to velocity perturbing impulses. But the traditional method failed in 
various occasions, giving singularly high values for the radial and 
the cross-range components. This paper describes a new method of 
calculating the velocity perturbations, which is free from the 
shortcomings of the traditional method and could be used in all 
occasions, provided the fragmentation data and the orbital elements 
data are true and consistent with one another. The method uses the 
parent satellite's local frame of reference at the time of breakup. 

The three orthogonal components of the velocity change are derived 
from the three simultaneous equations provided by the changes in 
specific energy, specific angular momentum and plane angle of the 
fragment. The directionality of the fragment is studied by defining 
two angles, the colatitude and the longitude of the fragment in the 
parent satellite's local frame of reference. The preferred 
directionality of the fragments of Landsat 1 and Landsat 3 rockets 
indicates that these rockets most likely broke up in the "clam" model 
of low intensity explosion. 


ASTRONOMICAL PHOTOELECTRIC PHOTOMETRY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH 
ALABAMA. David R. Curott, Department of Physics and Earth Science, 
University of North Alabama, Florence, AL 35632. 

Small telescopes in the Alabama environment can make valuable 
contributions to the astronomical database if they undertake a 
program of photoelectric photometry of variable stars. Such a 
program, recently begun at the University of North Alabama, is 
described. This work was supported by a UNA Faculty Research 
Grant. 


152 



Abstracts 


OPTIMUM CHARACTER ENCRYPTION AND EXTRACTION FOR 
OPTICAL CORRELATION TECHNIQUES. Larry D. Brasher . James F. 
Hawk and James C. Martin, Physics Department, Univ. of Alabama at 
Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294. Don A. Gregory, U. S. Army 
Missile Command, AMSMI-RD-RE-OP, Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898. 

An important subset of pattern recognition applications permit the 
representation of data by characters which have been optimized for the type 
of data and the type of search to be performed. An example of this is the 
search for biologically important patterns within the sequences of nucleotide 
subunits of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). In this case the four distinct 
subunits of DNA must be represented and "wildcard" or metacharacters are 
needed to permit flexible searches for sequence patterns. Due to the rapidly 
increasing availability of DNA sequence information, more rapid and 
interactive analytical techniques are needed to make full use of this data. 
This study seeks to design optimal characters for use in an optical correlator 
recognition device. Characters which are compact, easily distinguishable 
and compatible with current coherent light modulators have been designed. 
Preliminary work on these representations has been guided by computer 
modeling of the optical recognition process. Promising characters have been 
tested experimentally in a VanderLugt system. The use of laser printers and 
photo-typesetters to prepare original test images will be discussed. 


SOME SURPRISES IN THE THEORY OF FINITE GAMES. Olav Kallenberg , Dept. 
Algebra, Combinatorics and Analysis, Auburn University, AL 36849. 

If a roulette game is repeated indefinitely, and if you are free 
to choose, based on your past experience, in which games to partici¬ 
pate, then obviously you cannot do better than choosing all the games. 
Playing red and black on a card-deck seems different: Here your past 
experience gives information about the future, so you might expect to 
improve your chances by a clever strategy. However, a closer analysis 
yields conclusions which seem contradictory to all common sense. 

(Some of the mathematics involved here is rather sophisticated, but 
the present talk will be kept on a heuristic and non-technical level.) 


153 




Abstracts 


TRACK RECONSTRUCTION OF HIGH ENERGY PARTICLE INTERACTIONS ON THE 
ALABAMA SUPERCOMPUTER, C. Merrill Jenkins and R. Kent Clark, Dept, 
of Physics, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688 

In a recent experiment at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory 
about 5000 tapes (0.6 Tbytes) of dat| were accumulated. _This 
experiment used a beam of positive ( n , p) and negative ( * , p) 

particles on a lithium target at 300 GeV/c in a study of the 
hadronic production of J/ik particles. 

To reduce this data set in a timely fashion, some of the world's 
most powerful computing facilities are utilized. At the University 
of South Alabama we have begun using the Cray XMP/24 at Huntsville 
to locate and define particle paths through the experiment's 
spectrometer. 

The experiment is studying hadronic states that decay into the 
J/ + y • The experimental spectrometer utilizes charge track 
detection (proportional wire chambers and drift chambers) with a 
momentum analysis magnet, electromagnetic shower detection (Pb-glass 
and scintillating glass) and muon identification. The tracking 
program we are using on the Alabama Supercomputer currently takes 
0.173 seconds/event cpu time. We will briefly discuss the physics 
of the experiment, the experimental set-up and the method of 
employing the Alabama supercomputer in the data reduction. 
Benchmark results will also be presented. 


RESEARCH INTO SEVERAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE UNDERSTANDING OF 
BASIC PHYSICS CONCEPTS. Dennis A. Likens, Dept, of Physics, 
Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088. 

The learning of basic physics concepts by engineering 
majors seems to be largely unaffected by teaching techniques, 
laboratory procedures, and the instructor. Instead, student 
learning appears to be influenced by factors largely outside 
of the control of the instructor. These factors include the 
student's earlier educational experiences, grade point 
average, and entrance scores. 


154 


Abstracts 


CALCULATIONS OF METALLIC AND NONMETALLIC ELECTRON 
CONCENTRATION IN INTERMEDIATE CONCENTRATION REGION FOR 
DOPED SEMICONDUCTORS. Shiva Shankar Subramanyam , 

I. K. Kothari, and P. C. Sharma, Department of Physics, 
Tuskegee University, AL - 36088 


In doped semiconductors with low doping,the 
electrons are bound and with high doping,the electrons 
are free. But in the intermediate concentration region of 
metal-nonmetal transition, it is concluded by this work 
that the electrons exist in a mixed state, i.e., partly 
in metallic (free) state and partly in non-metallic 
(bound) state. Using the concept developed here the 
electron concentration in nonmetallic (Nyj) and metallic 
(N^) regions are calculated and it is found that for 
low doping concentration N^N^ , for high doping 
concentration NtrN m and for intermediate doping both 
N y\ and N^ are appreciably significant. 


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS : One of us (P.C.S.) gratefully 

acknowledge the support provided by research grant NSWC 
contract N60921-86-C-A226. 


THE PROBLEM OF SHORTEST TWILIGHT — A NEW LOOK AT A FAMOUS PROBLEM. 
William J. Boardman, Div. of Science-Math, Birmingham-Southern 
College, Birmingham, AL 35254. 

First posed by the Portugese astronomer Pedro Nunes in 1542, 
the question: "What day of the year has the shortest twilight?" 
was investigated by Bernoulli and d'Alembert, and is discussed in 
Heinrich DBrrie's 100 Great Problems of Elementary Mathematics . 

This investigation relaxes the assumption usually made for 
simplicity, that the evening twilight begins when the true center of 
the sun is on the horizon. 


155 









Abstracts 


MAGNETIC RESONANCE STUDY OF THE PROTONS IN THE HYDRATED COMPLEXES 
OF COBALT: LANTHANUM ZINC DOUBLE NITRATE. Henry W. Glotfelty , 
Dept, of Physics, Samford University, Birmingham, AL 35229. J. W. 
Culvahouse, Dept, of Physics, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS. 


The proton ligand magnetic hyperfine tensors of the X and Y 
sites of the Cobalt: Lanthanum Zinc Double Nitrate (Co:LaZnDN) 
crystal have been determined from an Electron-Nuclear Double 
Resonance (ENDOR) investigation. The X and Y sites are distorted, 
hydrated complexes of the form Co (6^0)2+. A symmetric (six 
parameters) hyperfine tensor was found for each of the four 
non-equivalent protons of the X site. Since the trigonal 
distortion of the Y site is quite large, a nine parameter ligand 
hyperfine tensor was found for each of the two non-equivalent 
protons of the Y site. In addition, the proton contact 
interactions of the X site were found to be close to the values 
found for the X site protons in Cobalt: Lanthanum Magnesium Double 
Nitrate (Co:LaMgDN). It was found that the major part of the 
ligand magnetic hyperfine tensor for the X and Y site protons could 
be explained by the magnetic point dipole-dipole interaction. All 
ENDOR measurements were made at 4.2K. 

The research was supported in part by a grant from the 
National Science Foundation. 


0>N" NIL1DEALS OF LOCAL r-RSI RINGS. Haghdad S. Memauri , 
Department of Mathematics, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, 
AL 36088. 


It is of interest to know under what conditions 
certain nil ideals of a ring are nilpotent. Among im¬ 
portant ideals of a ring R is J(R), the Jacobson radical 
of R. In my earlier work I have shown that if R is a r-SI 
as an R-module, then the condition that J(R) nil implies 
it is nilpotent. In this article along with some other 
results we show that if R is a local r-RSI ring which is 
either a PI ring or J(R) is of bounded index, then J(R) 
nil implies it is nilpotent. 


156 



Abstracts 


ELECTRON-PHONON INTERACTION IN DOPED MATERIALS AND ITS INFLUENCE ON 
THERMAL CONDUCTION IN THE ULTRALOW TEMPERATURE REGION OF 5-35K, P.C, 
Sharma , department of Physics, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL- 
36088, 

The electron-phonon scattering in the intermediate donor 
concentration region has been studied. At low concentrations, below 
metal-insulator transition, the donor electrons are bound to the 
impurity atoms and at high concentrations they are free in conduction 
band. According to our model the electrons are in a mixed state, 
both in metallic and non-metallic state. The electron concentrations 
in both metallic and non-metallic states are calculated for each 
sample and the theory of both bound electron-phonon and free 
electron-phonon scattering are applied to P-, As- and Sb-doped 
germanium and P- and Li-doped silicon samples. The values of density- 
of-states effective mass and deformation potential constants have 
been calculated by our model and are compared with experimental 
values. 


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS : The financial support provided by the Research 

Contract No. NSWC-N60921-86-C-A226 is gratefully acknowledged by the 
author. 


* 

PROPAGATION OF HEAT CONDUCTION "RAYS" THROUGH MATERIAL MEDIA. A. Tan , 
Department of Physics, Alabama A & M University, Normal, AL 35762. 

By treating heat flux as "rays", the laws of rectilinear 
propagation, reflection and refraction of heat conduction rays through 
material media are derived. It is shown that total internal reflection 
of thermal rays is unattainable. The condition of extremum deviation 
of thermal rays at the surface of separation of two media is 
determined. The same for refraction through a thermally resisting 
wedge is obtained via the principle of reversibility. Finally, a 
variational principle for heat conduction rays is obtained, from which 
the laws of rectilinear propagation, reflection and refraction can be 
derived as special cases. 

*This work was partially supported by NSF-MRCE grant. 


157 






Abstracts 


TEACHING SAMPLE VARIANCE: DIVISOR n, n-1, n+1,...? Satlsh Chandra 
Misra , Dept, of Math & Comp. Sc., Tuskegee Univ., Tuskegee, AL 36088 
and Hardeo Sahai, Dept, of Biostat., Univ. of Puerto Rico, San Juan, 
PR 00936. 

The usual sample variance is defined as the sum of squares of 
deviations of sample observations from the sample mean divided by 
n-1, where n is the number of independent, identically distributed 
observations from the population. This estimate of the population 
variance is unbiased in the sense that its expected value is equal 
to the population variance. However, the usual estimate of the 
population standard deviation, i. e., the square root of the sample 
variance is not an unbiased estimate. In this paper, various other 
estimators of the population variance are explored. Some of these 
estimators preserve the invariance property. Some examples are: 
Median unbiased estimator (divisor — n-5/3), modal unbiased 
estimator (divisor — n-3), minimum variance - minimum mean square 
error estimator (divisor — n+1), the method of moments and maximun 
likelihood estimator (divisor — n+1), uniformly most accurate 
unbiased estimator (divisor — n-1), etc. Furthermore, estimators 
in the sense of hypothesis testing properties and Bayesian 
estimators are also discussed. 


RANKING AND SELECTION: AN EXPOSITION TO NEW METHODOLOGY. S.N. Mishra , 
Dept, of Mathematics and Statistics, Univ. of So. Ala., Mobile, AL 
36688. 

In today's complex world we are faced with the decision making 
in presence of uncertainties. Classical statistical procedures, such 
as testing and estimation with model building, have carefully provided 
analysis for many situations. However, the real situations at times 
demand for "choosing the best" in some sense. Ranking and selection 
procedures appropriately address this problem. Beginning with the 
pioneering works of Bechhofer (1954) and Gupta (1956), we are now in 
a position to answer some of the very basic questions left unanswered 
by the classical statistics. This paper is an attempt to give some 
of the existing important ranking and selection methodologies, and 
hence its nature is expository. A number of examples are included 
for discussion and a few very important literature citations are 
given. 


158 





Abstracts 


CALCULATION OF EFFECTIVE MASS AND PROBABILITY DENSITY 
USING A RECTANGULAR PERIODIC POTENTIAL: Abraham Georg e, 
P.C. Sharma/ Department of Physics, Tuskegee University, 
AL-36088 


A method of analysing the dynamic behavior of elec¬ 
trons for particular material is proposed by studying E-K 
relationship, effective mass and probability density. The 
schro dinger equation for the band electrons are solved 
and hence their probability density and effective mass for 
the first three energy states are estimated. Using a 
rectangular potential the calculations have been perform¬ 
ed that gives an insight to reinvestigate electron-energies 
in a system where the form, magnitude and period of the 
potential can be specified. 


AC KNOWLEDGEMENT : One of us (P.C.S) gratefully acknowledge the 
support-provided by research grant NSWC contract: N60921-86-C-A226. 


CLUSTER EMBEDDING WITHIN THE METHOD 
COMBINATIONS OF ATOMIC ORBITALS: APPLI 

CENTER IN MgO. J ian-Wien Hsu and Joseph 
Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Alabama at 


OF LINEAR 
CATION TO F 
G. Harrison, 
Birmingham, 


Birmingham, AL 35294. 


The embedded - cluster method [1,2], is distinguis 
from other cluster methods in that it uses 
Hamiltonian of an infinite system, matrix - represen 
in a basis limited to a finite number of "shells" 
atoms centered on the defect. The use of this method 
conjunction with the local spin density approximat 
(LSDA) of density functional theory has been applied 
F center in MgO. We present results of this work. 


he d 
the 
ted 
o f 
in 
ion 
to 


1. J.G. Harrison and C.C. Lin, Phys . Rev. B2_3_, 3 894 

( 1981 ). 

2. R.C. Chaney and C.C. Lin, Phys. Rev. Bl_3_, 843 ( 1976 ). 


159 





Abstracts 


IRREDUCIBLE REPRESENTATIONS OF sl(2, C) AND GENERATING FUNCTIONS. 
H. L. Manocha, Department of Algebra, Combinatorics and Analysis, 
Auburn University AL 36849 

A theorem is established which helps In obtaining symmetry 
algebra associated with the linear partial differential equation 
Qu ” 0, where Q is a differential operator. Guided by this 
theorem, a model of an irreducible representation D(a) of 
s£(2, €) on the representation space V with basis functions 

{^F^[a+n; y; x]t a+n : n**0, +1, +2, ...} is constructed. Through 

Mellin transformation, which is duly introduced, this model induces 
another model of the representation D(a), in which the basis 

Q | n 

functions turn out to be {^F^Ia+n, B; y; x]t }. These models 

are 'exponentiated* leading to models of representations of the 
special linear group SL(2, C). By bringing into the scene the 
enveloping algebra of s2(2, e), this exercise eventually 
culminates in generating functions involving the hypergeometric 
functions F as well as F . 


SOME SPECIAL CLASSES OF MATRICES, Teh-Huey Chuang, Department of 
Mathematics, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, Alabama 36088 

For a given mxn matrix A, there is a matrix J. satisfying 
* + * + + A 

= AA and = A A, with A denoting the Moore-Penrose 

generalized inverse of A and J A the conjugate transpose of . 

We shall call a J-matrix of A. The concept of J matrices is used 
to develop three new classes of matrices called invariant 
matrices, J T invariant matrices and J-EP matrices. Necessary 
and sufficient conditions for the existence of these matrices 
are presented. Properties and relationships of these matrices 
are also investigated. All matrices considered are defined over 
the complex field. 


160 


Abstracts 


ROLE OF MTOs AND THE TAIL CANCELLATION IN CANONICAL BAND THEORY: 

A NEW APPROACH, P,C. Sharma , Department of Physics, Tuskegee 
University, Tuskegee, AL-36088. 

The concept of canonical bands has been discussed which raises 
the LMTO method above the level of being just a new procedure for 
calculating energy-band structures. The important ingredients are 
volume and energy independent structure constants and parameters 
which contain information relating to the one electron-potential. 

It is shown that tail cancellation of MTOs give rise to highly 
simplified and physically transparent equation. 


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS : The financial support provided by the Research 

Contract No. NSWC-N60921-86-C-A226 is gratefully acknowledged by the 
author. 


TRAFFIC EFFECTS ON ROADWAY TEMPERATURE. Randy D. Russell, 
Department of Physical Sciences, Auburn University at Montgomery, 
Montgomery, AL 36193. 


Measurements of surface temperature were recorded for a heavily 
traveled roadway and an untraveled extension of the roadway of 
similar construction. Ten minute averages of traffic amount 
were also measured. Meteorological conditions during the 
observation periods were obtained from the National Weather 
Service. Traffic was found to enhance the transport of sensible 
heat from the roadway surface. The difference in temperature 
between the roadway and the untraveled extension was found to 
follow a simple relaxation equation. The dependence of sensible 
heat transport on traffic amount and the time constant for the 
return of the roadway to its untraveled state were estimated. 

This work was supported by the Research Grant-In-Aid Program 
of Auburn University at Montgomery, 


161 






Abstracts 


INDUSTRY AND ECONOMICS 

INTERNATIONAL MARKETING IN HUNTSVILLE, ALABAMA. Marsha D. Griffin and 
James G. Alexander, Departments of Marketing and Economics and Finance, 
respectively, Alabama A&M University, Normal, AL 35762. 

In the Fall of 1987, managers of 30/81 firms—designated as 
exporters in the HUNTSVILLE/MADISON COUNTY INDUSTRIAL DIRECTORY—were 
interviewed to determine the extent of their involvement in 
international marketing. About 37 percent of the sample had been 
involved in international marketing for over 10 years; about 34 percent 
had been involved between 1 and 5 years. For about 56 percent of the 
sample, foreign markets accounted for less than 10 percent of total 
annual sales. When asked if they changed the product, promotion, 
price, and/or distribution strategy for the international market, the 
percent responding "no" was 70, 53, 53, and 56, respectively. The 
percent indicating that they were unfamiliar with the Alabama Export 
Council, Alabama International Trade Center, Foreign Credit Insurance 
Association, International Trade Development Program, International 
Trade Specialist of the U. S. Chamber of Commerce, and the North 
Alabama International Trade Association was 36, 26, 63, 56, and 33, 
respectively. Problems with international marketing included finding 
customers, pricing, getting help for international marketing, export 
licensing, trying to keep technology away from the Soviet Union, 
communicating, identifying reliable distributors, modifying 
advertising, complying with paperwork requirements * collecting accounts 
receivable, fluctuating exchange rates, weakening of oil-dependent 
countries, dealing with cultural differences, and shipping. 

Respondents had entered foreign markets by indirect exporting, direct 
exporting, licensing, contract manufacturing, management contracting, 
joint-venturing, and direct investing. Of these entry strategies, the 
one most frequently used was direct exporting. 


FAIRHOPE, ALABAMA: A SINGLE TAX EXPERIMENT. Edward T. Merkel and 
G. T. Stewart, Troy State Univ., Troy, AL 36082 

Since the turn of the century, Fairhope, Alabama has been the site 
of a laboratory experiment of Henry George's single tax. The Fairhope 
Single Tax Corporation (FSTC) has attempted to apply the theory that 
government can be financed solely by a single tax on land site value. 
The founder of FSTC hoped that this experiment would provide a stimulus 
to the adoption of the single tax by governments. The purpose of this 
paper is to discover and critically examine the views of the people in 
Fairhope on the claims made for and against the FSTC. The primary 
instrument used in the research is a random telephone survey of 110 
Fairhope residents. Additional information was provided by interviews 
of FSTC officials, state and local tax accessors, and an analysis of 
the official records of the corporation. Part II analyzes and 
summarizes the results of the survey. Part III concludes that the 
majority of Fairhope residents do not believe that the FSTC has been 
beneficial to the community. 


162 




Abstracts 


TRADE AREA IDENTIFICATION FOR FACTORY-OUTLET SHOPPING CENTERS. 

Kerry P. Gatlin and Keith Absher, Dept, of Marketing and Management, 
Univ. of North Alabama, Florence, A1 35630 

Shoppers at the regional factory-outlet shopping center in Boaz, 
Alabama were surveyed to identify point-of-origin, spending patterns, 
and perception of the center's drawing appeal. Reilly's Law of Retail 
Gravitation was tested to determine if the model could predict 
approximate trade-area boundaries for a regional specialty factory- 
outlet center. A modification of the model, using center size rather 
than community population was found to correctly locate 88 percent of 
trade-area shoppers. The relationship between distance traveled to 
the center and annual spending was found to be curvilinear. The 
appeal of the center was found to be selection, price and quality, in 
that order. The rural center's 'shopping mass' was found to overcome 
more dispersed discount opportunities in much larger metropolitan 
areas confirming the role that 'mass' plays in shopper gravitation. 

MINIMUM WAGE, UNEMPLOYMENT RATE AND THE CONSUMER PRICE INDEX - 
PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. Stephanie Moxley Moore, Graduate Student, 
University of North Alabama, Florence, AL 35630. Stephanie Moxley 
Moore aftd Veronica Free, Professor of Economics, University of North 
Alabama, Florence, AL 35630 . 

Increasing the minimum wage has been a controversial topic 
since its inception in 1937• The minimum wage was originally 
established to shift the distribution of income in favor of the 
lower income households. But the actual purchasing power of the 
dollar has continually eroded away as the consumer price index 
and the minimum wage rate rises. A $3.35 minimum wage rate was 
worth only $1.02 in 1986. The very people that the original minimum 
wage was set up for are the ones who are suffering the most now. 
Businesses are having to cut back and increase prices. The inflation 
rate continues to rise and the value of the dollar continues to fall. 
Each new increase in the minimum wage seems to falsely uplift the 
purchasing power and better the hourly salary. When in fact, it 
only feeds an unquenchable inflationary spiral and ends up lowering 
the already depressed poverty level. 


INFLATION EFFECTS ON THE AGE DISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH. R. Bruce Jones , 
Univ. Of North Ala., Florence, AL 35632-0001 

The maintenance of stable prices has been a policy objective of 
generations of economist. Many have argued against inflation on 
equity grounds. Often overlooked is the wealth redistributional 
effect. Since the effect of redistribution of wealth is uneven in 
a society one could argue that some age groups would suffer more 
than others. Using panel data for the period 1977 to 1983 the 
author attempts to identify changes in wealth by age groups. 

Younger age groups are found to lose ground both in nominal and real 
terms. This is in defiance to Life-Cycle Theory predictions. The 
author concludes that inflation contributed to wealth inequality by 
age groups. 


163 








Abstracts 


MARKETING THE CLASSROOM. Frederick A. Viohl, Marketing Department, 

Troy State University, Troy, AL 36082. 

The lack of good management is the major problem facing many 
colleges and universities today. During the period from the end of 
World War II until the late 1960s colleges could afford to ignore 
many management problems. This was primarily due to the large numbers 
of "baby boom" students who wished to go to college. There were 
more students who wished to go to college than there was space for the 
colleges to accommodate. No matter how poorly a college was operated, 
it would still be filled with students each year - even if the food 
was abominable, the instruction irrelevant and boring and the staff 
aloof or surly. The admissions office could still maintain a 
waiting list and serve primarily as order takers for would be students. 
If bad errors were made in fiscal policy or planning, a government 
loan or grant could easily be secured to bail out the college for a 
few years, or the colleges, if private, could merge into the state 
university and secure ample additional funds. With the end of the 
baby boom, changes in government funding priorities, and student 
demands for more relevant education, the days of wine and roses were 
over for many colleges. In the more competitive environment of the 
late 1970s and the 1980s most colleges and universities have had to 
resort to improved management and marketing techniques. The 1990s 
will demand that the traditionally diffuse areas of admissions, 
public relations, development, and alumni affairs be integrated into 
a single matrix of marketing management. 


AN APPLICATION OF LEARNING CURVE MODELS TO ANALYZING COST VARIANCES. 
Rama R. Guttikonda, Dept, of Accounting and Finance, Auburn Univ. at 
Montgomery, AL 36193. 

The phenomenon of learning, which is more pronounced in highly 
labor intensive industries tends to decrease the incremental 
production cost as the cumulative output increases. This learning 
effect has some very important inplications which can lead to unwise 
decision making and poor cost controls. Variance analysis results in 
misleading analysis in efficiency variances. 

An awareness of the learning effect can lead to significant 
improvement in four functional areas of acccounting of the firm 
(reporting, budgeting, cost control, and capital budgeting) where it 
is often overlooked. In the past few years, learning has been 
considered in managerial planning analysis such as product pricing, 
profit and cash planning, production scheduling, and break even 
analysis. Of late, attention has also been directed to the effect of 
Learning on managerial control of operations. The potential benefits 
of learning on managerial planning and control of operations are 
numerous. 


164 


Abstracts 


SHIITAKE MUSHROOMS: MARKETING PROBLEMS FACING THE SMALL FARMER. 

W. Joe Free, Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL 35660. 
William S. Stewart, Gerald L. Crawford and Veronica A. Free, 

Univ. of North Ala., Florence, AL 35632. 

The U.S. mushroom industry has grown at a 10 percent annual 
rate since the mid-1960s. Mushrooms produced in the U.S. for 
canning have remained relatively stable and the expanded production 
has gone for fresh consumption. Imports of canned mushrooms have 
doubled in the last 10 years. The Agaricus bisporus or button 
mushroom is the primary type produced and consumed in the U.S. 

In the 1980s, the Letimus or Shiitake has expanded rapidly but 
remains an "exotic" in the mushroom trade. Several button 
mushroom producers have added controlled environment facilities 
for producing Shiitake mushrooms and have added Oyster mushrooms 
to their product line. Many new Shiitake growers produce in the 
open and supplies are intermittent. Producers of mushrooms face 
buyers that control large volumes of product and they are changing 
to service the diverse requirements of these buyers. The small 
new Shiitake growers will face a major marketing dilemma. They 
will have to remain small and service a small local trade or 
band together and expand so they can meet the requirements of the 
commercial buyer. Consumption of mushrooms will continue to 
expand. The exotics such as Shiitake and Oyster will gain in 
popularity as consumers learn how to integrate them into their 
diets and as supplies become available year round. 


MEDIA AND AGENCY EXECUTIVES' PERCEPTIONS OF ADVERTISING MISTAKES 
KEITH ABSHER AND KERRY GATLIN, DEPT. OF MARKETING AND MANAGEMENT, 
UNIVERSITY OF NORTH ALABAMA. FLORENCE, ALABAMA 35630. 

This research used advertising professionals to rank the 
frequency and critical nature of advertising mistakes made by small 
businesses. A five point Likert scale questionnaire was developed 
from primary and secondary research on advertising mistakes. 
Advertising professionals were selected from advertising agencies, 
newspapers, radio stations, and television stations that are 
located in Alabama. The data from the questionnaire was broken 
down into a ranking by means of the top ten advertising mistakes 
of small businesses. The Top Ten Advertising Mistakes as ranked 
by advertising professionals are: 1. Not spending enough money 
to get results. 2. Not having a planned advertising budget. 

3. Not advertising frequently enough. 4. Not taking advantage 
of co-op advertising money. 5. Lack of continuity. 6. Spreading 
the budget too thin. 7. Choosing a media based on its low rate. 

8 . Having no objective measure of advertising's effectiveness. 

9. Not getting professional help for advertising. 10. Failure 
to pick a theme and live with it. 


165 






Abstracts 


AGRICULTURE IN ALABAMA BY THE YEAR 2000, James L^ Stallings and 
Rupert Hopkinson, Dept, of Agr. Economics and Rural Sociology, Auburn 
University, AL 36849-5406. 

From projections there is little doubt that the numbers of farms 
and land in farms in Alabama will continue to decline. Of the crop¬ 
land harvested, hay land is expected to at least remain steady or 
slightly increase. The beef industry, the main user of this hay land, 
is expected to continue present levels and increase to about a million 
cows by the year 2000. Soybeans will continue to be an important crop 
but will probably not soon reach the peak acreage of 2,150,000 of 1979. 
Instead, acreage is projected at about 560,000. This will produce 
about 12,880,000 bushels, an amount far short of the almost 41 million 
bushels crushed in Alabama plants in 1985, necessitating continued 
imports of soybeans if that level of crushing continues. Cotton has 
generally moved from the southern part of the State to the Tennessee 
Valley in recent years and the best estimate is that the recent decline 
in acres will level off and possibly increase slightly, Peanut acreage 
is projected at 230 thousand acres. Wheat and grain sorghum acreage 
should show increases by 2000. The broiler enterprise is expected to 
continue to expand and use large quantities of imported corn and soy¬ 
beans for soybean meal. Hens and pullets should also continue at a 
high level. Horses, mules, and ponies are hobby enterprises but 
significant users of grains and pasture resources and are expected to 
continue to expand. There is little doubt that the swine and dairy 
enterprises will continue to decline. 


CHAOS AND THE THEORY OF EFFICIENT MARKETS. Macon Wilbourn, Dept, of 
Accounting and Finance, Auburn Univ. at Montgomery, Montgomery, AL 
36193. 

Sir Issac Newton, seventeenth-century physicist and mathemati¬ 
cian, Laid the scientific foundations of our modern world. Newton 
helped to separate scientific methodology from the mysticism of the 
dark ages, and formulated many of the tools necessary to understand¬ 
ing the workings of nature and the universe. Newton's followers, 
championed by the likes of Simon Laplace, believed that any system's 
behavior is predictable, given the prior knowledge of that system's 
initial conditions. Those things not predictable, such as the 
specified outcome of a coin toss, were subject to the laws of 
probability, and thus any desired outcome could be assigned a 
likelihood of occurrence. Efficient market theorists place stock 
market forecasting in this latter category. Both fundamental and 
technical analysis are believed to be ineffective as predictive tools 
for market behavior. But now the emerging science of Chaos is 
offering new insights into general systems behavior. Both Laplacian 
determinism and many probabilistic situations are yielding to the new 
"Laws" of Chaos Theory. The objective of this paper is to look at 
Chaos as it relates to stock market patterns and the theory of 
efficient markets. 


166 




Abstracts 


EXCHANGE RATES AND ECONOMIC NEWS. Charles E. Hegji, Dept, of 
Economics Auburn Univ. at Montg., Montgomery, AL 36193. 

This paper investigates exchange rate and interest rate responses 
to the monthly U.S. merchandise trade announcements, focusing on the 
post 1985 period. The investigation demonstrates a significant 
exchange rate depreciation to larger than expected announcements. 
This result dramatically contrasts with previously reported lack of 
exchange rate response over the pre-1985 period. 

The investigation also shows that interest rates did not respond 
to trade announcement surprises over the entire post 1985 period. 
However, for the trade announcements covering the 1985.3 to 1986.7 
period, the analysis indicates a significant decrease in short term 
interest rates to larger than anticipated trade deficit 
announcements. This result is consistent with the view that during 
this period the Federal Reserve attempted to depreciate the dollar in 
order to narrow the trade gap. For trade announcements during the 
1986.8 to 1988.7 period, short-term interest rates increased, 
although not significantly, with the announcement of large trade 
deficits. This result is consistent with market uncertainty about 
changing central bank foreign exchange objectives, or the changing 
informational content in trade announcements. 

Finally, the analysis found that long term interest rates 
increased with large deficit announcements after 1986.7 which is 
consistent with increasing inflationary expectations. 


ECONOMICS OF EDUCATIONAL INVESTMENT. Curtis M. Jolly and Palitha 
Muthukude, Dept, of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, 
Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5406. 

In this paper models based on the theory of human capital 
were evaluated to determine their appropriateness in ranking 
postsecondary educational investment decisions. Data from the 
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics: Occupational Outlook and from 
report of the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study were used 
to estimate net present values (NPV), internal rates of return 
(IRR) and net benefit investment ratios (NIBR) for alternative 
educational investments. Refined models based on the theory of 
human capital were appropriate to evaluate alternative post¬ 
secondary educational investments, but the NPV and IRR were not 
appropriate in ranking projects. The NIBR was the most suitable 
criterion for such evaluation. The decision to invest or not to 
invest in postsecondary education depended on individual choice 
and economic circumstance. 


167 


Abstracts 


CHANNEL REQUIREMENTS IN MARKETING FRESH FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 
Gerald Crawford , Professor of Marketing, William S. Stewart, 
Professor of Management, and Joe Free, Professor of Economics, 
School of Business, University of North Alabama, Florence, AL 
35632. 

Approximately two percent of all fresh fruits and vegetables 
are sold directly to ultimate consumers in the U.S.A. while 98 
percent passes through indirect channels. In other countries 
significantly larger amounts are sold directly to consumers. It 
would be helpful if small farmers could learn why consumers buy the 
way they do, and to learn what marketing functions are required to 
move these farm products to consumers and organizational buyers. 

Available data provides evidence that American consumers want 
fresh produce at reasonable prices, and they want these products 
consistently available at their existing (one-stop) retailer. 
Consumers do not care to make special trips to buy produce unless 
large quantities for canning are being purchased. Organizational 
buyers want consistent availability of fresh, high quality produce 
from a small number of suppliers who call on the account and provide 
delivery and credit terms. In summary, small farmers must provide 
time and place utility, along with related services if they expect 
to compete with large farmers and corporate operations. 


TAX SIMPLIFICATION AND THE COST OF TAX COMPLIANCE. Samuel L. Lett, 
Dept, of Accounting and Finance, Auburn Univ. at Montgomery, AL 
36193. 


Tax simplification was one of the driving forces behind the 
passage of the massive Tax Reform Act of 1986 (TRA). The perception 
held by taxpayers that the tax law was unduly complicated and unfair 
was used by supporters of tax revision in Congress to generate the 
passage of the TRA. The TRA hailed as tax simplification at the time 
of its passage has created far greater complexity and costlier tax 
compliance for taxpayers than previous tax laws. 

Even with the removal of approximately six million taxpayers 
from the tax rolls due to lower tax rates, still nearly fifty percent 
of taxpayers pay professional tax preparers to complete their 
returns. Based on figures provided by the Internal Revenue Service 
(IRA), the cost of a return could be greater than a thousand dollars. 
Additionally, evidence exists that major mistakes by preparers 
costing taxpayers thousands of dollars do occur at at all levels of 
professional tax preparation. An analysis of IRS time estimates for 
preparation of federal tax forms reveals that while these estimates 
may be overstated, taxpayers can expect to pay more for return 
preparation. The tax simplification hoped for has generated major 
cost increases for tax compliance by the taxpayer. 


168 



Abstracts 


SCIENCE EDUCATION 


LEARNING OF DRUG TERMINOLOGY BY BEGINNING BACCALAUREATE NURSING 
STUDENTS. Alfred E. Lupien and Ellen Buckner, School of Nursing, 
University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294. 

The purposes of this study were to measure the change in drug 
terminology scores across the span of one academic quarter and to 
determine if relationships existed between terminolgy scores and 
various demographic characteristics. Fifty-eight nursing students 
enrolled in an introductory pharmacology course participated in the 
study which included completion of written examinations eight weeks 
apart, an investigator-developed semantic differential, and a 
demographic worksheet. The difference between scores at the 
beginning and at the end of the quarter was not statistically 
significant; nor were there statistically significant relationships 
between examination scores and age, self-reported percentage of terms 
previously known, or attitude toward knowledge of drug terminology. 
Relationships were demonstrated between terminology score and years 
of employment in health care (_r = -.328, £ = .009, n = 56) as well as 
between terminology examination score and final course grade 
(r_ = .616, £ = .001, £ = 58). Three conclusions may be drawn from 
the findings of this study: that scores on drug terminology 
examinations did not change across the span of one academic quarter, 
that there was a negative relationship between years of employment in 
health care and terminology examination scores, and that there was a 
strong relationship between examination scores and final course 
grade. Instructor-related interventions that may facilitate learning 
of terminology include assuring that terminology is consistent with 
contemporary clinical language, conscientiously utilizing these terms 
in classroom instruction, and encouraging student use of terminology. 


COASTAL POLLUTION*- A REFLECTION OF GLOBAL DISASTER. John J. Dindo, 
Dauphin Island Sea Lab - Discovery Hall Project, Dauphin Island, AL 
36528. 

For years we have heard about coastal pollution problems from 
around the world. No one could believe that an estuarine system as 
large as the Chesapeake Bay could collapse, yet it did and with very 
little warning. In the last six months the media within the U.S. has 
featured cover articles on our dying planet. Are these only stories 
that sell magazines and newspapers or do they reflect a real threat to 
mankind and our planet. 


169 




Abstracts 


NATURE'S WAY SERIES: A REPORT ON THE 
IMPLEMENTATION OF A PILOT SCIENCE ENRICHMENT 
PROJECT. Robert 0. Joslin, Center for 
Environmental Research and Service, Troy State 
University, Troy, Alabama 36082. 

The Science Education Enrichment Project was 
originally conceived by the Center for 
Environmental Research and Service and the Regional 
In-Service Education Center of Troy State 
University. The nature of the pilot program was 
designed to establish a 3-way partnership between 
Troy State University, the Troy City School System 
and the local business community. The purpose of 
this partnership arrangement was to develop and 
implement experience-based science activities that 
would enrich the existing curriculum of the 
participating target school. The project was 
successful in establishing an on-going science 
enrichment program at the target school. A product 
of this development and implementation is The 
Nature's Way Series: A Guide to Science Enrichment 

Activities. This published curriculum guide is 

serving as a valuable resource for science 
enrichment programs in public schools. 


TEACHING HANDICAPPED STUDENTS SELECTED CONCEPTS ABOUT 
RADON HAZARDS, Joseph D. George , Ernest D. Riggsby, and 
E. Christopher Carlisle, Columbus College, Columh_u§, GA 
31993-2399. 

Since there are two distinctly different approaches to 
the teaching of handicapped students: through mainstream¬ 

ing and in special classes, it was deemed desirable to 
prepare a mini-unit which would be compatible with either 
approach. The project approached radon as a significant 
health hazard, probed its origins, its nature, how it might 
be detected and its concentrations determined. Visual, 
verbal, and tactile experiences were devised. A major 
objective was to help develop a keen awareness of the 
presence of radon in our environment but without developing 
anxiety. The culmination of the mini-unit was the 
demonstration of testing equipment and a discussion of 
measures to be taken if a screening test indicated higher 
than normal, tolerable levels. 


170 









Abstracts 


Of Wolves and This Woman. Nancy V. Veil, Teacher-In-Residence, Ala. 
Power Company,^Birmingham Al.35291. Dr. Lugi Boitani, University 
of Rome, Dr. Francisco Francisci, National Institute of GameCBiology, 
Rome, Italy. 

Legend tells of how Romulus and Remus were suckled and nourished 
by a she wolf. Romulus went on to found the city of Rome in Ttaly. 

A latin proverb warns Homi homini lupus: Man is a wolf to man. 

This proverb proved to be the foundation of a current feeling 
in Rome and inother parts of Italy about people who dare to study 
the now almost extinct wolf. "Of Wolves and This Woman", is represent¬ 
ative of the research which I did in conjunction with an ongoing 
research project on wolves in the Appentine Mountain chain in Italy 
to determine the number of wolves left. The research seeks to find 
the reasons for near extinction by studying geographical range, feed¬ 
ing, and mating habits of the Italian wolf and the feral dog packs of 
the Appenines. Specific information obtained was a) ascess to what 
extent, given the same environmental conditions, wolf and dog 
develop survival strategies b) ascess degree and mode of competition 
between wolf and dog c) ascess to what extent survival of feral 
dog packs is done to recruitment of adult stray dogs from outside the 
packs d) ascess preying on the study area livestock e) ascess 
how certain environmental changes may limit and/or enhance survival of 
wolf and/or dog. 


IMPACT OF THE ALABAMA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE VISITING SCIENTIST PROGRAM ON 
STUDENT ATTITUDES. Robert E. Hayes, Tallassee High School, Tallassee, 
AL 36078 

The purpose of this study was to review the scope of the AAS 
Visiting Scientist program and to examine the impact of a visiting 
scientist on student attitudes and knowledge about recombinant DNA 
at Tallassee High School. Pretests and posttests were administered 
to 136 students to assess knowledge about DNA and recombinant DNA 
technology before and after a visit from a visiting professor from 
Auburn University. Student attitudes toward various ethical aspects of 
recombinant DNA technology were also assessed. After the scientist's 
talk, student knowledge increased 10% when measured six months later. 
Students attitudes remained relatively stable over the six months 
period and generally reflected views held by a majority of Americans. 
Student? opposed any use of the technology for achieving the "perfect" 
human but favored use of cloning for achieving better crop yields and 
in the search for cures for intractable diseases. Students gained both 
longterm knowledge and a better appreciation of how working scientists 
solve problems from the Visiting Scientist program. 


171 


Abstracts 


RADON-222: A CONCERN FOR MIDDLE SCHOOL SCIENCE. Ernest D. 

Riggsby , Joseph D. George, and E. Christopher Carlisle, 
Columbus College, Columbus, GA 32993-2399. 

School science courses allow some flexibility in the 
selection of topics. This paper describes a unit on radon, 
its physical and chemical properties, how it originates, 
and how it is detected and mitigated. This study of radon 
adapts well to physics, chemistry, physical science or 
biology. Since the Environmental Protection Agency made 
its announcements about the hazards of radon, there has 
been an increasing presence of door-to-door salespersons, 
offering testing and mitigation at prices which are often 
much too high. This scare tactic can probably best be 
countered by education. This effort was aimed at raising 
the awareness level, as well as, the informing of students, 
with the parallel anticipation that some of the information 
and handouts would find their way into the hands of the 
parents of some of the students, and suggest proper and 
much less expensive measures for detecting and measuring 
radon levels in the indoor-environment. 


THE MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ON SMALL-COLLEGE CAMPUSES. 

Ronald N. Hunsinger and W. Mike Howell, Dept, of Biology, Samford Uni¬ 
versity, Birmingham, AL 35229. 

Due to new federal regulations designed to inform employees of 
potential hazards in their workplace, colleges and universities must 
begin to revise their policies and procedures governing the procurement, 
proper usuage, and storage of hazardous material. Such "Right-to-Know" 
legislation calls for written compliances from institutions regarding 
detailed hazardous substances inventories, material safety data sheet 
compilation and availability, and documentable employee safety training. 
Additionally, a strengthening of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amend¬ 
ments (HSWA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) man¬ 
dates a radically different approach for the disposal of materials 
designated as hazardous and regulated according to RCRA and HSWA. Fail¬ 
ure to comply with these regulations can result in imprisonment, fine 
up to $25,000, and civil suits by any citizen harmed as the result of 
negligent use or disposal of hazardous material. In light of these re¬ 
cent developments, it is in the best interest of colleges and universi¬ 
ties to devise appropriate policies which address the issues mentioned 
above. This presentation will provide a model for compliance, designed 
especially for small colleges and universities. 


172 






Abstracts 


SOCIAL SCIENCES 


CORRELATES OF COMPUTER-RELATED STRESS. Richard A. Hudiburg , 

Dept, of Psychology, University of North Alabama, Florence, AL 35632 

The purpose of this study was two-fold. First, the reliability 
and construct validity of the Computer Technology Hassles Scale (CTHS), 
a measure of computer-related stress, was determined. Second, 
correlates to this measure of computer-related stress were investigated 

The Computer Technology Hassles Scale (CTHS) was composed of 69 
"hassles" or potential computer technology stressors. A questionnaire 
was constructed that included demographic information, the CTHS, the 
Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), a global measure of stress; the Computer 
Attitude Scale (CAS), and the semantic complaint items from the 
Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL). The questionnaire was administered 
to a sample (N - 129) of undergraduate students. A second 
administration of the questionnaire, which included an additional 
measure, the Computer Anxiety Scale (CAXS), was given two months 
later to the same sample of students. A total of 100 students 
responded to both administrations of the questionnaire. 

Reliability analysis indicated that the CTHS had a moderate test- 
retest reliability coefficient (r = .64). Correlation analysis 
indicated that the CTHS, as a measure of computer-related stress, was 
significantly correlated to perceived stress (PSS) and semantic 
complaints (HSCL). The CTHS was independent of attitudes toward 
computers (CAS) and computer anxiety (CAXS). A principal axis analysis 
with varimax rotation of the items composing the CTHS yielded 11 
factors. A scaling analysis of the 11 factors revealed that nine 
defined subscales of the CTHS met minimum internal consistency 
requirements. The current research indicated that the CTHS was a 
reliable and construct valid measure of computer-related stress. 


BIPARTISAN1IAT1QN OF THE BLACK ELECTORATE; THE CASE FOR THE SYNTHETIC 
EQUAL OPPORTUNITY POSTURE. Lawrence J. Hanks, Department of Political 
Science, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36Q8B 

The black electorate is the Democratic Party's most loyal voting 
bloc. Since joining the New Deal coalition in 1936, a majority of the 
black electorate has supported the Democratic ticket for the presidency 
Since I960, an overwhelming majority of the black electorate has 
supported the Democratic ticket. This loyal support has had two major 
effects; the Democrats take the black electorate for granted while 
the Republicans ignore it. This paper argues that the black electorate 
should adopt the synthetic equal opportunity posture to combat the 
forestated negative effects. This position argues that political 
effectiveness dictates a 40% black yellow-dog Republican base, a 40% 
black yellow-dog Democratic base, and a 20% Independent base which 
is capable of mobilizing behind the desired candidate. Others options 
are examined and the synthetic equal opportunity posture is defended 
as the optimal posture for political effectiveness. 


173 



Abstracts 


ANALYSIS OF DINOSAURS: POLICE ORGANIZATIONS AND CULTURE. 
Jerald C. Burns and Nicholas A. Astone . Dept, of Crimino¬ 
logy and Criminal Justice, Alabama State University, 
Montgomery, Alabama 36195 

This paper examines police organizations to determine 
the common charactertistics that they share based on 
various organizational theories and the unique culture 
that exists within such organizations. A brief history 
of police organizations is presented, along with pertinent 
organizational theories, principles, and cultural 
characteristics which influence the structure and opera¬ 
tion of police agencies. Specifically, police organiza¬ 
tion and culture were analyzed; the authors conclude 
that the traditional police organization and culture 
are like dinosaurs in terms of efficiency and the role 
that police are expected to play. 


ROLE OF THE PRESIDENT AS PERCEIVED BY CHILDREN. Sheila Davis and Cora 
A. Ingram , School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 
Birmingham, Alabama 35294. Fran Perkins, School of Education, 
University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294. 

The study was conducted to determine the perceptions of selected 
children of the role of the President of the United States of America. 
Twenty-six children were interviewed utilizing a semi-structured 
interview guide. The respondents were drawn from a convenience sample 
at three different sites in Birmingham, Alabama. The data were 
analyzed by the process of enumeration and domaining. The study 
revealed that these children perceived the role of the President as 
leader and peacemaker. They also viewed his job as one requiring 
higher education and providing substantial monetary reward. 


HOUSING THE MENTALLY ILL IN URBAN COMMUNITIES. Jill Hall 
Dept, of Political Science and Public Affairs, Univ of 
Ala. at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294. 

The need for appropriate housing for the chronically 
mentally ill has become an increasingly difficult 
problem to resolve in urban communities. In 
recognition of the need for more housing for the» 
mentally ill more organizations are turning to the HUD 
Section 202 for a partial resolution to the problem. 

The Birmingham area is no exception either in problem 
or prospective solution. A look at the implementation 
process of a Section 202 program in the Birmingham area 
reveals some local and national implications for the 
future of housing the mentally ill in urban communities. 


174 






Abstracts 


THE BLACK MALE IN ALABAMA: A DEMOGRAPHIC PORTRAIT. Donald 
W. Bogie, Dept, of Demographic and Cultural Research, 

Auburn Univ. at Montgomery, Montgomery, AL 36193. William 
A. Barrett, Dept, of Human Resources, State of Alabama, 
Montgomery, AL 36130. Milton E. Belcher , Attorney 
General's Office, State of Alabama, Montgomery, AL 36130. 

Reversing a decline that had prevailed for three 
decades, the number of black males in the Alabama popu¬ 
lation registered a moderate increase during the 1970s. 
Still, however, this group comprised only 11.9 percent of 
the state's population in 1980, down from 17.3 percent a 
half century ago. Black males constitute an exceptionally 
youthful population, who overwhelmingly reside in metro¬ 
politan locales. While they remain most highly concen¬ 
trated in Black Belt counties (as measured by the number 
per 1,000 population), the largest totals by far reside 
in Jefferson, Mobile and Montgomery counties. Black males 
in Alabama are much more apt than their white counterparts 
to be absent from the family, to have fewer years of 
education, and to earn less. They are also more likely to 
be arrested than white males and to be characterized by 
higher rates of incarceration. Mortality rates are sig¬ 
nificantly higher for black males than for other segments 
of the population, while life expectancies at birth are 
correspondingly lower. Although not the total solution, 
an increased emphasis on education, job training, and 
occupational placement would serve to enhance the 
socioeconomic status of the black male. 


CgyMJNICATION APPREHENSION: REDUCTION WITHIN A PRISON SETTING. 
Eugenie Nickell , Del Witherspoon and Carolyn Long-Hall, Auburn 
University of Montgomery, Montgomery, AL 36193. 


This study compared self-reported ccnmunication apprehension 
(CA) experienced by female inmates before and after attending a 
special program within a state prison. Thirteen women volunteers 
who scored high on the Personal Report of Confidence As a Speaker 
(PKCS) (Paul, 1966) were ( treated in a program incorporating various 
techniques including systematic desensitization, cognitive restruc¬ 
turing, skills training and shaping within six two-hour sessions. 
Pre-post ccrrparisons resulted in a significant decrease in CA 
(t = 7.12, df=10, p< .001). Discussion focused on basic character¬ 
istics relevant to this population (short attention span and low 
reading level) and restrictions of an institutional nature such 
as excessive noise levels,lack of privacy and limitations on 
possession of study materials. 


175 





Abstracts 


AN INTERACTION PROCESS ANALYSIS OF COLLABORATIVE WRITING. Annete N. 
Shelby, School of Business Communication, Georgetown Univ., Washington, 
D.C. 20057. Amanda W. Borden , Dept, of Theatre, Birmingham-Southern 
College, Birmingham, AL 35254. 

Collaborative writing involves two processes: (1) writing, which 
within the accepted recursive view includes prewriting, drafting, and 
editing; and (2) interaction, which involves intrapersonal and inter¬ 
personal processes. The present research focused on interpersonal 
processes as they relate to the task of collaborative writing. The 
research question was this: In what way do interaction and writing 
processes influence efficiency, effectiveness, and satisfaction (mea¬ 
sures of collaborative writing)? To test the research question, the 
researchers studied six work groups comprised of graduate business 
students. Coders evaluated audio tapes of the group discussions 
according to the Interaction Process Analysis system [Bales, R.F. 

(1959) Interaction process analysis : A method of the study of small 
groups . Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.] The findings were as fol¬ 
lows: (1) The more structured the group process, the more efficient 

the prewriting stage; (2) Efficiency of the process was greater when 
tasks to be accomplished were identified early in the prewriting 
process, when a strong leader emerged, and when one individual (as 
opposed to a number of group members) revised and edited the document; 
(3) The group product was more effective when the group process was 
highly structured, when more time was allotted to revision and editing, 
and when group members participated in revising and editing; and (4) 
Individuals experienced greater satisfaction when they perceived all 
group members to have "carried their weight." 


ADOLESCENT SELF PERCEPTIONS: AN EXPOSITION BASED ON PERSONAL 
INTERVIEWS. Kasandra E. Williams and Jan 0. Case, Department 
of Mathematics and Statistics, Samford University, Birmingham, 

AL 35229. 

A self-reporting questionnaire and the Bern Sex Role Inventory 
were used to evaluate adolescent self perceptions on such traits 
as androgyny, self esteem, sexual activity, and perceived sexual 
pressures. Ninety-one adolescents with primarily white middle 
class backgrounds were found to perceive themselves as androgynous, 
with no difference in male and female ratings. Differences 
occurred among males and females with respect to self esteem 
ratings, with females assigning themselves lower ratings. Among 
females, self esteem was also found to be dependent on sexual 
activity, with sexually active females rating their self esteem 
lower than non-sexually active females. Both males and females 
felt that their sexual activity was not influenced by pressure to 
be sexually active. 


176 













Abstracts 


College Education Among Police Officers of Selected Alabama Law 
Enforcement Agencies. Tim Jones , Dept, of Justice Studies, Athens 
State College., Athens, AL 35611. Jerry Armor, Dept, of Criminal 
Justice, Calhoun Community College., Decatur, AL 35601. 

In recent years there have been significant increases in the 
educational levels of the American workforce, and there has been a 
perceived need for advanced education for police officers. In 
response to the 1973 National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice 
Standards and Goals that all police officers should possess an under¬ 
graduate degree by 1983, an examination of the current status of 
higher education among police in Alabama is needed. The purpose of 
this descriptive study is to determine the level of college education 
among police officers from selected agencies in Alabama, and to com¬ 
pare the results with national averages. Nine Alabama municipal 
police agencies were surveyed in order to determine the percentage of 
officers possessing two years of college, two to three years of col¬ 
lege, and four or more years of college education. The results of the 
analysis revealed that selected police agencies in Alabama range from 
a high of 85% of officers possessing college credits (exceeding the 
78% national average) to a low of 31%. The study has definite impli¬ 
cations for additional research. The research study has attempted' to 
construct baseline data for future comparisons of higher education 
among police officers, but correlations of percentage of college edu¬ 
cated police officers with jurisdiction size, educational pay incen¬ 
tives, agency proximity to educational institutions, and educational 
levels among supervisory ranks remain to be studied. 


Accreditation of Criminal Justice Education Programs: Is There A Need? 
Joseph Luskin, Dept, of Criminal Justice, Alabama State University. 

Accreditation for postsecondary educational programs in criminal 
justice has been a controversial issue among criminal justice educators 
for more than a decade. The development of accreditation, in general, 
is a distinctive characteristic of American education. The develop¬ 
ment of a good accreditation procedure in criminal justice however, 
has been unsuccessful over the years because of certain major areas of 
diverse opinions within the profession. As a consequence, there are 
polarized schools of thought as to whether or not criminal justice, as 
presently taught in degree awarding universities, should be under the 
aegis of an accreditating agency. Following a brief historical treat¬ 
ment of accreditation in the United States, this paper explores some 
of the pros and cons, the advantages and disadvantages of accredit¬ 
ation. The purpose of this paper is not to extol the virtues of either 
of the extreme positions over the other but rather to set the scene 
for a mutual philosophically oriented arena wherein a meeting of the 
minds may be accomplished. The position taken is that a profession 
requires its practitioners to conform to certain minimum standards of 
acceptance and that by voluntary participation in a universally 
recognized and respected accreditation agency, this objective can be 
accomplished 


177 



Abstracts 


REPERCUSSIONS OF ACCEPTANCE OF CRIME MYTHS ON INDIVIDUAL 
FEAR OF CRIME. Mark M. Lanier , Dept, of Criminal Justice, 
University of Alabama at Birmingham, University Station, 
Birmingham, AL. 35294. 

Crime myths are widespread in our society. 
Sociologists, criminologists, and other theorists have 
established the existence of these myths and have 
postulated as to their function. This study contributes 
to our understanding of the impact of crime myths by 
focusing on the repercussions of these myths on 
attitudes. The focus of this research is on whether or 
not an unsubstantiated, exaggerated perception of crime 
precipitates a heightened fear of crime. Media 
attention has been focused on the 'crime problem' and a 
'fear of crime' which reputedly exists among students 
attending the University of Alabama at Birmingham. One 
hundred fifty randomly selected university students were 
surveyed to measure an acceptance of myths and a fear of 
crime. Relationships were found to exist; myths are 
accepted and are positively related to an increased 
fear of crime. In addition, the visual mass media was 
eliminated as being a primary source of common crime 
myths--it is generally recognized as being unrealistic. 


RECENT RESEARCH WITH THE FAMOUS SAYINGS TEST. Charles EL_ Joubert , 
Dept, of Psychology, University of North Alabama, Florence, AL 35632 

Bass's Famous Sayings Test contains four scales derived through 
factor analysis: Conventional Mores, Hostility, Fear of Failure, and 
Social Acquiescence. The purpose of this research was to assess the 
presence of these traits in north Alabama and to compare locally 
observed norms with those of the original standardization group. An 
additional purpose was to determine the stability of these local norms 
over a fifteen-year period. Two samples of university students 
responded to the Famous Sayings test. The 1973 sample consisted of 
29 men and 50 women; while the 1988 sample consisted of 31 men and 54 
women. The results indicated that women scored higher than did men 
on Conventional Mores and Social Acquiescence, with no significant sex 
differences being observed on Hostility and Fear of Failure. No sig¬ 
nificant changes occurred on any of the four scales between 1973 and 
1988. When compared against the original standardization group, north 
Alabama women's means were higher on both Conventional Mores and 
Social Acquiescence in both 1973 and 1988; and higher on Hostility and 
Fear of Failure in 1988 only. Men's means on these scales compared 
with those of the original standardization group, with the exception 
of higher Hostility means in 1973. Finally, the Social Acquiescence 
scale correlated positively with Conventional Mores and Fear of 
Failure for both sexes and in both yearly samples. Hostility posi¬ 
tively correlated with Fear of Failure and Social Acquiescence scores 
in women. 


178 





Abstracts 


POLICE OFFICER FEMINIST ATTITUDES AND PERCEPTIONS OF FEMALE CRIME: 

AN EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS. John J. Sloan , Dept, of Criminal Justice, 
Univ. of Ala.-Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294. 

Criminologists have recently become interested in the extent and 
nature of female criminality. Most of this research has examined 
changes in female arrest trends over time using official sources of 
data. Less well researched is the area of the attitudes and percep¬ 
tions of criminal justice officials regarding female criminality, i.e. 
do criminal justice officials believe female criminality has changed 
and react to women suspects based on these beliefs? This study, using 
a sample of police officers from Indiana, analyzes links between po¬ 
lice officer feminist attitudes and officer perceptions of female 
criminality. The results indicate that officers generally hold strong 
anti-feminist views concerning women in work, politics, domestic 
matters and social matters, as well as that officers perceive female 
involvement in crime as more prevalent than previously, that female 
offenders are perceived as being more violent than before, and that 
the women's movement is partly responsible for the changing nature 
of female criminality. Officer perceptions of female offenders are 
in agreement with Adler's (1976) depiction of a "new female criminal". 
Explanations for these results are considered from two sources: 
organizational socialization into police work and occupational choice 
bringing together like minded individuals. 


VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL PROSECUTION: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE 
OF THE VICTIM. William E. Osterhoff , Dept, of Justice and Public Safety, Auburn Univ. 
at Montgomery, Montgomery, AL 36193. 

The role of the prosecutor In the American criminal Justice systems results In a combin¬ 
ation of quasl-Judlclal and political power which Is derived, In part, from his/her 
potential Involvement In almost every stage of the criminal Justice system process. 

The prosecutor, as a representative of the state and the criminal Justice system, has the 
responsibility of assuring that Justice occurs within the criminal justice system. The 
prosecutor's goals also Include obtaining convictions of guilty defendants and protecting 
the rights and Interests of the victims whose cooperation Is needed for successful prose¬ 
cution of offenders. Two models by which prosecutors can manage their caseloads are 
vertical and horizontal prosecution. In vertical prosecution, one prosecutor handles a 
case at all stages of the proceedings, whereas In horizontal prosecution, different 
prosecutors handle the various stages of the proceedings. For victims of violent crimes 
such as child abuse and rape, vertical prosecution offers several advantages over horizon¬ 
tal prosecution. The victim Is not forced to repeat the details of the criminal act to 
different prosecutors at each stage of the criminal Justice process. Because of the one- 
to-one relationship with the prosecutor, the victim Is provided with more continuity and 
Is more likely to have Input Into each stage of the criminal Justice process. Vertical 
prosecution also benefits witnesses and professionals who might testify on behalf of the 
victim. Disadvantages of vertical prosecution result when there Is rapid turnover In 
staff In the prosecutor's office and when the prosecutor who Is assigned to a victim Is 
Inexperienced or less than optimally competent. 


179 






Abstracts 


HEALTH SCIENCES 


ANALYSIS OF A SURFACE PROTEIN FROM A PspA (PNEUMOCOCCAL 
SURFACE PROTEIN A) MUTANT. Timothy E. Hughes and Larry S. 
McDaniel. University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 
35294. 

PspA was originally identified using monoclonal antibodies 
that can protect mice against intravenous challenge with several 
strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. We previously reported on 
the isolation of insertionally inactivated mutants of strain Rxl 
which fail to express this cell surface protein. In analyzing other 
cell wall components that can elicit protective responses, we have 
produced a hybridoma cell line, designated SC25, that secretes an 
IgM, k antibody which reacts with a non-PspA pneumococcal 
surface protein. SC25 was generated from a CBA/N mouse that 
was immunized with a protection eliciting gel filtration fraction of 
cell wall material from a PspA mutant. By Western blotting this 
antibody detects a broad range of molecular weight bands in a 
single pneumococcal isolate. Not unlike some monoclonal 
antibodies against PspA, this antibody fails to protect mice against 
pneumococcal challenge. We have identified clones in a Xgtll 
expression library of genomic pneumococcal DNA that react with 
this monoclonal antibody. We are characterizing these clones to 
assess the ability of this protein to elicit protection against 
pneumococcal infection in mice. 


SANDPLAY THERAPY. Frances Gatewood, School of Nursing, University of 
Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294. 

Sandplay is a psychotherapeutic modality in which clients create 
three dimensional scenes, pictures or abstract designs with sand, 
water and a large number of miniature realistic figures. It can take 
place with few or no words and change is experienced and observed in 
behavior. Sandplay is based on the postulate that the psyche contains 
a drive toward wholeness and health. This drive toward realization of 
potential, suggests that the psyche, like the body, under adequate 
circumstances, has a tendency to heal itself. Sandplay provides a 
"free and protected space" for this to happen and a br-idge between 
inner and outer life. 


180 





Abstracts 


Axillary Versus Rectal Temperatures in Children Under Four Years of Age 

J. Colleen Russell . Captain, Army Nurse Corps, Pediatric Nurse Practi¬ 
tioner, Graduate Student, University of Alabama at Birmingham. 

Abstracts This descriptive study was designed to ascertain if there 
was a significant difference between axillary and rectal temperature 
measurements in children under 4 years of age. Instruments utilized 
were an investigator constructed demographic tool and 2 glass thermo¬ 
meters (one rectal and one oral thermometer). (Results supported cur¬ 
rent literature). Although a paired differences t test revealed a sig¬ 
nificant statistical difference between the two measurements, the mean 
temperatures of 98.52° F for axillary temperatures and 99-21° F for 
rectal temperatures are statistically correlated. Therefore, it is not 
clinically significant to warrant the discomfort and risk of physical 
insult caused tjy rectal temperature measurements. Recommendations for 
future research include: (a) repeat of study changing thermometer 
placement times to 3 minutes for rectal temperatures and 5 minutes for 
axillary temperatures, (b) repeat of study in children with febrile 
episodes versus healthy children, (c) study the differences in morning 
versus afternoon temperatures in the same subjects. 

Acknowledgements: I express my gratitude to my advisors and research 
committee, chaired by Dr Kathleen Dobbs and later by Dr. Kathryn Wood, 
who inspired the topic for research£ Dr. Kathryn Barchard, and Dr. Ann 
Edgil, who advised on statistical analysis,and editorial advisement, 
respectively; my sister, Rhonda Russell, and my classmate, Lisa South, 
who provided editorial and typing services; my friend, Jewell Fleetwood, 
who provided computer time for final writing? the Pediatric Clinic 
staff and subjects who allowed the conduction of the study; and my fam¬ 
ily who provided loving, prayerful support throughout the entire pro¬ 
cess of obtaining a Master's Degree. 


NUTRASWEET: A COMPARISON OF CONSUMPTION LEVELS OF COLLEGE STUDENTS 
WITH THE UNITED STATES GENERAL POPULATION. Mary-Martin Nordness 
and Jan Case, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Samford 
University, Birmingham, AL 35229. 

A review of related research concerning the consumption of 
NutraSweet, as well as phosphorus and caffeine, is presented with 
emphasis on studies concerning females. National per capita 
figures from the U. S. Department of Agriculture are used as a 
basis for evaluating the consumption levels of 105 Samford 
University students who answered a questionnaire prepared by the 
authors. 


181 






Abstracts 


USING MAGNITUDE ESTIMATION SCALING TO EXAMINE THE VALIDITY OF NURSING 
DIAGNOSIS. Joan S, Grant , School of Nursing, University of Alabama at 
Birmingham, University Station, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 

This descriptive exploratory study was guided by a diagnostic reasoning 
framework and used magnitude estimation scaling (MES) to examine the 
construct validity of the nursing diagnoses altered level of conscious¬ 
ness: arousal and altered level of consciousness: content. I) What are 
critical defining characteristics? 2) What are important defining 
characteristics? 3) What are clinical manifestations? MES is a techni¬ 
que in which numbers are assigned to stimuli in proportion to the 
magnitude of subjective responses. Thirty nurse subjects scored the 
importance and frequency of defining characteristic in confirming both 
diagnoses. Critical defining characteristics for altered level of 
consciousness: arousal were no motor response to painful stimuli, no 
brainstem reflex activity, abnormal extension posturing, abnormal 
flexion posturing, fixed eye position, no motor response...auditory 
stimuli, and diminished brainstem reflex activity. The correlation 
between the geometric means of the defining characteristics for impor¬ 
tance and frequency was not significant (£=-.19, £=.32). Critical 
defining characteristics for altered level of consciousness: content 
were inappropriate behavior, incomprehensible speech, only obeys one- 
step commands, inappropriate speech, and impaired recent memory. There 
was a significant relationship between the geometric means of the 
defining characteristics for importance and frequency for altered level 
of consciousness: content (£=.62, £=.001). There was support for con¬ 
struct validity of the nursing diagnoses. MES was a useful technique 
for examining the construct validity of both nursing diagnoses. 

(Support provided by Alabama Academia of Science; Sigma Theta Tau, & 
AANN.) 


DEMOGRAPHY OF HIV INFECTIONS IN ALABAMA. Bradley R. Ware , Dept, of 
Family Medicine, Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487. 

The spread of HIV infection in Alabama continues to escalate. 
The distribution of the disease, however, is not strictly confined 
to the major metropolitan areas (population greater than 100,000). 
According to the AIDS update compiled by the Alabama Department of 
Health, as of February 1989, there have been 476 cases of AIDS 
reported. Of interest is the fact that of those counties with a 
population of less that 50,000, 12 counties have no cases diagnosed 
and the rate per 100,000 ranges from 2.6 to 33. For the population 
between 50-100,000 the rate is from 1.7-14.5, and for the counties 
with a population greater than 100,000 the rate is from 1.9-23.2. 
This comparison of the range of the rate per hundred thousand and 
population per county suggests there are a significant number of HIV 
infections in the rural population. 


182 




Abstracts 


STRESSORS, LEVELS OF STRESS, AND SELF-CARE ACTIONS TO REDUCE STRESS IN 
PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN. Linda Roberts, Dept, of Nursing, North 
Georgia College, Dahlonega, Georgia 30597. 

The purpose of this study was to ascertain gender-related 
stressors, levels of stress, and self-care actions for reducing stress 
in preadolescent children; and to ascertain if there were differences 
between mothers' perceptions and children's perceptions of the same 
variables. Orem's (1985) Self-Care Nursing Model and concepts related 
to stress were the framework guiding the study. An exploratory/ 
descriptive design was used to collect data from 64 preadolescent 
subjects and their mothers, using three research instruments. 
Descriptive, Chi-square, and t-test analyses of data revealed the 
following findings: (a) "fighting with sibling(s)" was the most 
frequently occurring stressor; (b) stress levels in the majority of 
children were average; (c) "trying to forget about it" was the most 
common self-care action used by children to reduce stress; (d) 
participation in organized activities, talking to parents, and 
interaction with others as well as pets were mentioned by the child 
subjects as helpful in reducing stress; (e) mothers identified similar 
stressors and self-care actions to reduce stress as their children, but 
mentioned stressors related to school problems more often than the 
child subjects; (f) there were no statistically significant differences 
between the child subjects' levels of stress and the levels of stress 
as perceived by mothers; (g) there was a statistically significant 
association between mothers talking to children directly about how to 
manage stress and the child subjects' levels of stress; (h) there were 
few gender-related differences in stressors, levels of stress, and 
self-care actions to reduce stress. 


PRIMARY PERITONITIS: CASE REPORT AND LITERATURE REVIEW. Todd 
Sherrer and Robert E. Pieroni, College of Community Health Sciences, 
Univ. of Ala., Tuscaloosa, AL 35487. 

Primary peritonitis is an inflammatory process of the peritoneal 
cavity with no documented source of contamination such as a perfo¬ 
rated viscus or penetrating injury. Alcoholic liver disease and 
ascites are major predisposing factors to primary peritonitis in 
adults. This disorder can present with minimal peritoneal signs and 
the clinical picture is often dominated by a more obvious problem. 

The significant mortality rate and subtle presentation mandate that 
the clinician have a high index of suspicion in the predisposed 
population. The characteristies of primary peritonitis will be 
discussed and a typical case which emphasizes many of the features 
of this often unrecognized disorder will be presented. 


183 









Abstracts 


COMPARISONS OF DUBOWITZ SCORES OF NEWBORN INFANTS AT 2, 12, and 24 
HOURS AFTER BIRTH. Penne Mott , Graduate Study, University of Alabama 
School of Nursing, Birmingham, AL 35294. 

Assessing the gestational age of the newborn infant is a routine 
practice of neonatal health care providers. When used in combination 
with the infant's weight, determinations can be made about the infant's 
size for gestational age. The clinical care provided to an infant is 
often based on knowledge acquired from these parameters. Utilizing the 
Dubowitz scoring system of assessment for gestational age, assessments 
can be performed anytime up to 5 days after birth. Research substanti¬ 
ating the accuracy of these scores at different time periods post- 
delivery is lacking. The purpose of this study was to ascertain if 
there were statistically significant differences in the Dubowitz scores 
of newborn infants at 2, 12, and 24 hours after birth. The study popu¬ 
lation consisted of 24 full-term neonates that were products of spon¬ 
taneous, low forceps vaginal, and cesarean section deliveries. Sepa¬ 
rate Dubowitz assessments on a single infant were completed within 2 
hours of delivery, repeated again when the infant was 12 hours old, and 
then again at 24 hours of age. Descriptive data was collected concern¬ 
ing the infant's weight, apgar scores, and gestational age. A one-way 
factor ANOVA with repeated measures were performed on the Dubowitz 
scores obtained at the predetermined time intervals. Significant dif¬ 
ferences were found between the scores at 2 and 12 hours, 2 and 24 
hours, and 12 and 24 hours at the £ = .05, .01, and .01, respectively. 
The findings of this study do not support the findings of time stabil¬ 
ity of Dubowitz (1977). The implications drawn from this study are 
that a need exists for assessing Dubowitz scores at specific times 
after delivery. 'These results indicate that policies should be 
specific regarding timing of the Dubowitz assessment. 


PERCEIVED IMMEDIATE NEEDS OF PARENTS WITH YOUNG CHILDREN IN AN 
INTENSIVE CARE UNIT. Carol L. Holcombe , R.N., M.S.N., Cardiac 
Referral Coordinator, Baptist Medical Center - Montclair, Birmingham, 
Alabama, 35213. Jan E. Christopher , R.N., M.S.N., Instructor, 
University of Alabama School of Nursing, UAB, Birmingham, Alabama. 

The purpose of the study was to identify perceived immediate 
needs of parents with young children in an intensive care unit. The 
tool utilized for data collection was a questionnaire consisting of 
45 need statements. Each statement was scored by the parents on a 
scale of 1-4, with 1 being least important and 4 most important. The 
sample consisted of 30 parents with a child between the ages of 1 and 
4 in a pediatric intensive care unit. An item mean was calculated for 
each statement and ranked according to their mean scores. Based on 
the findings it was concluded that the need for explanations, 
information, and having questions answered honestly were perceived as 
most important by the majority of the subjects. 


184 






Abstracts 


SELF-ESTEEM IN THE KINDERGARTEN CHILD. Martha G. Lavender . University 
of Alabama School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 
Birmingham, AL 35294. 

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between 
maternal self-esteem, work status, and sociodemographic characteristics, 
i.e., age, sex, race, birth order, socioeconomic status, family 
structure, and child care arrangements, and self-esteem of the 
kindergarten child. The conceptual framework was derived from the Roy 
Adaptation Model of Nursing and self-esteem theory. 

The convenience sample of this study was comprised of 130 mother- 
child dyads. A stepwise multiple regression procedure was employed on 
the data. For the total sample, child care arrangements, family 
structure, age and sex were significantly related to the child's 
self-esteem (£ < .05). A significant relationship existed between child 
care arrangements and the self-esteem of kindergarten children of 
working mothers <£ < .05). The self-esteem of kindergarten children of 
non-working mothers was significantly related to age, sex, race, birth 
order, and maternal self-esteem (£ < .05). 

Based on the findings, a lower self-esteem in these children was 
related to child care provided by parents as opposed to relative or 
non-relative care. Two parent families, being male, and younger had a 
positive influence on the children's self-esteem. Among the children of 
non-working mothers, a high maternal self-esteem, being firstborn, and 
being black negatively influenced the children's self-esteem. 
Socioeconomic status was not related to the children's self-esteem. 


MYELOGRAM: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ROUTE OF FLUID ADMINISTRATION AND 
SEVERITY OF SIDE EFFECTS IN POST-IOPAMIDOL MYELOGRAM PATIENTS. 
Kathy H. Nelson, School of Nursing in the Graduate School, 
University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL. 

The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship 
between route of administration of fluids and severity of side 
effects in post-iopamidol myelogram patients. If the patient could 
be adequately hydrated with fluids by mouth, pre- and post¬ 
myelogram, the unnecessary risks, pain, and cost of the intravenous 
procedure could perhaps be eliminated. Orem's self-care deficit 
theory of nursing served as the nursing framework for the study. 
Subjects hydrated only by mouth or combined intravenously and 
orally were analyzed for severity of side effects following lumbar 
myelography. No statistically significant relationship between 
route of fluid administration and severity of side effects was 
found. From these results recommendations were made for nursing 
educators, future nursing research, and for nursing practice. 


185 





Abstracts 


SELENIUM BLOOD LEVELS IN RENAL DEFICIENT PATIENTS. A_;_ Mllly and L. 
C. Wit, Dept, of Zoology and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn, AL. 36849; C. 
J. Diskin, Opelika Nephrology Referral Center, Opelika, AL. 36801. 

Low blood selenium (se) levels have been proposed as a cause for 
the increased incidence of cancer and uremic cardiomyopthy in renal 
failure patients. The objective of this study was to determine if 
renal failure patients do, in fact, have low blood se levels and to 
correlate any changes in blood se with changes in the various se 
carriers such as RBCs, albumin and alpha-2 globulin. Blood se levels 
were determined in 3 groups (chronic renal failure, nephrotic 
syndrome, hemodialysis) of approximately 10 renal deficient patients, 
and from controls matched for sex and age. Se was determined in 
fractions of the blood (plasma and whole blood) by the method of wet 
digestion followed by flameless AAS with a graphite furnace. 
Additionally, se levels in the pre- and post-dialysate water of the 
hemodialysis patients were determined to detect losses across the 
dialysis membrane. Paired t-tests were used to determine differences 
in blood se, se carriers and pre- and post-dialysis water. The 
post-dialysis water of the hemodialysis patients had no more se than 
the pre-dialysis water. Neither whole blood nor plasma se levels 
differed between patients and controls within any group (p<.05). 
Within all groups, a positive correlation (r=*.3496; p*.01) existed 
between alpha-2 globulin and plasma se, while other se carriers showed 
no correlation. Alpha-2 globulin levels did not differ between 
patients and controls within any group. These data suggest normal 
levels of se and alpha-2 globulin in these patients and caution should 
be observed in prescribing se supplementation. Funded by East Alabama 
Chapter of the National Kidney Foundation of Alabama. 


HIV INFECTION: A DISEASE OF INDIVIDUALS, NOT INDIVIDUAL. Bradley R . 
Ware, Department of Family Medicine, Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, 

AL 35487. 

HIV infection is certainly a disease inflicting an individual. 
However, it is a disease which affects individuals. This author has 
cared for HIV positive individuals in a rural area. In each case the 
effects encountered by the physician who becomes associated with any 
infected individual are quite taxing. The range of these effects 
extends from the physician and the office staff, to those who have a 
close relationship with the patient, and to the community at large. 

The physician must repeatedly reassure the office staff of its safety, 
and provide the necessary known precautions. The physician is fre¬ 
quently required to answer questions and concerns by those who are 
close to the patient. The community's concerns must be addressed by 
the physician for many reasons (i.e., to keep from losing patients, 
or to prevent unnecessary fears leading to violent consequences). 

For the treating physician, HIV infection is truly a disease of 
individuals. 


186 





Abstracts 


SWITCHING OF HEMOGLOBIN PROPORTIONS TOWARD NEWBORN VALUES IN ADULT RATS 
BY HYDROXYUREA IS BLOCKED BY ASPIRIN. Harold J. Spears and Mukul C. 
Datta, Dept, of Chemistry and Carver Research Foundation, Tuskegee 
University, Tuskegee, AL 36088. 

This study was carried out firstly to determine whether hydroxy¬ 
urea (HU) that induces fetal hemoglobin (HbF) synthesis in humans and 
primates can also induce newborn like Hb proportions in ml Idly anemic 
adult rats. If so, then secondly, to explore the possible involvement 
of other factor(s) in the process of HU-mediated Hb switching. Mild 
anemia was developed in normal adult Sprague-Dawley rats by controlled 
bleeding. A fixed dose of HU (75 mg/500g) was administered each time 
intravenously in each of such anemic rats for altogether 25 times cove¬ 
ring a span of 35 days. Anemia of moderate degree was maintained du¬ 
ring the entire drug regimen. Blood samples at several points of the 
drug treatment were analysed by ion-exchange chromatography to separate 
and quantitate the Hb components. A significant increasing pattern was 
measured for Hb components I, II and IV in red cells of the HU—treated 
rats compared to the anemic control rats, a situation analogous to that 
observed between normal adult and newborn samples. However, aspirin 
intake at a dose level of 20 mg/day/500g along with HU administration 
totally blocked the changeover of Hb components toward newborn propor¬ 
tions. Since aspirin is known to inhibit pros tag] and in synthesis, the 
present results reveal the importance of concurrent prostaglandin syn¬ 
thesis for the expression of the HU-mediated changes in Hb proportions 
toward newborn values in adult rats. Delineation of the mechanism of 
regulation of fetal hemoglobin in adults might be of therapeutic bene¬ 
fit in patients with sickle cell anemia or severe variants of homozy¬ 
gous beta—thalassemia. 


AMBULATORY HEALTH CARE IN THE WESTERN DEMOCRACIES: POLICIES TO FOSTER 
ITS EXPANSION. C. George Tulli, Jr. , Capstone Medical Center, 
University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35401. 

During the last two decades all the western democracies have 
had to face sharp increases in public spending for health service 
expenditures. In response, many governments have attempted to curb 
this unchecked growth by adopting various cost containment strate¬ 
gies. One such strategy embraces the expansion of ambulatory health 
services. The successful expansion of health services has apparent¬ 
ly occurred, however, when primarily coupled with government poli¬ 
cies that either restrict the availability of inpatient care or 
promote the expansion of primary health and medical care. From 
the data provided by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and 
Development, relationships were established between public spending 
on ambulatory health services and hospital occupancy rates 
(r s = 0.86} and between public spending on ambulatory health 
services and general practice physician population ratios 
(r s = 0.42). 


187 










Abstracts 


PRELIMINARY STUDY OF GROUNDWATER MICROBIOTA ASSOCIATED WITH AQUIFER 
THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE (ATES). T. E. Thompson , C. E. Brett, F. S. 
Allison, J. A. Neville, C. Shea, and A. L. Winters, Dept, of 
Microbiology and the Natural Resources Center, Univ. of Ala., 
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487. R. J. Hicks, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, 
Richland, WA 99352. 

The Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) system used at the 
Univerisity of Alabama is an engineering technology that uses thermal 
transfer from chilled groundwater to cool a recreation center. This 
technology has the potential for reducing the national demand for 
fossil fuels with a corresponding reduction in pollution. The 
objective of this project is to examine ATES-associated groundwater 
for possible changes in the indigenous microbial populations and for 
the presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Water samples are being 
collected from six sites within the ATES system over four seasons to 
develop a microbial profile of the associated aquifer water. 

Bacterial populations under investigation include heterotrophs, 
coliforms, and pathogens. Pathogens from the genera Legionella, 
Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Vibrio, Yersinia, and 
Mycobacteria are targeted for detection by selective cultivation 
methods. Data from one season of sampling indicate a stable 
heterotrophic population that contains low numbers of Pseudomonas 
and non-fecal coliform species. No human pathogens were detected, 
indicating that the ATES system does not contribute to pathogen 
levels in the aquifer during the winter cycle. 

Supported by Battelle Subcontract B-H5383-A-0. 


AN ASSESSMENT OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR IN FENFLURAMINE-TREATED RATS. 
Ronald N. Hunsinger , Jennifer Dole, and Joni Justice. Department of 
Biological Sciences, Samford University, Birmingham, AL 35229. 

Fenfluramine ( FN ) is a drug which causes a rapid release of brain 
serotonin. Thus, a single dose of the drug often elicits various ser¬ 
otonergic-dependent behaviors. Since FN also blocks the reuptake of 
serotonin into the nerve terminal, it is possible that repeated admin¬ 
istration of the drug might attenuate such functions, as a result of 
neurotransmitter depletion. In this study, we observed that a single 
dose of FN ( 10 mg/kg, i.p, ) significantly depressed attack behavior, 
a spontaneous form of aggression, in rats 24 h following drug injec¬ 
tion. Parallel locomotor tests conducted on these animals suggest that 
some sedation may have existed at the time of testing. In other 
trials, no significant differences in either spontaneous aggression or 
locomotor activity were observed in rats receiving FN ( 10 mg/kg, i.p.) 
for 14 days, as compared to saline controls. Additionally, predatory 
aggressive behavior, as assessed by the muricide test, in rats re¬ 
ceiving the 14-day FN regimen was no different from that of saline 
controls. 


188 





Abstracts 


COMMUNICATION SKILLS: EFFECTS OF TEACHING UNSKILLED HEALTH CARE WORKERS 
CONFIRMATION/DISCONFIRMATION COMMUNICATION PATTERNS WHEN INTERACTING 
WITH ELDERLY CLIENTS. GLENDA AVERY , Marlys Bates, Ben Fones , & Donna 
Roper; Gay Reeves, Advisor, B.S.N., Miss. Univ. for Women, Columbus, MS 
39701. 

The purpose of this study was to decide if unskilled health care 
workers' communication skills with elderly clients were significantly 
affected by a 45-minute teaching session on therapeutic communications. 
A quasi-experimental research design was implemented using a convenient 
sampling of 16 unskilled health care workers in a 142-bed rural nursing 
home. The experimental group consisted of eight unskilled health care 
workers who attended the teaching session. The control group consisted 
of eight unskilled health care workers who did not attend a teaching 
session. Three weeks after the teaching session, researchers made on¬ 
site observations of 173 interactions between unskilled health care 
workers and elderly clients. The observations occurred at two differ¬ 
ent time intervals. A checklist based on Heineken's modified version 
of the Sieburg tool on confirmation/disconfirmation interactions and a 
master list identifying members of the experimental and control group 
was used to compile statistical data. Data analysis was obtained 
by using the Chi-Square goodness of fit one tailed-t^ test using p=.05, 
d.f.=7,X 2 = 14.07 . The calculated t value was 1.79. Therefore, the re¬ 
searchers failed to reject the null hypothesis. The conclusion of the 
study was that the teaching session did not significantly improve un¬ 
skilled health care workers' therapeutic communication skills with the 
elderly clients. However, analysis of the data revealed the experimen¬ 
tal group demonstrated a 4 % increase of confirmation patterns. This 
finding indicates that additional research may reveal significant 
statistical data to support the hypothesis of this study. 


COMPARISON OF JOB SATISFACTION IN STAFF REGISTERED NURSES. Gretchen A. 
Kennemer, University of Alabama Hospital, Birmingham, AL 35294. 

The purpose of this descriptive study was to ascertain if there 
is a difference in job satisfaction between staff registered nurses 
employed in the same institution for five or more years and new 
graduate nurses employed less than one year. The convenience sample 
consisted of 40 subjects, 20 of whom were staff registered nurses 
employed in the same institution for five or more years and 20 of whom 
were new graduate nurses employed less than one year. The Minnesota 
Satisfaction Questionnaire was used for data collection. Multivariant 
analysis of variance was used to test the null hypothesis. The Neuman 
Systems Model was found to be adequate and appropriate for the purpose 
of the study. There was a statistically significant difference on 
extrinsic satisfaction but not intrinsic satisfaction. New graduate 
nurses employed less than one year were more satisfied than the staff 
registered nurses employed in the same institution for five or more 
years. Implications for nursing practice and education are presented. 
Recommendations, including a larger and more representative sample as 
well as an investigation of the recognition and advancement variables 
of job satisfaction, are suggested for future research. 


189 




Abstracts 


ROLE STRAIN FOR THE MALE NURSING STUDENT IN THE OBSTETRICAL AREA. 
Roy Ann Sherrod, Capstone College of Nursing, Univ. of Ala., 
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0358. 

The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a 
difference in the reported existence of role strain for male and 
female nursing students in the obstetrical area. Goode's (1960) 
theory of role strain and role theory were used as the conceptual 
framework. The null hypothesis was there would be no statistically 
significant difference in reported role strain as described by the 
Sherrod Role Strain Scale (SRSS) experienced by male and female 
baccalaureate nursing students in the obstetrical area. The SRSS 
was completed by 18 male and 18 female nursing students after their 
obstetrical nursing experience. Independent t-test comparisons of 
male and female nursing students on the overall scale and the four 
subscales of role strain overload, conflict, incongruity, and 
ambiguity at the 0.5 level of significance resulted in the 
rejection of the null hypothesis by the researcher. Implications 
for nurse educators and nursing were delineated with specific 
methods to facilitate a more rewarding educational experience for 
the male nursing student such as avoiding stereotyping, using 
anticipatory guidance, and presenting an equitable perspective. 
Recommendations for further research included replication of the 
study with exploration of relationships among selected demographic 
variables, refinement of the Sherrod Role Strain Scale (SRSS), and 
investigation of methods to reduce role strain. Other 
recommendations for nursing education and practice included the 
provision of an environment conducive to learning and reducing role 
strain for the male nursing student in the obstetrical setting. 


COMPARISON OF SELF CONCEPT OF SCHOOL AGE SURVIVORS OF ACUTE LEUKEMIA 
AND SELF CONCEPT OF HEALTHY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN. Lisa D. South , 
University of Alabama School of Nursing, University of Alabama at 
Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294. 

This descriptive study was designed to ascertain if there was 
a difference in self-concept of school age survivors of acute leukemia 
and self-concept of healthy school age children. The sample consisted 
of 11 survivors of acute leukemia and 11 healthy children, aged 8 
to 12 years, and matched for age, race, and sex. Instruments utilized 
were an investigator constructed demographic tool and the Piers-Harris 
Children's Self-Concept Scale. One way analysis of variance revealed 
a significant difference in self-concept between the two groups. 
Significant differences were also found between the two groups on 
the Physical Appearance and Attributes subfactor and the Intellectual 
and School Status subfactor of the self-concept tool. Recommendations 
for future research include: (a) longitudinal studies to assess 
developmental, environmental, and family influences on the self- 
concept, (b) comparison of children at different stages of cancer 
therapy, and (c) comparison of various treatment regimes in regards 
to self-concept. 


190 



Abstracts 


THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF SPINAL CORD INJURY. Michael J. DeVivo, Dept, 
of Rehab. Medicine, Univ. of Alabama at Binn., Birmingham, AL 35294. 

This study examined the direct and indirect costs incurred by 
spinal cord injury patients, the aggregate costs to society and ways 
to reduce these costs using a combination of previously published 
information and new data from the National Spinal Cord Injury Statis¬ 
tical Center. Costs for patients treated at the University of Alabama 
Hospital were considered separately and compared with national cost 
estimates. Nationally, in 1987 dollars, average first year costs, 
which include initial acute care, rehabilitation and all post-dis¬ 
charge expenses up to the first anniversary of injury, ranged from 
$64,674 per person for neurologically incomplete paraplegics to 
$153,682 for neurologically complete quadriplegics. Average annual 
costs thereafter ranged from $7,997 to $38,758, respectively. Over¬ 
all, the comparable range for the average present value for all 
direct costs following injury was from $186,744 to $507,611. Based 
on the likelihood of returning to gainful employment following injury, 
the average present value of forgone earnings was conservatively 
estimated to range from $139,625 for incomplete paraplegics to 
$284,371 for complete quadriplegics. Using current estimates of the 
incidence of spinal cord injury, conservative estimates of national 
aggregate annual direct costs were $2.24 billion while indirect costs 
were an additional $3.39 billion. Since life expectancies have been 
increasing for these patients, direct costs are expected to increase 
in the future while indirect costs may decline slightly. To reduce 
these enormous costs, increased efforts aimed at primary, secondary 
and tertiary prevention, as well as increasing the reemployment rate 
and utilizing more cost-effective treatment modalities will be needed. 


PILOT STUDY: EVALUATION OF DIETARY TREATMENT OF OBESITY IN A GROUP 
PRACTICE SETTING. Carol B. Murphree , Robert E. Pieroni, C. George 
Tulli, Jr. and Margaret P. Garner, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, 
Alabama 35401. 

How effective is the dietary treatment of obesity in a group 
practice setting? To answer this question, a pilot study of sixty- 
seven patients was conducted. The patients were divided into 
several categories, including demographic information, socio¬ 
economic status and weight reduction. For this limited sample, 
the results indicated that age, sex, education, and distance 
apparently had little bearing on potential weight loss. While 
equal percentages of men and women lost weight, women did have a 
higher percentage of weight gain. The documented cases of low 
motivation and negative family support were observed among the 
patients who gained weight. Another interesting result was that 
fifty percent of the patients lost weight between the physician 
referral date and the initial visit with the consulting dietitian. 
Regardless of whether or not the patients gained or lost weight 
after nutrition visits, thirty-four of the sixty-seven patients 
lost weight when the physician referred them to the dietitian. 


191 





Abstracts 


NURSING DOCUMENTATION. Darlene H. Renfroe, School of Nursing, 
Samford University, B'ham, AL 35229. 

The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of 
nurses' attitude, subjective norm, and behavioral intention to 
their documentation behavior using Ajzen and Fishbein's theory 
of reasoned action. A total of 108 questionnaires with 
accompanying documentation data were obtained frcm staff nurses 
in three hospitals in the southeast. The nurses' attitudes, 
subjective norms, and behavioral intentions toward documentation 
were elicited using standard Ajzen-Fishbein format. Documentation 
behavior was based on what should be documented in any 
hospitalized patient's chart in an eight-hour shift. The model 
was analyzed with LISREL VI. The overall fit of the final model 
bo the data was good, as judged by a chi-square of 3.41 (df=7, 
p=.845). The total coefficient of determination for the 
structural equation was .461. Results indicated that nurses' 
attitude toward documentation did not relate significantly to 
their intention to document optimally. Subjective norm did have 
a significant effect on behavioral intent. There was a 
significant positive relationship between subjective norm and 
attitude. Behavioral intent had a significant effect on 
documentation behavior, accounting for 15.2% of the variance. It 
appears that subjective norm, which is the influence of others, 
is what directs the intention to document and thus relates to the 
subsequent documentation. Reccrrmendations for practice include 
the camtunication of high ideals and expectations of important 
others to the staff nurse in order to improve the quality of 
documentation. 


AIDS SEROPOSITIVITY RATES IN SOUTHERN STATES: A DISTRIBUTION 
ANALYSIS. Robert E. Pieroni , College of Community Health Sciences, 
Univ. of Ala., Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0326. Walter J. Jones, Health 
Services Administration, Memphis State University, Memphis, TN 38152. 
James A. Johnson, Dept, of Health Services Administration, Medical 
University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425. 

In analyzing the development and spread of AIDS in Southern 
states, it is clear that the states of Florida, Georgia and Louisiana 
have been most severely afflicted to date. These three states have 
the highest cumulative totals of AIDS cases, as well as the largest 
number of cases reported in 1988. However, the rate of increase in 
reported AIDS cases is actually higher in other Southern states 
(such as Mississippi and alabama) which have not been as affected by 
the AIDS epidemic until recently. Southern metropolitan areas most 
affected by AIDS include Miami, Fort Lauderdale and Tampa in Florida, 
and Atlanta, Georgia. As in other regions, the spread of AIDS in the 
South has disproportionately affected black and latino minority 
groups, and has recently involved a decline in the proportion of 
cases involving homosexual and bisexual males, and a corresponding 
increase in reported AIDS among IV-drug-using males and females. 


192 



Abstracts 


MJNCHMJSEN'S SYNDROME: A CASE REPORT AND LITERATURE REVIEW. Richard 
Gist and Robert Pieroni, College of Caimmity Health Sciences, Univ. 
of Ala., Tuscaloosa , AL 35487. 

Munchausen's syndrome encompasses three clinical entities, each of 
which has sore similar features. These have been classified as A) a 
factitious disorder with physical symptoms, B) a factitious disorder 
with psychiatric symptoms, and C) a factitious disorder with atypical 
symptoms. The most cannon presentation is type A. Patients with this 
disorder usually fabricate elaborate and often convincing symptans in 
order to gain admission to medical facilities. These patients may 
undergo painful and frequently dangerous diagnostic and therapeutic 
procedures in order to remain in the health care facility. They often 
display extensive medical knowledge and, occasionally, are narcotic 
abusers. It is postulate! that the primary gain for these patients 
is attention by the medical and nursing staff - attention that had 
been denied them as a result of parental neglect, abandonment, or 
abuse. This is in contrast to malingering, in which there is usually 
a primary gain, e.g. narcotics for support of an addiction, food and 
shelter, or escape fron legal authorities. Munchausen's syndrome may 
also present with psychiatric symptoms or atypically, such as by proxy. 
We will describe the case of a thirty-eight year old white male who 
presented to the Capstone Internal Medicine Service at DCH Regional 
Medical Center with very convincing cardiac symptomatology. On 
further evaluation he was found to fulfill criteria of Munchausen's 
svndrare, type A. His hospital course and a review of germane litera¬ 
ture will be presented, as will methods to help medical personnel 
identify this intriguing syndrore. 


DETERMINATION OF INITIAL LIFT RESISTANCE IN A STRENGTH TRAINING PROGRAM 
Terry Hoobler and Kennon Francis, Division of Physical Therapy, Univ. 
of Ala. at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294. 

Determination of baseline strength measurements using cable tensi¬ 
ometer, weight prediction tables and one/five/ten repition maximum(RM) 
lifts were compared with isometric and concentric strength measures 
from the Lido 2.0 Active Isokinetic Dynamometer in the same population. . 
30 healthy males, ages 18 to 43, with no prohibiting medical conditions 
were tested. All subjects were randomly tested for baseline maximal 
strength using each of the assessments listed above. All methods incl¬ 
uded calibration with standardized weights. A Pearson Product Moment 
Correlation was used to examine the relationship between variables. 
Results of the study indicated high correlations and statistical sign¬ 
ificance (p 0.01) between the data from the Lido 2.0Act and: one/five/ 
ten RM free weight lifts, cable tensiometer values at 90 and 120 
degrees of motion. Cable tensiometer values at 45 degrees of motion and 
prediction of initial lift with weight based tables were not statistic¬ 
ally significant. This study supports the use of one/five/ten RM tests 
or isokinetic dynamometer measurement for determining intial lift 
resistance in setting up an exercise program. 


193 





Abstracts 


AMP DEAMINASE ISOZYMAL CHANGES IN THE HEART OF 
STREPTOZOTOCIN DIABETIC RATS. Ronald L.Jenkins Dept. 
Biology Samford Univ. Birmingham"^ AL 35229, Linda 
Atkins and Huey G. McDaniel, Veterans Administration 
Medical Center, Birmingham, AL 35233. 

Five adult male Long-Evans rats were made diabetic with 40 
mg/kg, ip. injection of streptozotocin. Five male litter 
mates served as control. The diabetes was pronounced 
(>400 mg% blood glucose) from the 3rd until the 28th day. 
Isozymes of AMP deaminase from mitochondrial and from 
cytosolic fractions were separated on cellulose phosphate 
with a linear gradient of KC1 (50 mM to 1000 mM). AMP 
deaminase activity from column eluants was determined by 
the rate of conversion of AMP to IMP which was quantited 
by ion-pair HPLC (J. Chromoatograhy 1988, 426:249). The 
three isozymes of AMP deaminase, according to the KC1 
elution and their % of total activity were: 0.17 M (85%), 

0.25 M (8%) and 0.33 M (7%) KC1. The 0.17 M KCl isozyme 

was the sole component of mitochondria. After four weeks 
of diabetes the heart isozymal profile dramatically 
changed to: 0.17 M (10%), 0.25 M (75%), and 0.33 M (15%). 
The isolated isozymes were pooled and fractionated in (20— 
40%) ammonium sulfate with a 900 fold purification. The 
kinetics of the three isozymes proved to be distinctive: 
0.17 M KCL: AMP Km = 17.9, stimulated by ATP, ADP, and NAD 

0.25 M KCL: AMP Km = .97, inhibited by ATP and NAD 

0.33M KCl: AMP Km = .66, stimulated only by ADP. 


IDENTIFICATION OF 'THE INFORMATION NEW MOTHERS PERCEIVE AS HELPFUL 
DURING EARLY BREASTFEEDING. Lee Ann Street, 3334-A Avery Drive, 

Fort McClellan, AL 36205. 

A qualitative descriptive study of 23 primiparous mothers was 
done to identify the information perceived as helpful during early 
breastfeeding and its sources. A telephone interview was conducted 
three weeks after delivery. The 15 mothers who were successfully 
breastfeeding at three weeks most frequently cited information 
concerning nipple/breast care and the supply and demand process of 
lactation as most helpful. The eight mothers who had stopped 
breastfeeding by the three week date reported problems in these areas 
critical enough to end their breastfeeding attempts. 

Health professionals were the least reported sources of helpful 
breastfeeding information.. Subjects cited books or pamphlets and 
family or friends most frequently. 

Incorporation of nipple and breast care specifics, as well as 
the supply and demand process of lactation into breastfeeding 
education is indicated. Health professionals need to reestablish 
their significant role in providing information to those mothers 
desiring to breastfeed their infants. 


194 



Abstracts 


PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTATION OF IVF MEDIA AFFECTS PREIMPLANTATION 
MOUSE EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT. joe R. Warren and Wayne H. Finley, 
Department of Medical Genetics, Charles P. Dagg, Department of 
Biology, and Michael P. Steinkampf, Department of Obstetrics and 
Gynecology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 
35294. 

Mouse embryo development has been used as a quality control 
assay in many in vitro fertilization (IVF) programs. Many 
factors, including media and sera quality, toxicity of certain 
IVF products or reagents, and pH or other environmental changes 
have been previously reported to have an effect on this 
development. In this 2-year study, the effects of supplementing 
Ham's F10 medium with human serum were examined. Embryo 
development in BWW-BSA medium (Biggers, Whitten, and Whittingham 
medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin) was used as the 
control. In addition, the effects of supplementing Ham's F10 
with BSA. instead of human serum were also examined. It was 
determined that different lots of serum could have varying 
effects on embryo survival, supporting normal cleavage to the 
blastocyst stage from 0% up to 100% of the time. In contrast, 
BWW-BSA and Ham's F10 supplemented with BSA generally supported 
increased and more consistent embryo survival rates, and Ham's 
F10 without protein supplementation was capable of supporting 
embryo development up to hatching. However, hatching rates 
increased significantly in the presence of a protein supplement 
and attachment to the culture dish followed by trophoblastic 
outgrowth occurred only in the presence of human serum. 


ATTITUDES TOWARD ELDERLY AND INFANT: IS THERE A DIFFERENCE? Barbara 
B. Pickens , School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 
University Station, Birmingham, Alabama 35294. 

Research supported that attitudes toward the elderly among society 
as a whole were negative, the needs of the elderly came second to those 
of smaller but younger population groups, almost all health profes¬ 
sionals prefer to work with children or younger adults, and that few 
choose to specialize in geriatrics. The purpose of this study was to 
describe baccalaureate degree students' (BSN) attitudes toward the 
elderly and infant patient. The hypothesis for the study was "there 
will be no significant difference in BSN students' attitudes toward the 
elderly and infant patient." The subjects were 150 junior BSN students 
enrolled at a large university in the Southeastern U.S. Half of the 
subjects were given a case presentation (CP) identified as an elderly 
patient and the other half were given a CP identified as an infant 
patient. The content of both CPs was identical. After reading the CP 
the subjects completed the evaluative dimension of a semantic differen¬ 
tial. Using ANOVA, the hypothesis was rejected at the .05 level of 
significance (p<.001). There was a statistically significant 
difference in the BSN students' attitudes toward the elderly and infant 
patient. 


195 





Abstracts 


CALCULATION OF INTRACELLULAR TRANSPORT OF 
OXYGEN IN HEART MUSCLE BY MYOGLOBIN 


K. S. Yackzan, Diabetes Research & Training Center 
W. J. Wingo,* Emeritus, Department of Biochemistry 
University of Alabama at Birmingham 
Birmingham, Alabama 35294 

Myoglobin (Mb) is of interest from a number of viewpoints. An 
example of its ability to bind fatty acids is shown by experimental 
and model studies. The intracellular oxygen (0^) transport function 
of Mb has been postulated, but to our knowledge has not been 
theoretically calculated using our assumptions. We calculated the 
percentage of transported by Mb in heart muscle based on literature 
data and certain assumptions: (1) 0.25% Mb in heart muscle; (2) 
Partial 0~ pressure (PO^) of 25 mm Hg at the sarcolemma and 1 mm PO 2 
at the mitochondrial membrane (MCM); both PC^ values being conducive 
to the diffusion of 0^ to the interior of the mitochondrion; (3) 
Sarcolemma-mitochondrial membrane distance = 7.75 x 10-7 cm; (4) We 
used the values of diffusion constants for Mb and 0^ and the Keq for 
the O^-Mb system to calculate the relative amounts of 0^ carried by 
a simple diffusion and by Mb. Mb transports a significant fraction 
(=90%) of the intracellularly diffusing oxygen as MbO^. 


Supported by grants from Diabetes Trust Fund. 


FIELD STUDIES OF POTENTIAL TICK VECTORS OF LYME DISEASE IN ALABAMA. 
Shirley Luckhart and Gary R. Mullen, Dept, of Entomology, Auburn Univ., 
Alabama, 36849-5413. 

In March 1986, the first serologically substantiated case of Lyme 
borreliosis was reported in Alabama. Since that time, 5 additional 
confirmed cases have been reported in Lee county, AL. The clustering 
of these cases and lack of travel in the case histories suggest 
autochthonous transmission of the agent, Borrelia burgdorferi . In an 
attempt to characterize the transmission cycle of this agent in Ala¬ 
bama, 1ive-captured rodents and hunter-killed deer in areas immediate¬ 
ly adjacent to confirmed cases were examined for ticks. Attached ticks 
were either removed in the field or allowed to complete engorgement 
and drop off in the laboratory. Adult, nymphal, and larval Ixodes 
scapularis , Dermacentor variabil is , D. nigrol ineatus , D_. albipictus , 
and Amblyomma americanum collected from cotton mice ( Peromyscus 
gossypinus ), golden mice ( Ochrotomys nuttalli ), cotton rats ( Sigmodon 
hispidus ), short-tailed shrews ( Blarina brevicauda ), house mice ( Mus~ 
musculus ), and hunter-killed deer were dissected and examined for the 
spirochete with fluorescently-labelled polyvalent anti-B. burgdorferi 
conjugate. Borrelia -1ike organisms were detected in ticks recovered 
from P_. gossypinus and deer in areas where transmission is likely to 
have occurred. 


196 



























Abstracts 


PILOT STUDY IN PROGRESS-SELECTED DEMOGRAPHIC AND ACADEMIC PREDICTORS OF 
SUCCESS OF BACCALAUREATE DEGREE NURSING STUDENTS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF 
ALABAMA SCHOOL OF NURSING AT BIRMINGHAM. Gayle Becker, Pat Cleveland, 
Mary K. Peacock, Linda Reed , Catherine Shields, Mvra Smith , Judy 
Taylor, Janice Vincent, Joan Yeager, and Joan Burttram. 

A descriptive pilot study is being conducted to determine if it is 
possible to predict student success in a baccalaureate nursing program 
by examining the relationship between selected demographic and academic 
variables. The data collected to date was obtained by surveying 
student records for the following: race, age, sex, marital status, 
number of children, previous education and work experience, grade point 
average end of freshman year (GPA-1), Watson-Glaser (WG) and Nelson 
Denny (ND) test scores, and Adult Health course grade. In addition, 
the faculty of the first clinical nursing course were asked to predict 
student success in the program. 

For the purpose of the pilot study, success in the program was 
defined as successful completion of Adult Health Nursing. A moderate 
positive correlation was found to exist between GPA-1 and the Adult 
Health grade. A weak positive relationship also existed between the 
WG and ND percentile scores and the Adult Health grade. The two 
variables which helped to explain the variance of scores in Adult 
Health were GPA-1 and educational background. GPA-1 accounted for 28% 
of the variance in grade and an additional 10% of the variance could 
be explained when educational background was included. Race made a 
difference in student program success; approximately one third of 
the black subjects were unsuccessful. The other variables did not 
have significance in our study. 


PERCEPTIONS OF NURSING SERVICE ADMINISTRATION GRADUATE STUDENTS 
REGARDING THE UTILIZATION OF THE CLINICAL NURSING SPECIALIST IN 
THE HOSPITAL SETTING. Patricia A. White , Clinical Nursing 
Specialist, Baptist Medical Center-Princeton, Birmingham, A1 35211 

The sample in this study consisted of graduate students in one of 
the last two quarters prior to graduation. Data were obtained by use 
of a questionnaire previously used with nursing service administrators 
(NSAs). The data indicated that of the five roles of the clinical 
nursing specialist (CNS)-consultant, teacher, researcher, clinician, 
manager-the first three roles were perceived by these future NSAs as 
being the most important. Interpersonal skills, such as verbal and 
non verbal communication patterns and the ability to listen, were 
viewed as being of great importance for optimum utilization of the 
position of CNS. Results of this study have implications for both 
prospective NSAs and CNSs. Future NSAs and CNSs should seek to 
improve their knowledge of the functions and roles of the CNS. It is 
recommended that another research study be conducted by using a larger 
sample size from a cross-section of graduate schools with nursing 
service administration programs. It should be noted that this is 
the first of a two part study to determine also if the perception 
of these nursing service administration graduate students change 
once these students are in practice for two years. 


197 






Abstracts 


MORAL DILEMMA DISCUSSIONS AND MORAL REASONING. Beth S_l Hembree . 
College o-f Nursing, Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, AL 
36265. 


The purpose o-f this study was to determine the e-f-fect o-f moral 
dilemma discussions utilized in an ethical decision-making course on 
moral reasoning levels o-f senior generic baccalaureate nursing 
students and registered nurses who were completing the baccalaureate 
degree. Sixty-seven senior baccalaureate nursing students were 
non-randoml y assigned to treatment and control groups. Each o-f the 
two treatment groups, generic and registered nurse, were enrolled in 
a 5-week ethical decision-making course which emphasized moral 
dilemma discussions. Moral reasoning was assessed by administering 
the Defining Issues Test (Rest, 1986) as a pretest and posttest. 
Statistical analysis with an independent t-test on pretest data 
revealed no significant difference in moral reasoning levels between 
generic and registered nurse students. Dependent t-tests indicated a 
significant increase in principled level moral reasoning <F' score) 
between pretest and posttest in both the generic treatment (p. <.05) and 
registered nurse treatment (p. C.05) groups. Statistical 
analysis with ANOVA revealed a significant difference in posttest P 
scores among the four groups when pretest P scores were used as a 
covariate (p <.05). Post-hoc analysis indicated a significant 
difference between posttest P scores of the registered nurse 
treatment group and the registered nurse control group. It is 
recommended that baccalaureate nursing programs consider 
incorporating teaching of ethical decision-making skills into 
curricula. 


ADOLESCENTS' LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE OF ILLNESS AND HOSPITALIZATION. 

K. Alberta McCaleb, School of Nursing, Univ. of Ala. at B'ham, 
Birmingham, AL 35294. Alberta McCaleb , School of Nursing, Room 321, 
University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294. 

An assessment of the need and desire for information regarding 
illness and hospitalization was obtained in hospitalized adolescents 
ranging in age from 12 to 18 years. Adolescents were interviewed 
using a Likert-type scale after 72 hours of hospitalization with 
regard to perceived reason for hospitalization, perceived need for 
information about the illness or hospitalization, and specific 
information desired by the adolescent. All (100%) of the participants 
stated a physiological reason for admission to the acute care setting. 
At least half (50%) of the participants felt that they knew a 
"great deal" about their illness or hospitalization. Fifty-eight 
(58%) of the adolescents stated that they needed to know "everything" 
about their illness. The results of the study indicated that 
eighty-three (83%) of the items identified by the adolescent as 
"knowledge desired" could be categorized as a physiological nursing 
diagnosis. The study lends direction to the pediatric nurse in 
planning patient education sessions for the adolescent client and 
family. 


198 





Abstracts 


EVALUATION OF NURSING EDUCATION ADMINISTRATORS AS DESCRIBED BY 
INDIVIDUALS IN THAT POSITION. Felecia G. Wood, The University of 
Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL. 35487-0358. 

The purpose of this research was to describe the evaluation process 
of nursing education administrators as recounted by individuals in 
that position. Evaluation was defined as the process of gathering 
information, examining and judging the information on the basis of 
value and worth, and possibly using that information for future 
decision-making. Only communicated evaluation was assessed. General 
systems theory was used to guide this research. This descriptive 
research was implemented by mailing an investigator constructed 
questionnaire to 151 administrators of baccalaureate nursing 
education programs in the southern region as defined by the Southern 
Regional Education Board (SREB). Useable responses were obtained 
from 100 administrators { 66 . 2 %). Most of the respondents had been 
evaluated (83%). Those not yet evaluated (17) indicated they would 
like to be evaluated (15; 88.2%). For those evaluated, the purpose 
was for: (a) information (40; 48.2%); (b) assessing progress toward 
institutional goal attainment (51; 61.4%); (c) merit salary adjust¬ 
ments (34; 41%); and/or (d) determining retention in the position 
(31; 37-3%). Role performance, professional service, and professional 
relationships were assessed in the evaluation. Superiors, 
subordinates, and the nursing dean as subject of the evaluation 
gathered data, supplied data, and received results of the process. 
Those administrators who were evaluated attempted to change those 
behaviors perceived as negative by the individuals evaluating them. 


HEALTH STATUS AND BEHAVIOR OF ELDERLY ALABAMIANS: THE BEHAVIORAL RISK 
FACTOR SURVEY. Janis A. Simpson , James Eddy, Dept, of Health 
Education, Robert E. Pieroni, Dept, of Internal Medicine, Catherine 
Teare, Dept, of Biology, Univ. of Ala., Tuscaloosa, AL 35477. 

The health of the elderly is one of considerable concern within 
the medical and public health communities, since this age group 
comprises an increasing proportion of the population. The socio¬ 
demographic characteristics and health behaviors of Alabamians ages 
sixty-five and over (N = 239) were examined using data from the 1987 
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), which incorporates 
questions based on their relationship to risk factors for the leading 
causes of death. Results depict the prevalence of selected behavioral 
risk factors specifically concerning seat belt use, hypertension, 
physical activity, diet, smoking, smokeless tobacco, alcohol, and 
preventive practices. Based on criteria from the Centers for Disease 
Control approximately 57% of the elderly were at risk because of lack of 
belt use, 14% were at risk because of smoking, 16% for smokeless 
tobacco use, and 15% for acute alcohol use. A description of the 
health behavior of the elderly can assist health professionals in 
recognizing specific health problems in planning educational 
interventions and health promotion strategies to meet the needs of 
this unique population. 


199 




Abstracts 


A Q-ANALYSIS OF INTERPERSONAL TRUST IN THE NURSE-CLIENT RELATIONSHIP. 
Deborah E, Gibson , School of Nursing, The Univ. of Ala. at Birmingham, 
Birmingham, AL 35294. 

Trust of the nurse is of crucial importance for the client with 
spinal cord injury since the client must adapt to a most devastating 
life change event (Rehabilitation Nursing Institute, 1981). The 
purpose of this study was to develop a Q-instrument (i.e., Trust-Q) 
to answer the question: What are the dimensions of interpersonal 
trust in the nurse-client relationship? Content validity and test- 
retest reliability were established in a pilot study. The final 
instrument was administered to registered nurses and adults with 
spinal cord injury in one rehabilitation agency. A Q-type factor 
analysis of the data revealed four person types. There were seven 
significant sorts at the .05 level of significance. Post hoc analyses 
revealed differing response patterns. While consensus items were 
found in all three dimensions, one-way analysis of variance indicated 
the dimension of credibility had the mean of greatest magnititude. 

Each sort revealed internal consistency at the .40 level or 
greater. The data revealed a lack of agreement among the nurses 
and their clients regarding perceptions of ideal nurse interpersonal 
trust behaviors. The findings suggest that there may be a temporal 
sequence to the trusting choice with credibility of the nurse, 
perhaps, having primacy. It is recommended to extend the use of 
Q methodology to study interpersonal trust among various populations. 
It is also recommended to formulate a causual model for the trusting 
choice. 


IMPROVING NURSING DOCUMENTATION BY EVALUATING PERCEPTIONS OF STAFF 
NURSES REGARDING QUALITY OF DOCUMENTATION. Joyce Chappelear , 
Bromleioh Naftel , University of Alabama School of Nursing. Kathleen 
Leonard* Carol Benton, and Gretchen Kennamer, University of Alabama 
Hospital, Birmingham, AL 35294 

Nursing documentation is an integral part of nursing practice and 
serves a number of important purposes: to record the patient’s health 
care status, to evaluate nursing care, to establish legal account¬ 
ability and to provide economic information. In spite of the demands 
for quality, nursing documentation is generally considered to be in¬ 
adequate. Identifying factors which are perceived by nurses to in¬ 
fluence the quality of their documentation would be one way to obtain 
data about documentation inadequacies. The purpose of this study was 
to identify perceptions of staff nurses regarding the effect of 
selected factors on the quality of their documentation. The tool was 
an investigator constructed questionnaire consisting of demographic 
questions, 23 factors possibly related to the quality of documenta¬ 
tion, and a request for information about strengths, weaknesses, and 
ideas for change in the present documentation system. 427 registered 
nurses completed the questionnaire. Factors perceived to increase the 
quality of documentation were legal accountability, knowing what to 
document, and the educational preparation of the nurse. Factors per¬ 
ceived to decrease the quality of documentation were having more 
patients than usual, time constraints and the repetitious nature of 
documentation. Strengths of the present documentation system were the 
use of checklists and graphs. Weaknesses identified were that docu¬ 
mentation is repetitive, redundant and time consuming. The over¬ 
whelming implication of the findings is the need to change the docu¬ 
mentation system to make nursing documentation more efficient. (This 
project was supported by a grant from the Hazel Taylor Research Fund.) 


200 







Abstracts 


STRATEGIES FOR STIMULATING RESEARCH Interest Among First Year Nursing 
Students. Sheila P. Davis, School of Nursing, University of Alabama 
at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294. 

The primary goal of nursing research is to provide a basis for decision 
making at all levels of the profession. Research endows the profession 
with a body of scientific knowledge to direct practice and propogate 
the impact of nurses in health care. Because research occupies such a 
fundamental aspect of nursing science, the investigator explored 
strategies of stimulating research interest among entry level nursing 
students. It was conjectured that if students were introduced to the 
research process very early in their nursing program, they would 
possibly be more likely to incorporate research in their professional 
practice. Thus, the present study investigated the relationship 
between Sex, Age, Pulse, and Activity Level. Entry level nursing 
students (N=46) assessed the radial pulse rate (RPR) of 127 community 
individuals (males = 64, females = 63) with an age range of 2 to 95. 

The average pulse was 80.126. Results indicate a significant corre¬ 
lation between Activity Level and RPR, r=.252, p<05. Thus increases 
in RPR were associated with increases in Activity Level at 25% of the 
time. A regression analysis supports a significant prediction for RPR 
using activity F(l,126) = 8.47, p<.004. Age as a predictor approached 
significance, F(l, 126) = 2.96, p<.08. Sex did not emerge as a signi¬ 
ficant predictor of RPR F(l,126) = 1.182. Thus, sex was not a signifi¬ 
cant factor in the current study. Predictive power of activity and age 
was .06 and .02. Together, they accounted for 8% of the variance in 
RPR. 


BREAST-FEEDING: IDENTIFYING MATERNAL-INFANT NURSES' KNOWLEDGE AND 

ATTITUDES. Gabriele Glass Darch, College of Nursing, Southern 
Union State Junior College, Valley, Alabama. 

The purpose of this study was to identify maternal-infant nurses' 
knowledge and attitudes regarding the practice of breast-feeding. 

A 25-item questionnaire was used to evaluate nurses' knowledge of 
breast-feeding. An attitude and information profile was also obtained 
from a sample of 30 nurses working in the labor and delivery, nursery, 
and post-partum units in a 300-bed community hospital in the 
southeast. This study found that level of nursing education 
influenced breast-feeding knowledge. Nurses with a baccalaureate 
degree scored highest. The scores indicated, however, that nurses, 
regardless of educational level, did not have mastery level knowledge 
of breast-feeding practices. Generally, positive attitudes toward 
breast-feeding were expressed, and most of the respondents enjoyed 
working with breast-feeding mothers. Based on the results of this 
study, nurses were still in need of accurate information about 
breast-feeding. 

I wish to acknowledge Dr. Molly Walker, University of Alabama 
at Birmingham for her assistance with the research process and 
Deborah Liddell of Auburn University for her assistance with data 
analysis. 


201 


Abstracts 


Peak Inspiratory Pressures Applied by Nurses Lairing Manual 
Ventilation of an Infant Mannequin. Janet K. Riggs MSN, KN, CORK, 
Pediatric Caraiothoracic Clinical Nurse Specialist, Pediatric Heart 
Institute, ot. Christopher's Hospital for Children, Philadelphia, PA 
19133. 

An infant who is unable to meet self-care needs for air relies on 
the nurse for maintenance of normal pulmonary function and prevention 
of barotrauma. During manual ventilation of infants by nurses, peak 
inspiratory pressures (PIP) may fall outside the recommended range of 
15-30 cm H}0 pressure. The purpose of this study was to measure PIP 
applied by *”32 nurses during manual ventilation of an infant mannequin 
and calculate what proportion of pressures fell within and outside 
the range of 15-30 cm H 2 O pressure. The range of pressures applied 
was 4-80 cm H 2 O pressure. The proportion of pressures that fell 
within the recommended range was 0.46, The proportion that fell 
outside the range was 0.54. Only 2 of 32 subjects maintained 
pressures within the recommended range for the three minute test 
period. The percent of median pressures that fell above the 30 cm H 2 O 
maximum was 55%. The number of months of each nurse's experience had 
no bearing on the proportion of pressures that fell between 
15-30 cm H 2 O pressure. Recommendations include (l) nurses need to 
observe a pressure manometer while manually ventilating infants, 

(2) the educational program needs to include practice with an infant 
mannequin, and ( 3 ) additional studies need to be done to quantify the 
efficacy of using a pressure manometer while manually ventilating 
human infants. 


A COMMUNICATION MODEL FOR REDUCING CANCER AMONG BLACKS. Sheila P. 
Davis , School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, William 
G. Reasor, Spain Rehab. Hospital, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 
Birmingham, Alabama 35294. 

Cancer mortality and morbidity rates are significantly higher among 
minorities (NCHS, 1982). Davis (1984) notes that an external health 
locus of control accounts for some of the difference. Persons with an 
external health locus of control perceive their health as being 
influenced more by powerful others, chance, or luck. Others reasons 
include a) limited Objective Life Control, b) economics, and c) in¬ 
ability of cancer awareness prevention information to impact the black 
community. 

The proposed model will increase cancer awareness and prevention methods 
among minorities by facilitating dissemination of cancer awareness/ 
prevention information. Oral and visual centered strategies will be 
employed through churches, mass media, and significant reference 
points. These strategies will be used to test the hypothesis that 
cancer awareness will increase minorities' compliance with cancer pre¬ 
vention recommendations. Specific outcomes will include a) greater 
minority awareness of cancer prevention methods, b) enhanced compliance 
with prevention recommendations, c) a stronger community base for 
combating cancer in minority communities, and d) validation of a 
culturally sensitive approach to cancer awareness prevention in the 
black community. 


202 






Abstracts 


SURVEY OF CARING BEHAVIORS AMONG NURSES. Sheila P. Davis, School of 
Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 
35294. 

Caring has been defined by some nurse educators and theoreticians as 
being a set of universal values that exemplify the essence of nursing 
(Hyde, 1988 and Teininger, 1977). These values include kindness, con¬ 
cern, and love of self and others. However, Baer and Towey (1986) 
assert that nurses do not regard and care for all patients with the 
same depth of concern. Nurses categorized as goodness and normality 
specialists are accused of being incapable of rendering care to 
patients whose behavior and/or background is different from theirs. 
Hence, because of the apparent discrepancies that exist among nurses 
regarding what is, or what is not caring, the researcher developed nine 
exemplars of caring behaviors derived from outstanding clinical 
situations having vestiges of "caring". Nurse faculty and staff nurses 
(n=20) were asked to rate each exemplar to determine the degree of 
caring. The data suggest that caring was unique for nurse faculty and 
staff nurses. Explanation for difference in responses between the two 
groups were that caring is a contextual concept which is individually 
and situationally unique. The role of nurse faculty lends itself to 
scientific principles. Whereas, the staff nurse role is more perfor¬ 
mance and task oriented. Thus, humanistic values displayed by the 
group would be a reflection of background. The implications for 
nursing suggest a need for further research in defining, theoretical 
formulation, and methodologies for evaluation and measurement of 
caring and caring behaviors. 


Vaccinogenic Effect of PspA (Pneumococcal Surface Protein A). Tammie 
Lvnn Law . David Briles, and Deborah Talkington, Dept, of Microbiology, 
University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294. 


The pneumococcal vaccine presently used is composed of polysaccharide 
antigens. After finding infants to be very poor responders to 
polysaccharide antigens, attention turned to possible protein antigens for 
vaccine development. PspA is an antigenically variant protein on 
pneumococci. Previous studies have shown that this protein is necessary 

for the full virulence of particular type 2 and type 3 pneumococcal strains 
in mice. It is also known that PspA isolated from pneumococcal strain D39 
can protect against infection with strains D39 and WU2. D39 PspA does not 
elicit protection against most other strains of pneumococci, but this may be 
because of differences in the antigenic determinants of PspA in those 
strains as compared to D39. The purpose of these studies was to determine if 
PspA from other strains of pneumococci could also elicit protection. To 
carry out this study we isolated PspA from strain DBL6A by polyacrylamide 
gel electrophoresis, followed by emulsification of the appropriate slice of 
the gel. This material was injected into mice prior to challenge with strain 
DBL6A. In this single experiment, a higher percentage of the vaccinated 
mice than non-vaccinated mice survived the infection. Among vaccinated 
mice if death occurred it generally came after the death of the non- 
vaccinated mice. If these findings are confirmed it will be a strong 
indication that a vaccine containing a mixture of PspA may be useful as a 
pneumococcal vaccine. 


203 



Abstracts 


CUES AND HYPOTHESES IDENTIFIED BY SENIOR BACCALAUREATE NURSING 
STUDENTS. Cathy Stone. R.N., M.S.N., School of Nursing, Univ. of 
Tenn., Murfreesboro, Tenn., 37130 

Joan Yeager , R.N., M.S.N., School of Nursing, Univ. of Ala. at 
Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 

Identifying the level of competency of BSN students in regard to 
diagnostic skills and establishing further reliability of the proposed 
measurement tool were determined to be the purpose of the 
investigation. Thirty senior students were presented with six tasks 
based on specific nursing diagnoses. Nine cues, randomly ordered for 
each task, provided students with limited information. The subjects 
were asked to formulate initial hypotheses, based on the cues. 
Responses were categorized and descriptive statistics were used. 

A majority of the subjects were able to identify plausible initial 
hypotheses or nursing diagnoses. Conversely, the subjects had 
difficulty identifying some task nursing diagnoses. These diagnoses 
should have been the most obvious considering four of the nine cues 
clustered suggest their presence. The tool was evaluated by students' 
perception rating scores and rated fair with regard to degree of 
difficulty and familiarity of data. In addition, the investigators 
coded separately at 75% interrater reliability and coded together at 
100% interrated reliability. The difference being related to the 
coding scheme utilized, not the tool. The findings suggest nurse 
educators need to focus on diagnostic reasoning if we are to help 
our students fully develop diagnostic skill. Further research 
utilizing novice's and expert's diagnostic behaviors is recommended. 


Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy in Women with Recurrent Spontaneous Abor¬ 
tions. Gretchen Wells , Andrew J. Carroll, and Wayne H. Finley, 
Laboratory of Medical Genetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 
Birmingham, AL 35294 

Couples with repeated pregnancy wastage are routinely referred 
to the cytogenetics laboratory for diagnostic purposes. In approx¬ 
imately 5% of these couples, one member will have a chromosome 
rearrangement (either a translocation or an inversion). In addition, 
some investigators have reported a higher incidence of sex chromo¬ 
some mosaicism, especially in women, with recurrent spontaneous 
abortions. In order to determine the clinical significance of the 
occasional X-aneuploid cell, a prospective blind study was initiated 
comparing 49 women with 2 or more spontaneous abortions (experimental 
group) with 49 age and race matched women with healthy children and 
no miscarriages (control group). 30 G-banded karyotypes from cul¬ 

tured peripheral leukocytes were examined for each subject and low 
levels of sex chromosome mosaicism were recorded for both groups. 

The predominant cell line was 46,XX and the minor cell line was 
either 45,X or 47,XXX. Neither the total number of women with sex 
chromosome mosaicism nor the number of cells with extra or missing 
chromosomes was significantly different between the two groups 
(a=0.05). This finding confirms that low levels of sex chromosome 
mosaicism found by leukocyte culture are not associated with recurrent 
fetal wastage. 


204 







Abstracts 


ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE 


A COMPILER FOR ADA USING DENOTATIONAL SEMANTICS. Willard F. 0. Dawson 
and Barrett R. Bryant, Department of Computer and Information Sciences, 
University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294. 

Denotational semantics were originally developed for the purpose 
of studying the effectiveness of programming languages. They have since 
grown to become a useful tool for the actual design of languages. This 
paper will describe the development, using denotational semantics, of a 
compiler for a subset of the programming language Ada. 

Denotational semantics are used to formally define the static 
meaning of programs. They consist of three parts: an abstract syntax, 
a semantic algebra, and a valuation function. The abstract syntax of a 
language may be expressed as a context-free grammar; the valuation 
functions are expressed in the form of X-calculus expressions, which 
conveniently have a graphical representation. Compiling a program can 
be thought of as a process of building a graph of valuation functions. 
Using denotational semantics as an intermediate representation language, 
so that the output of the front end of the compiler has a well-defined 
static meaning, reduces the proof of correctness for the compiler to a 
proof for the back-end of the compiler. 

YACC (Yet Another Compiler Compiler) is an example of a parser 
generator which converts a context-free grammar into a set of look-up 
tables for an LR(1) parsing algorithm. It is a common language develop¬ 
ment tool used to build compilers, and is available on most UNIX systems 
as a matter of course. Often, the output of a YACC-generated parser 
would be three-address code; the alternative described here is to output 
the actual denotational definition for a program. 

This paper describes an implementation of a semantics-directed 
compiler for a subset of Ada. The parser for the compiler was built by 
creating a YACC specification from the abstract syntax of Ada, as per 
the denotational definition of the language. The output of the parser 
is the denotational definition of the program, which is further reduced 
to VAX assembly language. 


ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING NATIONS. James V. 
Walters and Pamela C. John , Dept, of Civil Eng., Univ. of Ala., 
Tuscaloosa AL 35487-0205. 

Europe, North America, and other individual industrially developed 
nations are influencing the developing nations by exporting to them many 
of our manufacturing jobs and plant capacities, and exporting to them 
our needs for raw materials. These influences drive them to develop 
their resources or to allow international companies to set up plants to 
develop them. The wiser populations are now concerned with protecting 
their environments. They desire to provide wastewater treatment as 
resources are developed so that their streams will not get into the 
sorry conditions that our waterways did before we began the monumental 
job of cleaning up after the Second World War. This paper describes 
some of the strategies that such developing nations have used to protect 
themselves and some of the programs that some international companies 
have implemented in those nations. 


205 





Abstracts 


SUSI: PROTECTING THE MAINFRAME FROM THE STUDENTS (AND 
VICE VERSA). Susan T. Dean, Dept, of Mathematics, 
Engineering, and Computer Science, Samford University, 
Birmingham, AL 35229. 


The SUSI (Samford University Student Interface) 
system consists of a driver program, written in C by Gus 
Baird of Georgia Tech, and a collection of programs 
written in the shell language for UTS (Amdahl UNIX 
operating system). The mainframe computer at Samford is 
used both for administrative and academic computing; SUSI 
controls all access to the mainframe by students, and 
includes built-in safeguards to minimize the likelihood 
of student access to the administrative "side" of the 
machine. Since access to the individual commands is 
table-driven, aliases are easily provided for various 
commands so that students more quickly feel comfortable 
using the system. It has also been quite easy to add new 
commands without having to take the system down. 


ARTIFICIAL WETLANDS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT—ARE THEY A REAL 
ALTERNATIVE? James V. Walters, Jeffries B. deGraffenried, Jr. and 
Joseph E. Patrick. , Dept, of Civil Eng., Univ. of Ala., Tuscaloosa AL 
35487-0205. 

As U.S. water-quality standards become more stringent, wastewater 
treatment cost is escalating and becoming prohibitive to many small 
communities. To achieve desired effluent quality, municipalities have 
been forced to search for alternative technologies. One alternative to 
conventional treatment is to incorporate artificial wetlands into the 
wastewater-treatment system. These systems function as biological 
factories between surface water and ground water and reduce 
significantly BOD, TSS, N, P, metals, tract organics, and pathogens. In 
many areas, effluent waste loads exceed the natural assimilation 
capacity of the receiving streams. Utilization of wetlands provides 
reduction of the above mentioned parameters and will prevent overloading 
of the receiving streams and hence upgrade and expand the operating 
capacity of the treatment facility. Other advantages include greater 
flexibility for design and management, simple operation and maintenance, 
process stability under varying environmental conditions, and the 
possibility of creating aesthetically pleasing wildlife habitats. A 
review of current uses of artificial wetlands in Alabama and their 
associated costs, water quality performance, and environmental impact 
are presented as an aid in determining the feasibility of incorporating 
these aquatic systems into wastewater treatment for small 
municipalities. 


206 






Abstracts 


SOLIDIFICATION PROCESSING OF ALLOYS USING AN APPLIED 
ELECTRIC FIELD TO CONTROL MICROSTRUCTURE. Robert ^ Bond 
and Gary L. Workman, Kenneth E. Johnson Research Center, The University of 
Alabama in Huntsville., Huntsville, AL 35899. 

Hostile environments with long exposures at high temperatures place 
tremendous requirements on alloys used in jet engines, gas turbines, rockets and 
certain nuclear applications. Alloys that perform well in the regime described 
above possess properties which have high corrosion resistance, creep resistance, 
high cycle fatigue resistance and most important, high strength at elevated tempera¬ 
tures (over 1100°C). The limits of many alloys have been exceeded by today’s en¬ 
gineering applications, and future applications await the development of alloys with 
improved properties. Directional solidification has been utilized for many years to 
enhance the properties of alloys. The compositions of many alloys have been varied 
to optimize the desired properties. A new approach to improve the properties of 
alloys involves controlling the microstructure of the alloy. This is accomplished by 
applying an electric field to the alloy while it is being directionally solidified. The 
results of this technique applied to PWA 1480 nickel based superalloy are 
presented. 


SLUDGE-RECYCLE RATE AND ITS CONTROL OF THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEM. 

James V. Walters and Tzenqe-Huev Shih, Dept, of Civil Eng., Univ. of 
Ala., Tuscaloosa AL 35487-0205. 

Control of activated sludge processes depends upon the selection of 
the fraction of the sludge collected in the clarifier that will be 
recycled to the sludge aeration basin (reactor) and the portion that 
will be disposed. That selection greatly influences the attributes of 
the activated sludge in the reactor, how it will settle, and what will 
be the degree of removal of pollutants from the wastewater treated. An 
empirical test that evaluates the zone-settling characteristics of the 
mixed liquor indicates the expectable concentration of the underflow 
from the clarifier but requires more than thirty minutes to perform. 
During periods of unsteady influent loadings (flow rate or organics 
concentration) the frequency at which such tests are needed greatly 
affects the workload of the operations staff, so that optimal operation 
is extremely challenging. This paper reports the results of a 
simulation modeling of the activated sludge system to allow a 
statistical evaluation of the sensitivity of the performance 
characteristics of the system to the periodicity of sludge-recycle rate 
adjustment. The simulation program—OSRRC, written in BASIC, is based 
upon the kinetic relationships of sludge production in the sludge 
reactor and of the zone-settling velocities in the sludge clarifier as 
they affect the mass balance of the wastewater constituents in the 
system. 


207 





Abstracts 


COMPLETE COMPILER SPECIFICATION USING PROLOG. Aiqin Pan 
and Barrett R. Bryant, Department of Computer and Information Sciences, 
The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294. 

A logic programming language, Prolog, is advocated as a metalanguage for the 
complete specification of programming languages and compilers, including specification 
of syntax, static semantics, dynamic semantics, and the target machine. Logic 
programming offers a number of advantages, namely: (1) the definitions are very 
readable and elegant, due to the natural style of logic, (2) both syntax and semantics 
can be specified in a single unified definition, (3) proof of correctness is facilitated by 
the many proof techniques for logic, (4) the definitions are directly executable, 
automatically accomplishing syntax/semantics-directed compilation, and 
(5) techniques for executing logic programs in parallel are well developed, allowing 
parts of the compiler to be executed in parallel. 

The specification of context-free syntax using logic in the form of definite clause 
grammars is well known. There is also a very natural logic representation of both 
attribute grammar and denotational semantics. It is also straightforward to define a 
lambda calculus reduction machine to execute the denotational machine code. 
Furthermore, the implicit parallelism present in these definitions can be realized in a 
parallel implementation of the Prolog specifications, facilitating both parallel 
compilation of source programs and parallel execution of object programs. Our 
conclusion is that logic programming is a very suitable approach to the formal 
specification of programming languages and compilers. 


LASER WELDING EXPERIMENT IN MICROGRAVITY. Teresa C. Plaster and Gary 
L. Workman, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Johnson Research Labs, 
Huntsville, AL 35899. 

Laser beam welding (LBW) is used as a joining process of materials 
in the aerospace industry as well as in the automotive and electronic 
industry. Laser beam welding has many advantages: the heat affected 
zone (HAZ) is narrower resulting in tensile strength equivalent to or 
exceeding the parent material, and because the weld pool has a small 
volume, heat is dissipated rapidly resulting in excellent solidifica¬ 
tion characteristics like fine grain and low composition changes due to 
welding. Further improvements result when welding in the space envi¬ 
ronment where a vacuum helps to form oxygen-free and porosity-free 
welds. Laser beam welding in a microgravity environment may cause an 
alteration in the heat flow within the weld pool and produce a weld 
that has differing characteristics to those made on the ground. These 
items were addressed by using a 40W continuous output ND:YAG laser on 
board the KC-135, NASA's zero-gravity aircraft. Specimens of 304 type 
Stainless Steel were prepared on the ground and in the microgravity 
environment produced by the aircraft. A feasibility study is being 
performed using this test bed to address the major parameters of laser 
beam welding to process/join materials in a microgravity environment. 


208 



Abstracts 


COMPLEXITY OF PARSING IN TAG, H.V.S.Murthy , Department of Computer 
and Information Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 
Birmingham, AL 35294, 

The computational tractability of constrained grammatical systems is 
a major area of concern in natural language processing. Tree 
Adjoining Grammar (TAG) is a formalism of natural language 
processing. The tractability issue is intricate and often 
misleading. Top-down TAG parsers are exponential in nature. A 
bottom-up parser proposed by Joshi and Vijay-Shankar is claimed to 
be tractable. This is designed similar to CYK algorithm for parsing 
Context Free Grammars using dynamic programming technique. A four 
dimensional array is used to store the nodes of the trees. The 
number of adjoining operations performed is pruned using the 
knowledge of the trees and the input string. Further the derived 
trees need not be stored and hence the parser is efficient even for 
long strings involving several adjoin operations. A node gets 
promoted to a higher level if it can produce a longer string. 

Further nodes need not be duplicated so long as it produces the same 
string. These techniques avoid the combinatorial explosion of 
adjoining operations. The bottom-up parser has been implemented and 
is currently being investigated with regard to tractability and 
lexical ambiguity. 


SPATIAL RECONSTRUCTION USING BACKPROPAGATION, Edward Baggott, Kevin 
D. Reilly, Warren T. Jones, Dept, of Computer and Information 
Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294. 

Backprogation has been investigated as a method of solving the 
three-dimensional reconstruction problem. In this problem, a cubic 
region of space containing a number of objects is viewed by sensors 
placed at several locations. The task then is to fuse the 
information contained in the two-dimensional views from these 
sensors into the correct three-dimensional configuration of the 
objects. We first show how the three-dimensional problem may be 
regarded as a set of separate two-dimensional problems, and present 
an encoding scheme whereby the data may be utilized by a 
backpropagation network. Next we present some results in which a 
3-layer backpropagation network, after being trained on a set of 
example data, is presented with unfamiliar data representing the 
sensor input from an object configuration to be reconstructed. The 
resulting output of the net is then compared against the desired 
output. These results show that, subject to certain restrictions, a 
properly-trained backpropagation network possesses sufficient 
generalization ability to generate correct reconstructions of three 
dinensional object configurations from two-dimensional sensor data. 


209 





Abstracts 


ZINC RECOVERY FROM BRASS-FOUNDRY FLUE DUST WITH ION EXCHANGE. James V. 
Walters and Richard I. Harris , Dept, of Civil Eng., Univ. of Ala., 
Tuscaloosa AL 35487-0205. 

Brass-foundry flue dust is a byproduct from the air-pollution 
control systems of some industries in Alabama. It is a byproduct that 
must be recycled because it contains metals that can be reused and 
because if it were discarded it would be classifiable as hazardous if it 
were tested according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 
extraction-procedure toxicity test method. Zinc constitutes about 60 
percent of the flue dust, and recent increases in its value have begun 
to make recovery of the flue-dust zinc attractive as an alternative to 
sale of the byproduct on the internationsl market. This paper contains 
a proposal for a process of recovery of the zinc in a marketably 
attractive form through the use of ion exchange. 


ALGORITHMIC ASPECTS OF RECONSTRUCTION OF MOP SRAPHS. L a r ry 
Basensp i 1 er, Div. of Computer and Information Sciences, 
Univ. o-f So. Ala., Mobile, AL 36688. 

The algorithms underlying a -four-phase project regarding 
C-reconstruction of outerplanar graphs, as well as an 
overview of the project in its entirety, are presented. 
During phase 1 the package generates all non-isomorphic 
maximal outerplanar contractions of a MOP graph G in time 
0(n ). Phase 2 concerns constructing a semidual from a MOP 
contraction of phase 1. This algorithm runs in the time 
linear in the number of edges. Phase 4 reconstructs, up to 
2-isomorphism, an OP graph from its combinatorial dual in 
time linear in the number of edges of the dual. The work 
was partially supported by NSF grant No. CCR-8804250. 


A Proposal for a Computer Science Laboratory for Upper-Level Under¬ 
graduate Courses. George T. Crocker , Dept, of Mathematics and 
Computer Science, Samford University, Birmingham, AL 35229. 

The computer laboratories at Samford University support the 
general computing needs of the complete student body. Computer 
Science students have few concessions to their special needs. With 
the emphasis on specific laboratory experiences recommended by the 
Denning report, we have concluded that a separate laboratory is 
needed. In this paper a new laboratory for upper level Computer 
Science students is proposed. Some of the desired experiences are 
discussed and some suggestions are made about the acquisition of 
needed equipment. It is assumed that the budget is limited. 


210 







Abstracts 


ANTHROPOLOGY 


PRELIMINARY EXCAVATIONS AT MOUND P. David Courington , student of 
Anthropology, Univ. of Ala., University, Alabama 35486. 

Mound P is one of twenty platform mounds in existance at the 
site of 1TU500, or Moundville, located in Alabama. 

The excavations at Mound P consisted of a trench located on the 
east side of the mound. The trench began at the base of the mound and 
was excavated in stairstep fashion units that extended up the side of 
the mound. The excavation was performed from October through December 
1988 by the students enrolled in a field school offered as a course 
by the University of Alabama Department of Anthropology. This 
excavation was initiated as the first step in a longterm investigation 
of the construction, history, and function of mounds at the site. 


ELKO SWITCH CEMETERY., Michael G. Shogren , Division of Archaeology, 
Alabama State Museum of Natural History, Univ. of Ala., University, 

AL 35486. 

During the months of December 1987 and January 1988, the Division 
of Archaeology, Alabama State Museum of Natural History, University 
of Alabama was contacted to remove and relocate, by accepted archa¬ 
eological methods, a portion of an unmarked and apparently undocu¬ 
mented 19th and early 20th century cemetery. A brief overview of the 
excavations, including methodology, will be presented with emphasis 
placed on the techniques developed to place the interments in a rea¬ 
sonable temporal position. The use of spatial placement and pat¬ 
terning, combined with known manufacturing dates of coffin hardware, 
as well as correlation with a phenomenon in rural communities that 
the author has termed "culture lag," will form the basis of these 
interpretations. 


PREDICTING BONE PRESERVATION FROM OBSERVED SOIL PROPERTIES. Paul 
Patterson and Kenneth R. Turner, Dept, of Anthropology, Univ. of Ala., 
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487. 

Soil pH levels and calcium concentrations are compared to one 
another and to skeletal preservation within subdivisions of grave 
pits at the 19th century Elko Switch cemetery outside Huntsville, 
Alabama. An interacting set of mechanisms is proposed to account 
for the patterns observed, which include horizontal and vertical 
gradients in acidity and calcium concentration within pits. These 
mechanisms include altered soil permeability, rainfall, surface 
slopes, plant roots, and contributions of the organic fraction of 
bone to soil acidity. Suggestions are offered concerning future 
research and field sampling strategies. 


211 







Abstracts 


THE CHANGING STRUCTURE OF THE BLACK FARM FAMILY: FAMILY SIZE, LIFE 
CYCLES, AND SUBSISTENCE PRODUCTION. Robert Zabawa , Dept, of Sociology, 
Tuskegee Univ., Tuskegee, AL 36088. 

Due to an historic lack of access to land, credit, and off-farm 
work opportunities, Black farmers in the United States often have been 
relegated to the categories of limited resource farmer, subsistence 
producer, and "endangered species." Given this hostile environment, 
Black farmers have developed survival strategies to maintain their 
farm operations. Two such strategies have traditionally included the 
substitution of farm family labor for machinery and subsistence pro¬ 
duction. On the other hand, advances over the last 25 years in civil 
rights have given Black farmers access to resources previously denied 
them. Research conducted in the Black Belt region of Alabama examines 
family size and subsistence production to see if these strategies 
remain a significant part of the Black farming system. Results indi¬ 
cate that farm families are decreasing in size and that subsistence 
production, as illustrated by family gardens, accounts for a signifi¬ 
cant portion of the family's meat and vegetable needs as well as a 
savings on food purchased at the store. Additionally, food produced 
on the farm for the farm family is life-cycle dependent, in terms of 
quantity and kind, based on the activity level, medical condition, 
age, and off-farm work commitments of the farmer. [This research was 
supported by the George Washington Carver Agricultural Experiment 
Station, USDA/CSRS Grant No. AL.X-RD-1, and the Department of 
Sociology,. Tuskegee University]. 


The Battle of Tallasseehatchee, an Archaeological and Historical 
Investigation Into a Creek Indian War Battlefield Site in Northeast 
Alabama. 


On November 3, 1813, 1000 Tennessee militiamen under the commend of 
General Andrew Jackson attacked a Red Stick Creek Indian village. In 
the course of the battle, 186 Creek Indians and five Tennessee militia¬ 
men were killed. Archaeological and historical research indicates the 
archaeological site of lCal62, near Alexandria, Alabama is the loca¬ 
tion of this major military encounter of the War of 1812. Extensive 
historical research provided new insight into the battle's parti¬ 
cipants while generating significant topographic data. Archaeological 
research resulted in the recovery of sufficient 19th Century Creek 
and military artifacts to warrant lCal62 as the best candidate for 
the Battle of Tallasseehatchee. 

Dr. Harry 0. Holstein and Dr. Philip Koerper, Jacksonville State 
University. 


212 




Abstracts 


EXCAVATIONS AT SMITH BOTTOM CAVE 1984-1988. Boyce Driskell , Alabama 
State Museum of Natural History, Univ. of Ala., University, Alabama 
35486. 

Smith Bottom Cave, near Florence, Alabama, was utilized by pre¬ 
historic peoples of the area for about 10,000 years. Investigations 
of the cave, associated bluff shelter, and talus slope since 1984 
have revealed the presence of up to four meters of archaeological 
deposits. The lowest strata, apparently formed during the early 
Holocene, contained early Archaic and transitional Paleo-Indian 
artifacts. Upper deposits, at least in the cave proper, were placed 
in the entrance of the cave shaft in order to seal the cave. This 
event is dated tentatively to about A.D. 700. Reasons for sealing 
the cave entrance are not yet understood but one possible motive 
would be to protect a burial site or locality. Hopefully, during 
the last season of work at the cave scheduled for the summer of 1989, 
reasons for this unusual archaeological situation will become clear. 
The work at Smith Bottom Cave is jointly sponsored by the Alabama 
State Museum of Natural History, the University of North Alabama, 
and the Tennessee Valley Authority. 


POPULATION SIZE ESTIMATES FOR MOUNDVILLE AND OTHER MISSISSIPPIAN 
SITES. Kenneth R. Turner . Dept, of Anthropology, Univ of Ala 
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0210. 

The average _number of individuals dwelling in the prehistoric 
community of Moundville, in a typical year during its Mississippian 
occupation, is estimated through application of osteologies lly 
derived statistics to demographic formulae. The estimation formulae 
of Ubelaker and of Acsadi and Nemeskeri are applied to Powell's 
calculation of expectation of life at birth for Mississippian 
Moundville and to estimates of total deaths and length of occupation 
The resulting range of 278 to 1950 individuals, and the mean estimate 
of 913 individuals, give some idea of the size of the community but 
serve best to point out the need for more complete information about 
Moundville. Additional excavation of the site would allow much more 
precise estimation. Considering "best guess" information in the 
absence of further excavation, it is most probable that the 
Mississippian community at Moundville consisted of 250 to 750 
individuals per year of occupation. 


213 






Abstracts 


GARBOLOGY— "YOU ARE WHAT YOU THROW AWAY": ANALYSIS OF COLLEGE 
STUDENTS'* GARBAGE TO DETERMINE STUDENT TRENDS. Andrew Lienau , 

Dept, of Biology, Birmingham-Southern College, Birmingham, AL 35254. 

"Garbology" is the study of garbage by which an investigator 
makes general observations about a group based on its trash or 
waste. The study involved the on-campus student population of a 
small Southern college, Birmingham-Southern College. Garbage gathered 
from sample sites was sorted and categorized. The accumulated data 
was analyzed and some general campus-wide student behaviors were 
noted. In addition, other topical areas included observations of 
the student's views on health based on the consumption of healthy 
foods and taking medication to relieve pain or sickness. Some 
surprising differences developed between the groups studied; one 
such observed trend being the lesser importance of healthy foods 
for upperclassmen than originally expected. Hypothesis to explain 
these trends were formulated. I acknowledge Dr. Jeannette Runquist, 
Research Advisor, for her invaluable time and energy. 


GARBAGE SAMPLES OF BIRMINGHAM-SOUTHERN. Dr. Jeannette Runquist, 
Science-Math Division, Birmingham-Southern College, Birmingham, AL 
35254. Thcmas G. Spence, Elizabeth M. Fairchild , David C. Sutherland , 
Linda L. Fues, Patrick H. Hill, Scott J. Rayburn, Amy L. Thrasher, 
and Elizabeth K. Watts. 

Garbology is the study of people through the items they discard. 
The garbology study at Birmingham-Southern College involved eight 
students who collected one bag of garbage five days a week for ten 
weeks. The garbage was obtained on campus from three female 
dormitories, three male dormitories, and a dumpster that serviced 
five fraternity houses. The items of trash gathered were sorted, 
documented, and compiled by item codes and material composition 
categories. Through the data compiled, this project sought to find 
basic trends in the conduct of the college students as well as 
differences between males and females, lowerclassmen and 
upperclassmen. 


PAINTED "TROPHY SKULLS" FROM PREHISTORIC NORTH ALABAMA. Darwin - Tamar 
Ramsey and Kenneth R. Turner, Dept, of Anthropology, Univ. of Ala., 
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487. 

Two occurrences of painted, so-called "trophy" skulls in Marshall 
County, Alabama, derive from the WPA excavations in the Guntersville 
Basin. However, historical descriptions of true trophy skulls and of 
the use of paint in burial rituals, as well as archaeological evidence 
found with these burials, make it unlikely that the Marshall County 
skulls are trophy skulls. The more plausible explanation is that 
these painted skulls represent reuse of the burial pit, perhaps for 
related individuals. These skulls then, derive from a Mississippian 
mortuary practice and not from the taking of trophy heads or skulls. 


214 








Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 60, No. 3, July 1989. 


MINUTES 


ALABAMA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 
ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING 
Birmingham Southern College 
Birmingham, Alabama 
March 22-25, 1989 


1. Dr. Richard Shoemaker, President of AAS, called the meeting to 
order at 5:30 P.M. 

2. The President asked for the "Report of the Counselor to the AJAS." 
Dr. Eugene Omasta sent the following report to the Secretary after the 
meeting: 

The 1989 annual meeting was hosted by Birmingham Southern College in 
Birmingham and like all previous meetings, was shared with the Alabama 
Academy of Science. 


The winners oF the scientific paper competition were: 


Physical Science 

1st place 
2nd place 

Shreyas Vasanawala* 
Sandra Padgett 

Sidney Lanier 
Jackson Academy 

Biology 

1st place 
2nd place 

Wendi Mann 

Sam Houston 

T. R. Miller 
Decatur 

Humanities 

1st place 
2nd place 

Peter Strong 

Kimberly Burdette 

Sidney Lanier 
Tallassee 

Engineering 

1st place 
2nd place 

Jason Matherne 

Greg Lukins 

Sidney Lanier 
Shades Valley 

Mathematics 

1st place 
2nd place 

Jennifer Clark 

Jack Hughes 

Sidney Lanier 
Randolph 


*0verall winner who will represent Alabama in the paper competition that 
is a part of the National JSHS Symposium at West Point, New York, May 3- 
7, 1989. The other 1st place winners will accompany Shreyas on this 

expense paid trip. 

Other awards were: 

Army Award ($300 for supplies and a certificate) - Teacher-sponsor of the 
overall winner: 


John Halbrooks Sidney Lanier 

Expense paid trips to the National Symposium at West Point, New York: 

Fannie Nelson Central Regional Counselor 

Karen Carmichael Sidney Lanier 


215 


Minutes 


AAAS - A subscription to a scientific magazine: 


Steve Davis 
Shane Skipworth 

Grant for a research project: 


Northport 

Bradshaw 


Mario Nall 
Shreyas Vasanawala 


Escambia County 
Sidney Lanier 


Outstanding Teacher (more than five years) 


$100 and a certificate: 


Barbara Kimbrell 


Northside 


Outstanding Teacher (less than five years) 


$100 and a certificate: 


Lisa Gillum 


Northside 


Outstanding Region - An engraved plaque: 


Central - Regional Counselor Fannie Nelson 


Newly elected 
President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 

Secretary 


:rs for 1989-90: 
Andy Jemigan 

Sarah Grover 
Demetris Harris 
Julie Childers 


Shady Mountain 
Christian 

Auburn 

Phillips 

Brewer 


Many people deserve special thanks for their efforts in support of the 
1989 annual meeting, including: Doug Waites and Bill Boardman for serving 
as local arrangements persons for AJAS and in making plans and 
arrangements for the meeting rooms, motel rooms, tours, and other 
activities; Dan Holliman for serving as the overall local arrangements 
person in planning and assisting AJAS at this meeting; Fannie Nelson as 
counselor of the host Central Region, in arranging the dance, gathering 
gifts and materials for the students from local merchants, assisting with 
registration, and planning and assisting with the meeting; the state 
officers for their support and assistance - Chris Daniels (President), 
Kelly Cain (Vice-President), Shreyas Vasanawala (Treasurer), Angela 
Dewberry (Secretary). The officers also deserve credit for designing this 
year's T-shirt in the colors of the host institution. Special appreci¬ 
ation is extended to the judges of the paper competition for both judging 
and their concern for student scientific development - Katie Blanding and 
Latricia Greene from the U. S. Army Missile Command at Redstone Arsenal; 
Jim DuBard, Rick McCallum, and Carl Salter from Birmingham Southern 
College; John Beaton, Larry Boots, John Carmichael, Ronald Gettinger, Carl 
Graves, Dorthea Klip, William Klip, Christo Psarras, Linda Reed, Gaetanno 
Saccomoni, David Sink, and K. Yackzan from the University of Alabama at 


216 


Minutes 


Birmingham; Anna Smith and Bill Smith from Troy State University; and 
Abraham George and Adrian Ludwick from Tuskegee University. Appreciation 
is also extended to the associate counselors for their continued dedicated 
service to AJAS - Betty Bigham and B. J. Bateman. 

The continued support of the Senior Academy in AJAS activities is 
appreciated. We especially appreciate the support of this year's 
President, Dr. Richard Shoemaker, and the Executive Officer, Bill Barrett. 

3. Ms. Elsie Spencer mailed the following report to the Secretary: 

Alabama selected 20 Finalists in Regional and State Fair Science and 
Engineering competition. The students, high school, and addresses are as 
follows: 


FAIR 

DIRECTOR 

Mobile 

Dr. Jim Langdon 
USA 


West 

Dr. David Heggem 
UA 


East 

Dr. W. H. Mason 
AU 


Southeast 

Dr. Bill Norman 

Troy State 


Northeast 

Dr. Arthur Bacon 

Talladega College 


North 

Mr. George Williams 
Calhoun State CC 


ALABAMA FINALISTS 


FINALISTS 

Mehul Mankad 
Mobile, AL 

Aaron Raulerson 
Brewton, AL 

David Hebbler 
Northport, AL 

Chuck Barkley 
Linden, AL 

Shreyas S. Vasanawala 
Montgomery, AL 

Jason Matherne 
Montgomery, AL 

William A. Anderson 
Opp, AL 

Donald A. Nelson 
Opp, AL 

Christy Dawkins 
Springville, AL 

Adam Barnes 
Childersburg, AL 

Sam Houston, Jr. 
Decatur, AL 


SCHOOL 

St. Paul's Episcopal 
School 

T. R. Miller High 

Tuscaloosa 

Central-West 

Marengo High 
Sidney Lanier High 
Sidney Lanier High 
Opp High 
Opp High 
St. Clair High 
Childersburg High 
Decatur High 


217 


Minutes 



Hugh Greene, Jr. 
Somerville, AL 

Brewer High 


Lome Graves 
Decatur, AL 

Brewer High 


Elena Quirk 
Somerville, AL 

Brewer High 

Central 

Stewart Davenport 

Altamont School 

Dr. Lee Summerlin 

Birmingham, AL 


UAB 


Ashley Belcher 

Leeds, AL 

Resource Lrng. Ctr. 

Alabama State 

Tim Martin 

Austin High 

Mr. George Williams 

Decatur, AL 


Calhoun State CC 


Teresia Hook 
Birmingham, AL 

Resource Lrng. Ctr. 


Ericka Coats 
Birmingham, AL 

Resource Lrng. Ctr. 


Richard Pilston 
Birmingham, AL 

Resource Lrng. Ctr. 

All Alabama Finalists 

attended the 40th 

International Science and 


Engineering Fair, Pittsburgh, PA May 7-13, 1989. Travel and housing was 
arranged by the Coordinator. The Alabama Delegation was composed of Peggy 
Wilkerson, Sharon Peacock, Mary Thomaskutty, Bob Davis, Trudy Anderson, 
Terese Morris, George Williams, Bob Scearcy, Rosie McKinney, Jane Houston, 
Elsie Spencer, and the 20 finalists. 

The 20th Finalists fared well in competition. In addition to local, 
regional, and state awards they garnered the following honors in 
International competition: 

Shreyas S. Vasanawala, Sidney Lanier High, Second award of $200 from 
the American Association of Physics Teachers; Physics award of 20 shares 
of United Technologies Corporation common stock; U.S. Army Certificate of 
Achievement consisting of a personal computer and a gold medallion; Naval 
Air Systems Command plaque, certificate, a visit to one of their labs, and 
an all-expense paid trip to the London International Youth Science 
Fortnight; 1st Place ISEF Award of $500 and was named alternate to the 
Glenn T. Seaborg Nobel Prize Visit Award which involves an all-expense- 
paid trip to Stockholm, Sweden, in December to attend the Nobel Prize 
Ceremonies. 

Jason Paul Matherne, Sidney Lanier High, Honorable .mention award of 
$50, 35 mm camera and certificate from Eastman Kodak; a half ship model 
plaque and certificate from The Naval Ship Research and Development 
Center; a NORDA Ocean Science Award of a one-year $1000 scholarship and 


218 


Minutes 


a plaque, plus an all-expense paid visit to the London International Youth 
Science Fortnight; 4th place ISEF Award of $100. 

Elena Quirk, Albert P. Brewer High, Honorable mention award of 
certificate, t-shirt, and a subscription to Chem-Matters from the American 
Chemical Society; 2nd ISEF Award of $350. 

Stewart Davenport, Altamont School, Third Award of $50 from American 
Geological Institute; 4th ISEF Award of $100. 

William Anderson, Opp High, Honorable mention of one-year membership 
in the Acoustical Society of America. 

Ashley Belcher, Resource Learning Center, 4th ISEF Award of $100. 

Lome Graves, Albert P. Brewer High, 4th ISEF Award of $100. 

Sam Houston, Decatur High, 2nd ISEF Award of $350. 

Teresia Hook, Resource Learning Center, 2nd ISEF Award of $350. 

Tim Martin, Austin High, 1st Award of $250, 35 mm camera, certificate, 
and a one-year subscription to Science News. 

Christy Dawkins, St. Clair High, 1st Award of $250, 35 mm camera, 
certificate, and a one-year subscription to Science News. 

Hugh Greene, Jr., Brewer High, expense-paid "Energy Research 
Orientation Week" a U.S. DOE National Laboratory. 

Special commendations are in order for teachers Trudy Anderson of 
Resource Learning Center with 4 Finalists, Mary Thomaskutty of Brewer High 
School who had 3 Finalists, and John Halbrook of Sidney Lanier who teaches 
Mr. Matherne and Mr. Vasanawala. 

4. Dr. L. S. Hazlegrove, Chairman of the Judges of the Gorgas 
Scholarship Foundation, sent the following report to the Secretary: 

The Gorgas Scholarship Foundation announced today the ranking of the 
finalists in the 1989 Alabama Science Talent Search. The Search was held 
at the meeting of the Alabama Academy of Science at Birmingham-Southern 
College, Birmingham, Alabama. 

The winner of the first-place tuition grant of $2500 was: 

April Marie Johnson, 3436 Vaughn Rd., Montgomery, AL 36106. 

Sidney Lanier High School. 

First alternate and winner of a $1500 tuition grant was: 

Kapil Pareek, 2504 Panorama PI., Vestavia, AL 35216 
Vestavia High School. 


219 


Minutes 


Second alternate and winner of a $1000 tuition grant was: 

Kristi Leigh Scarbrough, 3585 Brookfield Rd., Birmingham, AL 35226 

Resource Learning Center. 

Other finalists listed in alphabetical order were: 

Adam Wesley Barnes, Rt. 1, Box 2511, Childersburg, AL 35044. 

Childersburg High School. 

Zachary Howard Gann, 110 Moorsgate Dr., Florence, AL 35630. 

Bradshaw High School. 

Adam Scott Driver, 801 N. Wood Ave., Florence, AL 35630. 

Bradshaw High School. 

Janice Leigh Haddock, 230 Britt St., Florence, AL 35630. 

Bradshaw High School. 

Charlotte Melissa Homan, 230 N. Sequoia Blvd., Florence, AL 35630. 

Bradshaw High School. 

David Jonathan Linton, 523 Malone Circle, Florence, AL 35630. 

Bradshaw High School. 

Robert Neil Mohon, 105 Village La., Athens, AL 35611. 

Athens High School. 

Sandra Kay Padgett, Rt. 1, Box 39-P, Jackson, AL 36545. 

Jackson High School. 

Kevin Michael Skelton, Rt. 1, Box 900, Childersburg, AL 35044. 

Childersburg High School. 

Sliana Denise Wise, 2500 Redstart La., Birmingham, AL 35226. 

Shades Mountain Christian. 

The rankings were established by a panel of judges consisting of 
department heads, deans, and professors from many of the leading 
universities and industries in Alabama. Dr. Leven S. Hazlegrove, 
Professor of Chemistry, Samford University is Chairman of the Judge 
Committee. 

Winners and finalists in the Gorgas Contests receive offers of tuition 
scholarships to colleges and universities in Alabama for the study of 
science. The Gorgas Foundation is named for General William Crawford 
Gorgas, the Alabama physician who conquered yellow fever in the Panama 
Canal Zone and later became the Surgeon General of the U. S. Army. The 
purposes of the Foundation are to promote interest in science and to aid 
in the education of promising students. 

5. Dr. Shoemaker called for the "Report of the Secretary." Dr. Ann 
Williams presented the following report: 


220 


Minutes 


Membership, March, 1988 . 878 

Members dropped for non-payment of dues (Sept., 1988) . -140 

Members deceased .. - 4 * 

New members added . +143 

Members reinstated . +28 


Total Membership, March 22, 1989 905 

Net difference from March, 1988 +27 


MEMBERSHIP BY SECTIONS 


Section 

March. 1988 

March. 1989 

Change 

1 



261 

272 

+11 

2 



88 

91 

+ 3 

3 



47 

49 

+ 2 

4 



28 

31 

+ 3 

5 



87 

88 

+ 1 

6 



57 

61 

+ 4 

7 



37 

35 

- 2 

8 



38 

48 

+10 

9 



144 

157 

+13 

10 



58 

43 

-15 

11 



25 

21 

- 4 

99 



8 

9 

+ 1 




878 

905 

+27 

*Mr. 

James F. 

Sulzby, 

Jr. 



Fr. 

Louis J. 

Eisele 




Mr. 

Albert H 

. Bryan, 

Jr. 



Dr. 

Kenneth 

E. Landers 




During registration for the meeting, 27 new memberships and 2 
reinstatements have been added to the roll bringing the total membership 
to 934. 

6. The President asked for the "Treasurer's Report." Dr. Adams was 
not present to present a report. 

7. Dr. Shoemaker called for the "Report of Place and Date of Meeting 
Committee." Dr. Robert Lishak provided the following report: 

The AAS Place of Meeting Committee composed of Dr. Robert P. Bauman, 
UAB; Dr. Lou Destito, TSU; Dr. Elisabeth S. Sheldon, AUM; Dr. David H. 
Nelson, USA; and Dr. Robert Lishak (Chairman), Auburn University, hereby 
reports that the following dates and meeting sites have been established 
and confirmed by the respective institutions and the Executive Committee 
of the Alabama Academy of Science. 

1990 -- Mobile College 

1991 -- Jacksonville State University 

1992 -- The University of Alabama 

1993 -- The University of Alabama in Huntsville 


221 













Minutes 


1994 -- Troy State University 

1995 -- The University of Alabama at Birmingham 

8 . The "Report of the Resolutions Committee" was next called for by 
Dr. Shoemaker. Dr. Linda Reed was not present to provide resolutions. 

9. Dr. Shoemaker then asked for the "Report of the Research 
Committee." Dr. Lisano reported the following for Dr. Garstka: 

Research Grants have been awarded by the Research Committee to the 
following students: 


Holly Boettger (UAB) 

$250 

Holley Handley (AU) 

$250 

Carl Massey (UAB) 

250 

Aiqin Pan (UAB) 

250 

Stephanie Stafford (AU) 

250 

Shirley Luckhart (AU) 

250 

Dean Williams (UAH) 

250 

Timothy Demko (AU) 

250 


Winners of the Research Awards for the following sections were selected 
by the Section and Session Chairpersons: 


Biological Sciences: Stephanie Stafford 

Chemistry: Derrick Dean 

Geology: Yeujin Lin 

Forestry, et al.: Scott Couch 

Physics & Mathematics: Abraham George 

Jian-Wien Hsu 

Science Education: Alfred Lupien 
Social Sciences: Kasandra Williams 
Health Sciences: Kat Milly 
Engineering & Comp. Sci.: Robert Bond 
Anthropology: Andrew Lienau 


Auburn University 

Tuskegee University 

Auburn University 

U. of Alabama 

Tuskegee University (Tie) 
UAB 

UAB 

Samford University 
Auburn University 
UAH 

Birmingham Southern 


10. Dr. Shoemaker asked for the "Report of the Nominating Committee." 

Dr. Larry Wit submitted the following list of nominees, all of whom were 
elected unanimously: 

First Vice President: Mike Lisano 
Second Vice President: Ken Marion 
Editor of the Journal: William Mason 
Counselor to the Junior Academy: Eugene Omasta 
Coordinator of Science Fairs: Rosie McKinney 

Trustees: Roy J. Nichols (3 years) 

Elsie Spencer (3 years) 


222 


Minutes 


Philip Beasley (3 years) 

William Barrett (3 years) 

Robert Gudauskas (2 years) 

Section Officers : 

Section I - Biological Sciences 

1. Tom Jandebeur, Chair 

2. Jim McClintock, Vice-Chair 

Section II - Chemistry 

1. Barry Corona, Chair 

2. Larry Krannick, Vice-Chair 

Section VI - Industry & Economics 

1. Keith Absher, Chair 

2. Marsha Griffin, Vice-Chair 

Section VIII - Social Science 

1. Lawrence Hanks, Chair 

2. David Sink, Vice-Chair 

Section IX - Health Science 

1. Linda Reed, Chair 

2. George Tulli, Vice-Chair 

Section X - Engineering & Computer Science 

1. Terry Glover, Chair 

2. Barrett Bryant, Vice-Chair 

Section XI - Anthropology 

1. Tim Mistovich, Chair 

2. Boyce Driskell, Vice-Chair 

11. Dr. Shoemaker called for the "Report of the Gardner Award Com¬ 
mittee." Dr. Wilborn was unable to attend but sent the following report: 

The Gardner Award for 1989 will be presented to Dr. Aubrey Taylor, 
Chairman of the Department of Physiology, University of South Alabama. 

12. Dr. Shoemaker announced for the Carmichael Award Committee that the 
1989 award would be presented to Dr. David T. King, Jr., and 5 co-authors 
from Auburn University. 

13. Old Business: None 

14. New Business: 

Dr. Shoemaker thanked Dr. William Barrett, retiring Administrative 
Officer, and Ms. Elsie Spencer, retiring Science Fair Coordinator, for 
their many years of service to the Academy. 

15. There being no further business, the business meeting was adjourned 
at 6:05 P. M. 


223 


















































































. 




















■ 

































































INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS 


Editorial Policy: Publication in the Journal of the Alabama Academy 
of Science is restricted to members. Membership application forms 
can be obtained from Dr. Ann Williams, 101 Cary Hall, Auburn Univer¬ 
sity, AL 36849. Subject matter should address original research in 
one of the discipline sections of the Academy: Biological Sciences; 
Chemistry; Geology; Forestry, Geography, Conservation, and Planning; 
Physics and Mathematics; Industry and Economics; Science Education; 
Social Sciences; Health Sciences; Engineering and Computer Science; 
and Anthropology. Timely review articles of exceptional quality and 
general readership interest will also be considered. Invited arti¬ 
cles dealing with Science Activities in Alabama are occasionally 
published. Book reviews of Alabama authors are also solicited. 

Reviews'. Each manuscript will receive at least two simultaneous peer 
reviews. Include in your letter of transmittal the names, addresses, 
and telephone numbers of at least four qualified referees. Do not 
include names of individuals from your present institution. 

Manuscripts: Consult recent issues of the Journal for format. Dou¬ 
ble-space manuscripts throughout, allowing l'-inch margins. Number 
all pages. Submit the original and two copies to the Editor. Papers 
which are unreasonably long and verbose, such as uncut theses, will 
be returned. The title page should contain the author's name, affil¬ 
iation, and address, including zip code. An abstract not exceeding 
200 words will be published if the author so desires. Use headings 
and subdivisions where necessary for clarity. Common headings are: 
INTRODUCTION (including a literature review), PROCEDURES (or MATE¬ 
RIALS AND METHODS), RESULTS, DISCUSSION, and LITERATURE CITED. Other 
formats may be more appropriate for certain subject matter areas. 
Headings should be in all-caps and centered on the typed page; sub¬ 
headings should be italicized (underlined) and placed at the margin. 
Avoid excessive use of footnotes. Do not use the number 1 for foot¬ 
notes; begin with 2. Skip additional footnote numbers if one or more 
authors must have their present address footnoted. 

Illustrations: Submit original inked drawings (graphs and diagrams) 
or clear black and white glossy photographs. Width must be 14-15 cm 
and height must not exceed 20 cm. Illustrations not conforming to 
these dimensions will be returned to the author. Use lettering that 
will still be legible after a 30% reduction. Designate all illustra¬ 
tions as figures, number consecutively, and cite all figures in the 
text. Type figure captions on a separate sheet of paper. Send two 
extra sets of illustrations; xeroxed photographs are satisfactory for 
review purposes. 

Tables: Place each table on a separate sheet. Place a table title 
directly above each table. Number tables consecutively. Use symbols 
or letters, not numerals, for table footnotes. Cite all tables in 
the text. 

Literature Cited: Only references cited in the text should be listed 
under LITERATURE CITED. Do not group references according to source 
(books, periodicals, newspapers, etc.). List in alphabetical order 
of senior author names. Cite references in the text by number or by 
author-date. 








JOURNAL OF THE 


OCTOBER 1989 


VOLUME 








COVER PHOTOGRAPH: Adult common ground-dove (Columbina pa.sseri.na.) incu¬ 
bating a normal clutch of two eggs. This nest was located on the lee 
side of a foredune in a clump of sea oats, nettles, and panic grasses in 
Grayton Beach State Recreation Area, Florida. Common ground-doves are 
frequent residents of coastal dune communities in Alabama also, even 
though they are officially designated as a Species of Special Concern in 
our state. Reasons for this status designation, and possible explanations 
for the decline in their populations in Alabama, are explored in the 
article by Tim Jones and Ralph Mirarchi beginning on page 224 of this 
issue. Photograph courtesy of Dr. Nicholas R. Holler. 

Tim Jones is a former graduate student and Ralph Mirarchi is a Professor 
in the Department of Zoology and Wildlife Science at Auburn University. 
Dr. Holler is Unit Leader of the Alabama Cooperative Fish and Wildlife 
Research Unit and Associate Professor in the Department of Zoology and 
Wildlife Science. 


LIBRARY 

NOV 9 1989 

THE JOURNAL A. M. W. H 

OF THE 

ALABAMA ACADEMY 
OF SCIENCE 

AFFILIATED WITH THE 
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE 
ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 

VOLUME 60 OCTOBER 1989 NO. 4 


EDITOR: 

W. H. Mason, Extension Cottage, Auburn University, AL 36849 
ARCHIVIST: 

C. M. Peterson, Department of Botany, and Microbiology, Auburn University, 
AL 36849 

EDITORIAL BOARD: 

J. T. Bradley, Chairman, Department of Zoology-Entomology, Auburn 
University, AL 36849 

Charles Baugh, 1005 Medical Science Building, University of South Alabama, 
Mobile, AL 36688 

J. W. Sulentic, PO. Box 1921, University of Alabama, University, AL 35486 
Publication and Subscription Policies 

Submission of Manuscripts: Submit all manuscripts and pertinent 
correspondence to the EDITOR. Each manuscript will receive two simultaneous 
reviews. For style details, follow instructions to Authors (see inside back cover). 

Reprints: Requests for reprints must be addressed to authors. 

Subscriptions and Journal Exchanges: Address all correspondence to the 
CHAIRMAN OF THE EDITORIAL BOARD ~ 


ISSN 002-4112 



BENEFACTORS OF THE 
JOURNAL OF THE 
ALABAMA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 


The following have provided financial support 
to partially defray publication costs of the Journal. 


AUBURN UNIVERSITY 
BIRMINGHAM - SOUTHERN COLLEGE 
UNIVERSITY OF MONTEVALLO 
AUBURN UNIVERSITY AT MONTGOMERY 
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA 
TROY STATE UNIVERSITY 
UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA AT BIRMINGHAM 
JACKSONVILLE STATE UNIVERSITY 
TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY 
UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA 
UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA AT HUNTSVILLE 
TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY 
MOBILE COLLEGE 
UNIVERSITY OF NORTH ALABAMA 









CONTENTS 


ARTICLES 

Distribution and Status of Common Ground-Doves 
in Alabama 

Malcolm T. Jones and Ralph E. Mirarchi. 224 

Lack of Effect of the Beta-Agonist Cimaterol on 
Growth and Composition of Neonatal Rats 

J. A. Chromiak, D. R. Mulvaney, and 

D. R. Strength. 235 

Registered Nurses' Responses to Reporting Abuse: 

A Survey of Home Health and Community Health 
Nurses in Alabama 

Carolyn Lea Clark-Daniels . 243 

Trichostrongylus colubriformis (Nematoda) Infection 
in Normal and Zinc-Deficient Goats 

Leon W. Bone, Edward J. Parish, 

Waite Dykes, and Herbert H. Kohl. 257 

ABSTRACTS. 263 

INDEX. 265 


MEMBERSHIP ROLL 


281 




































































Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol, 60, No. 4, October 1989. 


DISTRIBUTION AND STATUS OF COMMON GROUND-DOVES IN ALABAMA 1 


Malcolm T. Jones 
Department of Wildlife 
College of Forest Resources 
University of Maine 
Orono, ME 04469 


and 

Ralph E. Mirarchi 

Department of Zoology and Wildlife Science 
Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station 
Auburn University, AL 36849-5414 


ABSTRACT 

The distribution and status of the common ground-dove ( Columbine 
passerine ) was studied in Alabama from June through September, 1986-87. 
Relative population densities also were determined for 25 counties during 
the 1987 season. A reduction in the statewide distribution of the ground- 
dove has occurred over the last 20-40 years, most likely as a result of 
land use changes. The highest relative densities (0.029 birds/km) 
observed in the southeastern corner of the state were still considered 
low. Our study indicates that the common ground-dove's status as a 
Species of Special Concern in Alabama is justified and the population 
should be closely monitored. Other factors potentially limiting ground- 
dove populations are discussed, and measures to stabilize populations are 
recommended. 


INTRODUCTION 

In the United States, the common ground-dove is primarily a Coastal 
Plain species associated with sandy soils (Hopkins 1958), and is distrib¬ 
uted from California to North Carolina, and sporadically farther north 
in the East. Declining ground-dove populations in the United States were 
noted as early as the 1920's (Bent 1932). Since the start of the Breeding 
Bird Survey (BBS) in 1968, population trends have been more consistently 
determined and monitored. Twenty-year trends in BBS data indicate that 
the common ground-dove has experienced a continental decline of 5.8 % per 
year Including a 7.0 % per year decline in the eastern half of the United 
States (S. Droege, pers. comm.). 

In Alabama, common ground-doves are considered local, uncommon to 
common, permanent residents in the lower third of the state and are rare 
farther north (Howell 1928, Inhof 1976). Recently, they have been 
assigned the status of Species of Special Concern statewide (Keeler 1986)» 
The once locally common dove is now less common and may have been totally 
extirpated from some areas (Mount 1981) . 

’Manuscript received 12 May 1989; accepted 30 June 1989. 


224 



Jones and Hlrarchi 


Baseline data on the status and distribution of the common ground-dove 
in Alabama are needed before research into the causes of perceived de¬ 
clines can begin. Herein, we describe the geographical distribution, 
status, and relative density of the common ground-dove population in 
Alabama. 


METHODS 

The lower third of Alabama served as the primary study site and 
included 24 counties in 1986 and 25 during 1987 (Fig. 1). All of the 
counties, with the exception of the northern three-fourths of Lee County, 
lie in the Coastal Plain. This area was designated as the primary study 
site after preliminary investigations, questionnaires, and data from BBS 
routes indicated little ground-dove activity north of the Fall Line. 



FIG. 1. Primary study area of the common ground-dove 
in Alabama, 1986-87. 


225 








































Common ground-doves in Alabama 


Ground-dove distribution was determined by three methods. From June 
to September, 1986 and 1987, each county in the primary study area was 
surveyed for ground-doves by driving secondary and less travelled roads 
that allowed for representative coverage of the county. During the first 
year of the study, all habitat types were surveyed. This proved extremely 
time consuming, so unproductive habitat types (e.g., closed-canopied 
mature forests) were not sampled during the second year. The survey 
methods were the same as those used on BBS routes (Robbins et al. 1986), 
except that the observation period at each stop was extended to five 
minutes, and probable ground-dove habitats (Jones and Mirarchi 1990) were 
emphasized. Ground-doves were positively identified with 8x binoculars 
and/or a 20x spotting scope, or by vocalizations. Sites then were mapped 
and distances to the nearest landmark recorded. 

During fall 1986, 61 questionnaires regarding ground-dove sightings 
were mailed to professional biologists and amateur ornithologists through¬ 
out Alabama. The questionnaire asked for locations of sightings from 
1984 to the present, and prior to 1984. These data were used to supple¬ 
ment sightings and also to identify localized ground-dove populations 
that were missed. BBS data also were used in addition to direct observa¬ 
tion and questionnaires to complete distribution maps. Sightings obtained 
from all methods were transferred to computer-generated maps (Mapmaster, 
Ashton-Tate Inc., Westport, CT) to show the past and present distribution 
of ground-doves in Alabama. 

During the 1987 field season, 322 kilometers of roadway were driven in 
each county in the primary study area to determine relative population 
densities (birds/km) . Relative population densities were calculated using 
a weighted average (number of km 2 in a particular county + largest county 
area {3217 km 2 } x {# of birds actually seen / 322 km}) to allow compari¬ 
sons among counties of differing sizes. The basic assumption of the 
equation was that 322 km of roadway was representative of available habi¬ 
tat within each county. 


RESULTS 

Thirty-eight ground-doves were observed at 22 sites in 1986, and 127 
ground-doves were observed at 62 sites during 1987. In 1986 the sightings 
were distributed among 11 counties: Barbour, Bullock, Butler, Covington, 
Crenshaw, Geneva, Henry, Macon, Mobile, Montgomery, and Russell. During 
1987 ground-doves were found in 14 counties: Baldwin, Barbour, Bullock, 
Butler, Coffee, Covington, Crenshaw, Dale, Geneva, Henry, Houston, Monroe, 
Pike, and Russell. Comparison of pre-1984 sightings (Fig. 2) to post- 
1984 sightings (Fig. 3) indicated a reduction in the range of the common 
ground-dove. Ground-doves continue to be more common in the southeastern 
portion of the state than elsewhere. Breeding populations in the northern 
and western portions of the range appear to be extirpated. Relative 
density values varied from a high of 0.029 birds/km in Crenshaw county to 
a low of 0.000 birds/km in several counties (Fig. 4). An Index value of 
zero indicated that ground-doves were not observed during the survey, but 
not necessarily that they were absent from a county. 


226 


Jones and Mirarchi 



FIG. 2. Distribution of the common ground-dove in 
Alabama, pre-1984. Includes sightings 
reported in the literature (•) (Imhof 1976) , 
study questionnaire (■), and Breeding Bird 
Survey (A). 


DISCUSSION 

The distribution of common ground-doves in Alabama, as determined by 
this study, has decreased when compared to previous distribution maps 
(Imhof 1976, Keeler 1986). Most ground-dove sightings in the northern 
two-thirds of the state occur during the non-breeding season, indicating 
that those doves are probably vagrants. The disappearance of the ground- 
dove from the Tennessee River Valley has been noted previously (Atkeson 
1964). No ground-doves were found during preliminary scouting of this 
area in the spring of 1986. Researchers conducting a mourning dove 
(Zenalda macroura ) study in the Tennessee Valley concurrently with this 


227 











































Common ground-doves in Alabama 



FIG. 3. Distribution of the common ground-dove in 
Alabama, 1984-1987. Includes sightings 
reported in this study (•), study question¬ 
naire (■), and Breeding Bird Survey (A). 


project also reported no ground-doves during two years of extensive field 
work (M. Losito, pers. comm.). Additionally, ground-doves have occurred 
on only 18 of 54 routes in the state, with all but one route situated in 
the Coastal Plain (S. Droege, pers. comm.). 

Ground-doves located during this study were most often found in early 
successional stages such as old fields and young pine plantations, and 
were most often associated with sandy soils (Jones and Mirarchi 1990). 
The physical structure of these habitat types, rather than the species 
composition, seemed most important in satisfying their food and nesting 
requirements. 

With these habitat requirements in mind, one can speculate as to the 
causes of the decline in common ground-dove populations in Alabama. 


228 
















































Jones and Mlrarchi 



Number of Birds/km 


□ 

0 




0.002 



B 

0.007 

to 

0.011 

m 

0.013 

to 

0.023 

■ 

0.029 




FIG. 4. Relative common ground-dove population index 
in the primary study area, southern Alabama, 
1987. Index values of zero Indicated ground- 
doves were not observed in, but not necessarily 
absent from, a county during the survey. 


Ground-doves originally may have inhabited only the coastal dunes where 
they are still abundant. Prior to European colonization, the longleaf 
pine (Pinus palustrls ) forest type dominated (approximately 24 million ha; 
Means and Campbell 1981) the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United 
States. Fire, both natural and set by Indians, was a major component of 
this ecosystem (Means and Campbell 1981, Johnson 1987). These fires, 
along with the agricultural practices of the Indians (fields being used 
for only a few years and then abandoned), created a mosaic of early and 
late serai stages (Johnson 1987). These factors probably allowed ground- 
doves to thrive, and may have permitted them to move into inland dune 
(sandhill) habitats. 

Even after European colonization, when large areas were cleared and 
put into agricultural production, farming methods of the time probably 
continued to favor ground-dove populations. Fields were small, and were 
planted in winter legumes or were allowed to remain fallow for a year or 


229 













































































































Common ground-doves in Alabama 


more after harvesting. They typically had corners that were not tilled 
annually and were bordered by brushy fence rows. These "pea-patch farms" 
had fields, and associated hedge rows and waste places that provided 
excellent cover for ground nesting species of birds (Shalaway 1985) like 
ground-doves. The only negative impacts on habitat during this period may 
have been some loss of quality as topsoil and fertility were lost, and 
as a result of the removal of mild soil disturbance agents (e.g. bison) 
from sandy soil areas. 

Changes in the amount of land being cultivated (cropland) in Alabama 
since then could have negatively impacted ground-dove populations. In 
1900, there were 2.8 million ha of Alabama croplands. This reached a 
peak of 2.9 million ha in 1935, and dropped to 1.8 million ha by 1982 
(Lanham 1963, U.S.D.A. Soil Conser. Service 1987). This represents almost 
a 31% decrease in the amount of cropland potentially available to become 
early serai stages. 

Indeed, a trend in the presence or absence of ground-doves becomes 
evident when the amount of cropland in each of the 25 counties surveyed 
in 1987 is examined. For the 11 counties where no ground-doves were 
observed, eight had less than 15 % of their total area in croplands, 
whereas three had between 15 and 21.3 % in cropland. In counties where 
ground-doves were present (14) only three (Butler, Monroe, and Russell), 
had < 15% in croplands. The other 11 counties had up to 44.2% in crop¬ 
lands (U. S. D. A. Soil Conservation Service 1987). Butler, Monroe, and 
Russell counties did have large amounts (> 70 % of county) of commercial 
forests that were being clearcut (Alabama Forestry Association 1985), and 
had the potential to provide favorable ground dove habitat (Landers and 
Buckner 1979). 

Changes in forestry practices in Alabama also could have adversely 
affected ground-dove populations. Suppression of wild fires was common 
before fire was recognized as a valuable tool of foresters. Fire sup¬ 
pression allowed succession to proceed to the detriment of most wildlife 
species associated with the longleaf pine forest type. Fire suppression 
probably also altered the mosaic patterns that occurred naturally by 
reducing the amount of land in early serai stages. Additionally, vast 
areas were converted to even-aged pine plantations for lumber and/or 
pulpwood production. These plantations were suitable, and even desirable, 
for many species during early serai stages (Johnson 1987) , but proved to 
be poor wildlife habitat after canopy closure. Large areas of open land 
were converted, or allowed to succeed, to forests. The ultimate result 
has been a decrease in the amount of available ground-dove habitat. 

Land use patterns and ground-dove densities In the counties surveyed 
are consistent with the contention that ground-doves may require minimal 
amounts of land In early serai stages to sustain viable populations. Data 
on the effects of habitat fragmentation on animal populations are numer¬ 
ous. However, most of the work on fragmentation has dealt with forests 
(Harris 1984, Yahner 1985, Haila et al. 1987) and not relatively open 
ecosystems. Fragmentation of early serai stages by the interspersion of 
large tracts of wooded areas could impede dispersal of ground-doves since 


230 


Jones and Mirarchi 


they are not exceptionally strong fliers. This would lead to a contrac¬ 
tion of their range into areas where a large proportion of the land is 
still in early serai stages. Rights-of-way or other corridors that are 
maintained in early serai stages might offer opportunities for ground- 
doves to disperse across otherwise unsuitable habitat, but there has been 
no documentation of such utilization. 

Other factors also may be limiting ground-dove populations. Mount 
(1981) postulated that the imported red fire ant (Solenopsis LnvicCa ) has 
been a factor in the decline of ground-doves in Alabama. Although no 
direct evidence of fire ant predation on ground-dove nests exists, there 
is growing evidence that fire ants can be a serious threat to other 
altricial species such as northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis ) 
(Conner et al. 1986), and cliff swallows (Hlrundo pyrrhonota ) (Sikes and 
Arnold 1986). 

Professional and lay conservationists across Alabama also report that 
ground-doves are regularly shot by mistake during mourning dove hunts. 
These mistakes occur because many hunters are unaware that more than one 
species of dove exists in the state, and others have difficulty distin¬ 
guishing between the species. Additionally, Alabama hunting regulations 
specify that "doves" are legal to hunt in season and make no distinction 
between state and federally protected species such as the common ground- 
dove and game species such as mourning or white-winged doves (Zenaida 
asiaClca ) (Ala. Dept. Conser. and Nat. Res. 1988). 

Pesticides associated with agricultural and forestry practices also 
could be contributing to the ground-dove's decline. Ground-doves frequent 
agricultural areas and young pine plantations and could come in contact 
with a variety of pesticides in use there. Although no intensive studies 
of ground-dove - pesticide interactions have been conducted, carcasses of 
ground-doves have been recovered after pesticide applications to agricul¬ 
tural fields in Alabama (M. Wallace, pers. comm.). 

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS 

The common ground-dove should remain a Species of Special Concern in 
Alabama and their populations should be closely monitored because of 
reduced distribution in the state, low densities, instability of the 
populations as a result of land use changes, incidental hunting kills, and 
possibly other undetermined factors. This status should be retained until 
future research indicates a stabilization or increase in population 
numbers. 

Additionally, a public relations program should be initiated in Ala¬ 
bama to inform dove hunters of the existence of ground-doves, that they 
are declining, and that they are protected by state and federal law. 
Posters showing the differences between common ground-doves and mourning 
doves (i.e., size, color, wing shape, and tail length) should be dis¬ 
tributed statewide to lessen the Impact of incidental hunting pressure 
on the species. Law enforcement personnel then should be instructed to 
strictly enforce protective statutes and regulations. 


231 



Common ground-doves in Alabama 


Although major changes in land use and habitat composition for the 
entire state cannot be predicated on one species of wildlife, certain 
practices will ensure the continued survival and increase of the common 
ground-dove in Alabama. Where feasible, early serai stage habitats should 
be protected and maintained. Along the coast, dune communities should be 
protected to benefit ground-doves and other threatened species. In the 
Coastal Plain, longleaf pine-wiregrass communities should be protected and 
maintained with more natural fire regimes. 

In agricultural areas, ground-dove habitat should be created by using 
fire, or selective mowing on 1-3 year rotations to ensure a mosaic of 
suitable areas. The nationwide trend toward integrated pest management 
in agriculture should be encouraged in Alabama so heavy pesticide use can 
be curtailed. Foresters should retain mechanical site preparation until 
the effects of chemical site preparation are determined. Additionally, 
regeneration areas should be kept small and in close proximity to each 
other. 

Other studies should be conducted in Alabama and other states within 
the range of the common ground-dove to determine what specific factors, 
if any, limit their populations. Such efforts should determine the 
effects of habitat fragmentation on ground dove populations; the effects 
of imported fire ants on ground-dove reproduction; the amount of inci¬ 
dental hunting pressure exerted on ground-doves; and the effect of 
pesticides on ground-dove survival and reproduction. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

Funded by Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station (AAES) Project 13- 
0065 and the Nongame Wildlife Program of the Division of Game and Fish, 
Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources under Pittman- 
Robertson Project, W-44-III, Segments 12 & 13. Published as AAES Journal 
Series 15-881880P. S. Droege provided Breeding Bird Survey data and 
helpful comments on the ms. J. L. Landers provided valuable insights on 
common ground-doves and fire ecology. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Alabama Dept, of Conser. and Nat. Res. 1988. Alabama regulations 
relating to game, fish and fur-bearing animals, 1987-1988. 
Montgomery, AL. 84pp. 

Alabama Forestry Association. 1985. Alabama forest land. Alabama 
Forests 28(4):119. 

Atkeson, T. Z. 1964. The disappearance of ground doves from the 
Tennessee Valley region. Alabama Birdlife 12:24. 

Bent, A. C. 1932. Life histories of North American gallinaceous 
birds. Orders: Galliformes and Columbiformes. U.S. Natl. Mus. 
Bull. 162. 490pp. 


232 


Jones and Mirarchi 


Conner, R. N., M. E. Anderson, and J. G. Dickson. 1986. Relationships 
among territory size, habitat, song, and nesting success of northern 
cardinals. Auk 103:23-31. 

Haila, Y., I. K. Hanski, and S. Raivio. 1987. Breeding bird distri¬ 
bution in fragmented coniferous taiga in southern Finland. Ornis 
Fennica 64:90-106. 

Harris, L. D. 1984. The fragmented forest. The Univ. of Chicago 
Press, Chicago, Ill. 211pp. 

Hopkins, M. 1958. Life history notes concerning the ground dove. The 
Oriole 23:5-7. 

Howell, A. H. 1928. Birds of Alabama. Dept, of Game and Fisheries. 
Birmingham Printing Co., Birmingham, Al. 384pp. 

Imhof, T. A. 1976. Alabama Birds. University of Alabama Press, 
Tuscaloosa. 445pp. 

Johnson, A. S. 1987. Pine plantations as wildlife habitat: a 
perspective. Pp.12-18. In: J. G. Dickson and 0. E. Maughan, 

(eds). Managing southern forests for wildlife and fish. Gen. Tech. 
Rep. SO-65. U.S. Dept. Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest 
Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA. 85pp. 

Jones, M. T., and R. E. Mirarchi. 1990. Habitats used by common 
ground-doves in southern Alabama. Wilson Bull. 102: In press. 

Keeler, J. E. 1986. Common ground dove. Pp.93-94. In: R.H. Mount, 
(ed). Vertebrate animals of Alabama in need of special attention. 
Ala. Agric. Expt. Sta. Auburn Univ., Al. 124pp. 

Lanham, B. T. 1963. Statistical supplement for Chart Book on Alabama 
Agriculture: recent changes and trends. Alabama Agric. Expt. Sta. 

Auburn Univ., AL. 53pp. 

Landers, J. L., and J. L. Buckner. 1979. Ground dove use of young 
pine plantations. Wilson Bull. 91:467-468. 

Means, D. B., and H. W. Campbell. 1981. Effects of prescribed burning 
on amphibians and reptiles. Pp.89-97. In: G. W. Wood (ed) . 
Prescribed fire and wildlife in southern forests. Belle W. Baruch 
Forest Ser. Institute of Clemson Univ., Georgetown,-SC. 170pp. 

Mount, R. H. 1981. The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis Lnvicta 

(Hymenoptera: Formicidae), as a possible serious predator on some 

native southeastern vertebrates: direct observations and subjective 
impressions. J. Ala. Acad. Sci. 52:71-78. 

Robbins, C. S., D. Bystrak, and P. H. Geissler. 1986. The breeding 
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Serv., Resour. Publ. 157. 196pp. 


233 


Common ground-doves in Alabama 


Shalaway, S, D. 1985. Fencerow management for nesting birds in 
Michigan. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 13:302-306. 

Sikes, P. J. and K. A. Arnold. 1986. Red imported fire ant 

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nestlings in east-central Texas. Southwest. Nat. 31:105-106. 

U. S. D. A. Soil Conservation Service. 1987. Basic statistics 1982 
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153pp. 

Yahner, R. H. 1985. Effects of forest fragmentation on winter bird 
abundance in central Pennsylvania. Proceedings Penn. Acad. Sci. 
59:114-116. 


234 


Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 60, No. 4, October 1989. 


LACK OF EFFECT OF THE BETA-AGONIST CIMATEROL ON 
GROWTH AND COMPOSITION OF NEONATAL RATS' 


J. A. Chromiak 

Interdepartmental Physiology Program 
Auburn University, AL 36849 


and 

D. R. Mulvaney and D. R. Strength 
Department of Animal and Dairy Sciences 
Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station 
Auburn University, AL 36849 


ABSTRACT 

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of cimaterol 
administration on body and muscle growth of neonatal rats, and the effect 
of cessation of cimaterol treatment on subsequent postnatal growth. Male 
rats were injected with 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg BW cimaterol daily from 
7 to 21 days of age. Six rats per treatment group were killed at 21 and 
42 days of age. Various skeletal muscles and the heart were dissected and 
weighed, and carcass protein and fat content determined. Data at 21 or 42 
days were analyzed with an ANOVA, with Duncan's multiple range test as the 
post-hoc test. Body weights were not different across cimaterol dosage 
groups at 21 or 42 days of age. There were no differences in net BW gain 
for the 7 to 21 day or 21 to 42 day periods. Compared to the 0 mg/kg 
group, percentage and total carcass fat and protein were not affected by 
cimaterol treatment. Weights of the heart and skeletal muscles were 
unaffected by cimaterol treatment, except at 42 days when gastrocnemius 
and soleus muscle weights were reduced in the 1 mg/kg group. It is 
concluded that cimaterol at 0 to 2.0 mg/kg BW does not affect the body and 
muscle growth of neonatal rats. 

INTROUDUCTION 

Administration of beta-adrenergic agonists to various species of 
animals has been shown to alter body composition by increasing muscle mass 
and reducing body fat (3,10,14). Beta-agonists, such as cimaterol and 
clenbuterol, are selective for the receptor (16), and cause nutrient 
repartitioning in livestock (3), and rats (10,13). Subcutaneous in¬ 
jection of clenbuterol twice daily at 1.0 mg/kg body weight (BW) increased 
weight gain in 150 g rats by 27% (10). This increased gain in clenbuterol 
treated rats was due to an elevated fat-free mass with no difference in 
total body fat content between control and clenbuterol treated groups. 
Administration of clenbuterol in the diet of rats (13) and by subcutaneous 
injection (2 mg/kg BW) to mice (15) increased both body and muscle 
weights, and decreased percent body fat. Beta-agonists reduce fat 

'Manuscript received 1 February 1989; accepted 5 April 1989. 


235 



Cromiak, Mulvaney, and Strength 


accretion due to direct effects on lipid metabolism (5); however, the 
cellular mechanisms involved in the enhanced muscle hypertrophy have not 
been resolved. 

Neonates may not respond to beta-agonists in the same manner as older 
animals as recent data demonstrated that cimaterol can have a negative 
impact on growth of rats 7 to 21 days of age (6). Daily injection of 0, 
2, 4, or 8 mg/kg cimaterol depressed body weight gain and muscle weights 
at higher doses in rats selected for large and small mature body size. 
However, cimaterol had a greater impact on the body and muscle growth of 
the large strain rats compared with the small strain rats. 

Following cessation of beta-agonist administration, body composition 
apparently returns rapidly to control values (2). In obese mice (ob/ob 
strain), dietary administration of the beta-agonist, BRL 26830, for 28 
days resulted in a 17% reduction in body weight, and a 28% decrease in 
body fat content compared to a control group. However, 21 days after 
removal of BRL 26830 from the diet of the ob/ob strain of mice, body 
weight and composition had returned to values similar to the control 
group. Whether these kinds of responses for muscle weight would occur 
following withdrawal of cimaterol have not been reported. 

Due to an inhibition of growth at high doses of cimaterol in neonatal 
rats in an earlier study (6), the present study was conducted to determine 
if administration of lower doses of cimaterol from 7 to 21 days of age 
would promote or Inhibit body and muscle growth. The effect of withdrawal 
of cimaterol on subsequent body and muscle growth was also examined in 
order to determine the impact of altering growth during the neonatal 
period on subsequent postnatal growth. Manipulation of growth, positive 
or negative, at this age may have a significant impact on ultimate body 
size and composition. 


MATERIAL AND METHODS 

Charles River CD strain male rat pups from litters representing a 
population that had been genetically selected for large size over 13 
generations were used for this study. At 12 weeks of age, mean weight of 
male rats from the large strain was 470 g compared to 380 g for males from 
the unselected control strain (unpublished data). To minimize litter 
effects, the number of rats per litter was normalized to 8 pups per lit¬ 
ter. At 7 days of age, forty-eight rats were randomly assigned to one of 
4 treatment' groups consisting of rats that received subcutaneous injec¬ 
tions of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg body weight of cimaterol (American 
Cyanamid, Princeton, NJ) between 0800 and 1000 h daily. Six rats in each 
dosage group were also designated to be killed at 21 or 42 days of age. 
Cimaterol was dissolved in propylene glycol, and administered by injection 
of volumes standardized across treatment groups (50 or 100 ul). Rats in 
the 0 mg/kg group received propylene glycol only. Nursing females and 
respective litters were provided free access to a complete rat chow diet 
(Purina Mills, St. Louis, MO) and water. At 21 days, rats were weaned and 
all injections terminated. 


236 


Effect of cimaterol on growth and composition of neonatal rats 


At slaughter, rats were euthanized with chloroform, decapitated, and 
the hide, tail, and paws removed. The heart and various skeletal muscles 
from the left forelimb or hindlimb were dissected, trimmed of connective 
tissue, blotted lightly with gauze, and weighed. The skeletal muscles 
excised were the triceps brachii, semitendinosus, soleus, gastrocnemius, 
plantaris, extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and tibialis anterior. The 
remainder of the internal organs were removed, the carcass weighed and 
frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -20 C until further analysis. 

Carcasses were autoclaved for 4 h, mixed with an equal volume of 
distilled water, and homogenized with a Polytron homogenizer (Brinkman 
Instruments, Westbury, N.Y.). The homogenizer tip and beaker were rinsed 
with distilled water, which was added to the homogenate, and the total 
homogenate volume determined. Homogenates were divided into 2 aliquots 
for determination of protein using micro-Kjeldahl analysis (1) and lipid 
content using the procedure of Bligh and Dyer (4). 

Data for body and tissue weights, BW gain, and body composition at 21 
or 42 days were analyzed with an analysis of variance (ANOVA). When ANOVA 
indicated statistical differences between cimaterol treatment groups, 
Duncan's multiple range test was used to test for differences between 
individual means with p values equal to or less than 0.05 accepted as 
significant (17). 


RESULTS 

There were no differences in body weights across the four cimaterol 
dosage groups at 21 days of age, or at 42 days of age after the rats had 
been removed from cimaterol treatment for 21 days (Table 1). There were 
no differences in net body weight gain (Figure 1) for the 7 to 21 day and 
21 to 42 day periods. Compared with the 0 mg/kg group, percentage and 
total carcass protein and fat content at 21 and 42 days of age were not 
affected by cimaterol administration (Table 1). At 42 days the percentage 
carcass protein of the 2.0 mg/kg group was lower than the 1.0 mg/kg. 

At 21 days, there were no differences in the weight of the heart and 
skeletal muscles across the four cimaterol dosage groups (Table 2). At 42 
days, the weight of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles in the 1.0 mg/kg 
group were 78.0 and 80.6% of the values of the 0 mg/kg group. There were 
no other differences for muscle weights at 42 days across the treatment 
groups. Liver and kidney weights at 21 and 42 days were unaffected by 
cimaterol treatment (data not shown). 

DISCUSSION 

The present study was conducted to determine the effect of low doses 
of cimaterol on body and muscle growth of neonatal rats. In previous 
work, cimaterol administration to neonatal rats from 7 to 21 days of age 
inhibited growth at 4 and 8 mg/kg BW in large strain rats, but did not 
affect carcass composition (6). It was clear that neonatal rats do not 
respond to beta-agonist treatment in the same direction as older rats 
treated similarly (10, 13, 15). It was suggested that energy expenditure 


237 


Cromiak, Mulvaney, and Strength 


Table 1. Live weight and carcass composition of large strain rats 

injected with 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg BW of cimaterol from 7 
to 21 days of age, and killed at 21 days of age,or at 42 days of 
age after cessation of cimaterol administration for 21 days. 


Age 

Cimaterol 

Dosage 

(mg/kg) 

Live 

Weight 

(g) 

Carcass 

Protein 

(g) 

% 

Protein 

Carcass 

Fat 

(g) 

% 

Fat 

21 d 

0 

51.8+4.4 

2.8+0.3 

17.1±0.8 

0.9±0.4 

4.7+1.4 


0.5 

52.7±4.1 

3.0+0.3 

17.3+0.8 

0.8+0.3 

4.3+1.1 


1.0 

48.5+4.3 

2.6±0.2 

17.7+0.8 

0.9+0.4 

5.5+1.4 


2.0 

48.0+4.3 

2.8±0.2 

18.8+0.9 

0.8±0.3 

4.4+1.2 

42 d 

0 

195.3± 8.6 

12.1±1.4 

17.2±1.1 

1.8±0.5 

2.6+0.7 


0.5 

189.1+10.8 

11.4+1.9 

17.0+0.5 

1.9±0.5 

2.7+0.5 


1.0 

169.4+ 9.9 

11.6+0.6 

19.1+0.5 

2.0+0.4 

3.3+0.7 


2.0 

202.3+ 9.0 

11.3+1.1 

15.6+1.0* 

2.5+0.7 

3.3+0.8 


Values are mean + SEM.; n-6 per group 
*2.0 mg/kg different from 1.0 mg/kg (p<.05). 

200 - 



7-21 DAYS 21-42 DAYS 


I I O 0.5 ■■ 1.0 2.0 

CIMATEROL DOSAGE (mg/kg) 

FIG. 1. Net gain in body weight from 7 to 21 days of age and 21 
to 42 days of age for large strain rats injected with 0, 
0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg BW of cimaterol from 7 to 21 days 
of age. 


238 

































Table 2. flkeletal muscle and heart weights of large strain rats injected with 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg 
fiw of a imaterol from 7 to 21 days of aoe. and killed at 21 days of age, or at 42 days of age 


Effect of ciaaterol on growth and composition of neonatal rats 


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Cromiak, Mulvaney, and Strength 


might have been elevated in the neonatal rats receiving cimaterol (6) , 
which would be consistent with a 26% elevation in energy expenditure of 
clenbuterol injected rats compared to controls (10). If high dosages of 
cimaterol elevated the metabolic rate of neonatal rats, less energy would 
be available for whole body and muscle growth. Therefore a narrower and 
lower dosage range was employed in the present study. However, injections 
of cimaterol at 0 to 2 mg/kg of body weight did not affect body and muscle 
growth. This is consistent with the recent study of Mersmann et al. (12) 
in which dietary cimaterol at 0 to 0.5 mg/kg for 10 wk had no effect on 
growth and carcass composition of young, rapidly growing pigs. 

Age or maturity of an animal may affect responsiveness to beta- 
agonists. Although administration of 0 to 2 mg/kg cimaterol did not 
affect the growth of neonatal rats in the present study, it has been 
demonstrated consistently that beta-agonists promote body weight gain, 
reduce percent fat, and increase muscle weight in older animals (3,10, 
13,14). For example, subcutaneous Injection of epinephrine at 10 mg/d 
(approximately 0.15 mg/kg BW) for 10 to 30 days increased nitrogen 
retention 10.4 to 22.7% and body weight gain 11.0 to 18.7% in adult 
castrated male pigs (7). However, injection of epinephrine (0.0625 mg/kg 
to 0.2 mg/kg) to 3 to 4 week old female and castrated male pigs for 6 
weeks resulted In decreased growth rates. Young pigs receiving epineph¬ 
rine had 2.8 to 6.5% more carcass protein and 0.5 to 23.4% less fat 
compared with a control group, but weighed 95 to 99% of controls. Epi¬ 
nephrine injections increased the growth rate of older pigs but restricted 
the growth rate of young pigs when administered at equivalent or lower 
doses. Epinephrine had little effect on fat deposition of older pigs but 
decreased fat storage in younger animals. In the present study, total 
carcass fat and percent fat were not different between cimaterol treated 
rats and 0 mg/kg controls. Dietary energy and tissue reserves available 
to the neonatal rats may have been inadequate to support any reparti¬ 
tioning effects due to cimaterol administration. 

Animal genotype may affect responsiveness to beta-agonists (6,9). In 
mice selected for rapid 3 to 6 week weight gain, dietary cimaterol at 50 
ppm at 4 to 10 weeks of age had no affect on body weight gain, but 200 ppm 
depressed body weight gain (9). In a control strain, 50 ppm cimaterol 
resulted in increased body weight gain compared with the 0 ppm diet, but 
200 ppm cimaterol did not affect body weight gain. In both strains, epi- 
didymal fat pad weight and subcutaneous fat weight expressed as a percent¬ 
age of empty body weight decreased consistently as the level of dietary 
cimaterol increased. 

The lack of effect of cimaterol on muscle weight in this study with 
neonatal rats is in contrast to increases of 10 to 35% in the weight of 
various skeletal muscles in older rats given clenbuterol compared to 
controls (10,11,13,18). In previous work (6), cimaterol at higher doses 
(2 to 8 mg/kg) inhibited the growth of the triceps brachii, gastrocnemius, 
brachialis, and peroneus muscles 10 to 40% in neonatal rats. It appears 
that the doses used in the present study were too low to inhibit muscle 
growth in neonatal rats. 


240 


Effect of cimaterol on growth and composition of neonatal rats 


In contrast with a reported increase in heart weight with beta- 
agonist administration (8), cimaterol had no effect on heart weight. The 
doses used in the present study were sufficient to induce cardiac 
hypertrophy, since daily administration of 0.1 mg/kg of isoproterenol 
induced significant cardiac hypertrophy within 3 days (8). After 21 days, 
weight of the heart was 40% greater in the rats given isoproterenol 
compared to controls. Discrepancies between studies may be due to 
differences in structure and beta-receptor selectivity of the beta- 
agonists. Cimaterol is f} 2 selective, while isoproterenol is a non- 
selective beta-agonist. 

Growth of rats post-weaning after termination of cimaterol treatment 
was examined to determine the impact of withdrawal of the beta-agonist on 
subsequent growth. Cessation of cimaterol administration at 21 days of 
age had no effect on subsequent body and muscle growth to 42 days of age. 
Body weight and lipid content in ob/ob strain mice were decreased due to 
administration of a beta-agonist for 28 days, but had returned to control 
values within 21 days after removal of BRL 26830 from the diet (2). In 
the present study, cimaterol administration did not affect growth from 7 
to 21 days of age; therefore, it might be expected that cessation of 
treatment would have little effect on subsequent growth. It is concluded 
that cimaterol administration at 0 to 2 mg/kg daily does not affect body 
and muscle growth of rapidly growing neonatal rats bred for large mature 
body size. It is suggested that future studies are needed to determine 
the relationship of age and genotype to the effectiveness of beta- 
agonists in promoting growth. 


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3. Beerman, D. H., Campion, D. R., and Dalrymple, R. H. 1985. 
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4. Bligh, E. G., and Dyer, W. J. 1959. A rapid method of total lipid 
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6. Chromiak, J. A., Mulvaney, D. R., and Strength, R. 1989. Effect of 
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241 


Chromiak, Mulvaney, and Strength 


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8. Deshaies, Y., Willemot, J., and Leblanc, J. 1981. Protein 
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muscle protein biosynthesis. British J. Nutr. 56:249-58. 

14. Ricks, C. A., Baker, P. K., and Dalrymple, R. H. 1984. Use of 
repartitioning agents to improve performance and body composition of 
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15. Rothwell, N. J., and Stock, M. J. 1985. Modification of body 
composition by clenbuterol in normal and dystrophic mice. Biosci. 
Rep. 5:755-60. 

16. Timmerman, H. 1987. B-Adrenergics: Physiology, pharmacology, 
applications, structure, and structure-activity relationships. In: 
J. P. Hanrahan (Ed.) Beta-Agonists and Their Effects On Animal 
Growth and Carcass Quality, pp. 13-28. Elsevier Applied Science, 
New York. 

17. SAS User's Guide. 1985. Statistical Analysis System Institute, 

Inc. Cary, NC. 

18. Zeman, R. J., Ludemann, R., and Etlinger, J. D. 1987. Clenbuterol, 
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Physiol. 252:E152-5. 


242 


Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 60, No. 4, October 1989. 


REGISTERED NURSES' RESPONSES TO REPORTING ABUSE: 

A SURVEY OF HOME HEALTH AND COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSES IN ALABAMA* 


Carolyn Lea Clark-Daniels 
Center for the Study of Aging 
College of Community Health Sciences 
University of Alabama 
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 


ABSTRACT 

Abuse of the elderly is a problem of some magnitude. A survey of 
nurses in the fields of home health and community health concerning the 
detection of abuse and the law on mandatory reporting of abuse, neglect, 
or exploitation was conducted in 1988. The nurses who were surveyed were 
confused about the mechanics and operation of the law and expressed some 
reluctance about reporting abuse or neglect to the authorities. 
Furthermore, nurses believed that there were not enough protective 
services provided for those who had been abused or neglected. The most 
disturbing aspect of the survey was the high level of dissatisfaction with 
the current law expressed by all categories of nurses. 

Review of the Literature 

Abuse of the elderly is difficult to detect because the problem is 
often obscure. The abuse remains hidden because the victim frequently 
fears public exposure with its accompanying shame, embarrassment, and 
guilt over what has happened; because the victim sometimes fears retali¬ 
ation or removal from the abode and placement in a nursing home; or 

because they are too passive or sick to remedy the situation. As a 

result, no accurate estimate of the extent of the problem has been 

developed. One author calculated that approximately one in every 25 (or 

4%) of elderly Americans (>1.1 million) are probably victims of abuse 
(Clark, 1981). The House Select Committee on Aging reported that there 
were approximately 100,000 abuse victims annually (U.S. House of Repre¬ 
sentatives, 1985). Others conclude that elder abuse occurs with about 
the same frequency as child abuse (Crouse, Cobb, Harris, Kopecky, and 
Poertner, 1981; Kosberg, 1986; O'Brien, 1987). Unfortunately, all of 
these estimates were based on haphazard sampling techniques. Pillemer 
and Finkelhor (1988) extrapolated an abuse rate of 3.4 percent of the 
elderly population from a random sample taken in the Boston metropolitan 
area. However, the sample was limited geographically and by the reluc¬ 
tance of respondents to discuss abuse. Despite these differences in 
estimation, significant agreement exists that abuse of the elderly is a 
serious, ongoing problem. 


^Manuscript received 14 March 1989; accepted 12 May 1989. 


243 



Clark-Daniels 


Most often, social policy response to abuse or neglect of the eld¬ 
erly has taken two forms, protective services legislation and mandatory 
reporting legislation (Kosberg, 1986). Currently, all 50 states use one 
or both of these two approaches. Protective services usually involve the 
provision of both voluntary and involuntary services to the physically or 
mentally infirm, older adult who has been abused, neglected, or exploited 
(Faulkner, 1982). While protective services historically have helped to 
protect vulnerable adults from "abuse, maltreatment, self-destructive 
behavior, and other forms of adversity," (Kosberg, 1986) they also 

exacerbate existing legal difficulties. Problems such as the absence of 
due process safeguards and interference with protections against the 
invasion of the rights to privacy and self-determination, often place the 
abuse victim at the mercy of institutions whose goals may not match their 
own (Crouse, et al., 1981). 

The second type of legislation, mandatory reporting of elder abuse, 
generally requires health care and other professionals to report cases of 
suspected abuse to appropriate authorities. Yet, there is little 
standardization of "...the criteria for emerging intervention and the 
protecting of due process rights..." across states (Kosberg, 1986). 

Kosberg points out that usually "legislation provides [for] legal action 

against anyone who, knowing of elder abuse, fails to report it." But, 

there are few, if any, due process protections for the abused persons. 

Mandatory reporting has been criticized because of its ineffective¬ 
ness in reducing elder abuse and its failure to protect the personal 
liberties of the abuse victim (Salend, Kane, Satz, and Pynoos, 1984; 
Faulkner, 1982). Mandatory reporting has also been criticized as an 
"inexpensive (but showy) way for the state to deal with the problem and, 
thus, demonstrating] an effort to deal with a problem that will not cost 
a great amount of state revenue" (Kosberg, 1986). 

Additional problems exist. One such problem is the lack of aware¬ 
ness of the legal requirement that certain groups report cases of elder 
abuse. O'Brien (1986) surveyed physicians in Michigan and North Caro¬ 
lina, and found that 70 percent of physicians were unaware of elder abuse 
reporting requirements, even though about 25 percent of these physicians 
had previously encountered a case of elder abuse. In a random survey of 
physicians in Alabama, Daniels, Baumhover, and Clark-Daniels (1989) 
reported that 72.3 percent of the respondents were unclear as to how to 
report cases of elder abuse even if they did recognize that abuse had 
occurred. In Alabama, 41.9 percent of these same physicians had seen 
abuse in their practices. 

The literature on nurses and elder abuse is sparse. Available 
literature suggests that recognizing and helping abuse victims is a vital 
part of nursing (Hirst and Miller, 1986). Furthermore, the literature 
suggests that nurses are required to report abuse, neglect, or 
exploitation, when mandatory reporting requirements exist. Several 
authors (c.f. Brent, 1988; Thobaben and Anderson, 1985) note that nurses 
are part of the medical profession who are mandated to report abuse. 


244 


Registered nurses and the reporting of abuse 


Three years ago, nurses in Canada were concerned because there was no 
mandatory reporting law in "any of the provinces..." (Hirst and Miller, 
1986). Unfortunately, little research has been done on the nurses' 
responses to these requirements. This article attempts to fill this gap 
for registered nurses in Alabama. 

The Alabama Law 

In Alabama, Act No. 780 was enacted in 1976 to protect all persons 
over the age of 18 who were in need of protective services. The Act 
required the reporting of cases of abuse, neglect, and exploitation to 
the Department of Human Resources (county welfare department) by "prac¬ 
titioners of the healing arts." The act did not define "practitioners". 
The penalty for not reporting suspected cases of abuse, which was $500 or 
six months in jail, is the same penalty for abusing an adult. 1 The 
Department of Human Resources (DHR) was required to investigate within 72 
hours of the initial report. 

In May 1989 (Alabama Senate Act 337) , this law was amended to make 
the act of abuse, neglect, or exploitation a felony punishable, in some 
cases, by a maximum 20-year prison sentence and a maximum fine of $10,000. 
Emotional abuse remains a misdemeanor. However, "practitioners of the 
healing arts" were not further defined and, the fine for not reporting 
such cases remained the same ($500). The amendment allows any person in 
the state to report if they so choose. Reporting by other than 
"practitioners of the healing arts" was occurring even without the 
official status given by the amendment. 

Since 1976, there has been an increase in reported cases of adult 
abuse. For instance, during 1984, there were 4,171 cases of abuse, 
neglect, or exploitation reported in the state. In 1988, over 7,200 
reports were received by DHR. Based on reporting in 1989, it is ex¬ 
pected that over 9,000 cases will have been reported by September 30, 
1989. These reports include all reported cases of abuse, neglect, and 
exploitation of both disabled adults and older adults. 

The Purpose of this Study 

This research is part of an ongoing project to examine the under¬ 
standing and attitudes of Alabama health care providers concerning three 
important components of public policy toward elder abuse: understanding 
and diagnosis of elder abuse, neglect, and exploitation; knowledge of and 
attitudes toward the Alabama Adult Protective Services Act; and possible 
barriers to the willingness to report. 

The initial study covered Alabama physicians in the specialties most 
likely to encounter elder mistreatment: family practice, general prac¬ 
tice, and internal medicine. The study concluded that, while physicians 
evinced considerable knowledge about elder abuse, they clearly were not 
aware of the law and its operation, nor were they very willing to report 
cases of abuse (Clark-Daniels, 1988; Clark-Daniels, Baumhover, and 
Daniels, in press; Daniels, Baumhover, and Clark-DanieIs, 1989; Daniels, 
Clark-Daniels, and Baumhover, 1988). 


245 


Clark-Daniels 


The current study shifts the focus to registered nurses. Of the 
several classifications of health care providers likely to come into 
contact with elder mistreatment, nurses are among the most likely to make 
the initial contacts with the patients. This front-line position is 
especially the case for nurses specializing in home health and community 
health care (Brent, 1988). Many of these nurses frequently work with the 
elderly in the patient's home. They may see neglected or abused persons 
before the physician does. A physician is likely to see the elderly 
patient after the person is dressed up and made ready for a visit to the 
physician's office. 

The Sample 

The research population for this study consisted of home health and 
community health nurses. As of July 1988, the Alabama Board of Nursing 
listed 1,539 registered nurses in these specialties. A two-page mail 
questionnaire was administered to the entire universe in late July 1988. 
Return envelopes were included. Two weeks after the initial mailing, a 
reminder postcard was mailed to boost response. The master list of reg¬ 
istered nurses provided by the Alabama Board was unusually complete and 
up-to-date. Less than 10 of the surveys were returned as undeliverable, 
and only 4 percent of the respondents indicated that they were retired. 
By comparison, the Alabama Medical Association list of licensed physi¬ 
cians used in the previous study yielded a higher rate of undeliverable 
letters, and a retirement rate of 20 percent (Clark-Daniels, 1988). 

Of the 1,539 surveys sent, 462 (or 30%) were returned. The response 
rate is low, but is not at all unusual for mail questionnaires to pro¬ 
fessional populations. O'Brien (1986) achieved a 30 percent response rate 
for his elder abuse survey of physicians in Michigan and North Carolina. 
The authors achieved a 46 percent response rate for a random 12 percent 
sample of the population of Alabama general practitioners, family 
practitioners, and internists. Even taking into account the high rate of 
retirement for the physicians survey, the usable response rate was 35 
percent. Thus, the nurses' response fit within these boundaries. 

However, the low response rate does bias the conclusions to an un¬ 
determined degree. Unfortunately, the respondents and non-respondents 
cannot be compared demographically because no state-wide demographic data 
are available for these two nursing specialties. Strictly speaking, 
therefore, the conclusions of this study should be limited to the 30 
percent who responded. 

Some speculations about the direction of bias are possible. In 
particular, the nature of the study and previous research on the biases 
of mail questionnaires suggest that the nurses who responded to the survey 
are likely to be those most interested in the topic. These nurses are 
more likely to be those who have seen and reported abuse, neglect, or 
exploitation. As a result, the survey probably overestimates the 
percentage of the registered nurses in Alabama who have seen and reported 
abuse and will generally not be useful in evaluating the extent of abuse. 
The possible bias with regard to the attitudes of the nurses to the three 
main areas of the study is impossible to determine. 


246 


Registered nurses and the reporting of abuse 


The Questionnaire 

The survey instrument was developed from the instrument used for the 
physician study in 1987. Both the earlier instrument and the draft in¬ 
strument for the nurses' study were pretested. The instrument sent to 
the physicians also served as a pretest for the survey mailed to the 
nurses. A modified instrument was then sent to select registered nurses, 
physicians, and academics associated with the College of Behavioral 
Sciences at the University of Alabama. Based on their suggestions the 
instrument was further revised and sent to the population of home health 
and community health registered nurses. 

The key difference between the physician instrument and the nurse 
instrument was the focus of the nurses' instrument on the reporting of 
elder abuse, neglect, and exploitation, and the reasons for not reporting. 
The nurses' questionnaire contained demographic items (age, sex, and 
race), characteristics of practice occupation, years in practice, 
retirement status, patient load, and proportion of senior citizens among 
patients. Questions concerning the identification and reporting of elder 
mistreatment, scales dealing with the understanding and diagnosis of 
abuse, knowledge of the Alabama law, and willingness to report abuse were 
also included. 

The identification and reporting section of the questionnaire asked 
the respondent to identify whether they had come across cases of abuse, 
and if so, how many in the past year and in their career. They were also 
asked to respond to a similar set of questions with regard to reporting 
cases of abuse. In addition, they were asked to identify the agency to 
which they reported and their satisfaction with the response. Non¬ 
reporters were asked to list the reasons for not reporting. 

The final section of the survey consisted of 31 statements on the 
definition of abuse, the understanding of the law, and the willingness to 
report. The respondents were asked to evaluate these statements on the 
basis of a five-point Likert-type scale ranging from Definitely Not True 
to Definitely True. For the purposes of this report, the scales were 
collapsed into three-point scales, Not True, Unsure, and True. 2 

Results of the Study 

Table 1 presents the demographic information and practice charac¬ 
teristics of the survey respondents. Because some nurses did not list 
home health and community health as areas of specialty, nurses who stated 
that they were in administrative, mental health, hospital emergency room, 
and other positions, or simply did not give any specialty, were catego¬ 
rized as "other". The average ages of the three groups of nurses were not 
very different. The typical home health nurses were 40.6 years of age, 
community health nurses 42.6, and other nurses 40.9. A large majority of 
the nurses were white and female. There was some variation in the average 
number of years the nurses had spent in their profession. Home health 
care nurses in this survey had the least experience (6.3 years), followed 
by other nurses at 9.2 years. Community health nurses averaged 11.9 years 
in their profession. 


247 


Clark-Daniels 


Table 1. Personal and Practice Characteristics of 
Registered Nurses in Alabama 



Home 

Health 

Community 

Health 

Other 

Average Age (in years) 

40.6 

42.6 

40.9 

Race: White 

Other 

95.2% 

4.8 

89.7% 

10.3 

91.5% 

8.5 

Sex: Male 

Female 

.5% 

99.5 

1.4% 

98.6 

8.5% 

91.5 

Average number of years in profession 

6.3 

11.9 

9.2 

Average number of patients seen per day 

7 

19 

25 

Percent of patients seen per day 

81.0% 

48.1% 

45.5% 

Percent who have seen cases of 
elder abuse in the past year 

67.8% 

53.5% 

35.8% 

Percent who have seen cases of 
elder abuse in their career 

85.6% 

71.6% 

52.6% 

Median number of cases of elder 
abuse seen in past year 

2 

2 

0 

Median number of cases of elder 
abuse seen in career 

5 

4 

0 

Percent who* have reported cases of 
elder abuse in past year 

52.3% 

46.1% 

9.4% 

Percent who have reported cases of 
elder abuse in career 

76.5% 

59.2% 

32.7% 

Median number of cases of edler abuse 
reported in the past year 

1 

0 

0 

Median number of cases of elder abuse 
reported over entire career 

2 

1 

0 

Of those who reported, reported to DHR 

93.2% 

91.5% 

76.2% 

Agree that cases I have reported have 
been satisfactorily handled 

24.9% 

36.0% 

14.3% 

N - 462 

189 

214 

59 



Source: 1988 Alabama Edler Abuse Survey of Home Health and Community 

Health Registered Nurses. 


The home health care nurses saw the fewest patients per day but the 
highest percentage of patients over the age of 65. There was a progres¬ 
sion from highest (home health) to lowest ("other") among both those who 


248 






Registered nurses and the reporting of abuse 


have seen abuse and those who have reported abuse. Home health nurses 
saw a higher percentage of abuse in their patients in the past year and 
in their careers. "Others" saw the least and reported the least abuse. 

Community health nurses were most likely to have both seen and 
reported abuse in the past year (46.1% / 53.5% - 86.2%). Home health 
nurses were more likely to have seen and reported abuse in their careers 
(76.5% / 85.6% - 89.4%). Other nurses reported startlingly few of the 
cases of abuse they had seen, 26.3% in the.past year and only 62.2% in 
their career. The source of this gap in reporting is not clear. The 
community health nurses were the most satisfied with the handling of cases 
once abuse was reported to authorities. Even so, the satisfaction measure 
for all three categories was low. For example, only 36.0% of the 
community health nurses were satisfied with the handling of reported 
cases. 

Despite the dramatic differences in encountering and reporting abuse, 
few differences existed across groups in the understanding and diagnosis 
of abuse (see Table 2). Home health and community health nurses shared 
common points of view. Other types of nurses were slightly more likely to 
be uncertain about the definition and diagnosis of abuse. Most nurses 
disagreed with the statements that few older people were abused or 
neglected. Most also believed that the abuse which physicians saw was 
only the tip of the iceberg, although the "other" category was slightly 
more likely to disagree. There was confusion concerning the existence of 
clear-cut definitions of abuse given by professional associations and 
whether most abuse involved only minor injuries. In addition, Diagnostic 
Related Groups (DRGs), according to a plurality of the nurses, have 
contributed to mistreatment of elderly patients in some cases. Still, 
many of the nurses expressed uncertainty or disagreement with this 
evaluation of DRGs. In general, though, a majority of nurses in all 
categories believed that experienced people in their profession could 
accurately detect cases of elder abuse. 

Many of the nurses did not fully understand the legal responsi¬ 
bilities imposed by the law (Alabama, 1976), especially the handful of 
nurses not identified as home health and community health. On the one 
hand, over 90% of the nurses in all categories responded that all health 
care providers had a legal responsibility to report elder abuse. Over 
90% also disagreed with the statement that only physicians were required 
to report. On the other hand, most of the nurses in all categories were 
confused about whether an older adult could be removed from their home 
without his or her consent (see Table 3). Moreover, less than 7% of the 
nurses in all three categories believed that Alabama had sufficient 
services available to meet the needs of abused elderly people once the 
legal process of intervention had begun. 

Most of the respondents were also uncertain about the protections and 
penalties of the law. There was concern about whether anonymity could be 
guaranteed to any health care provider who reports cases of elder abuse. 
Additional confusion arose over protection from litigation. A plurality 
of all groups were unsure of legal protection even though the law provides 


249 



Clark-Daniels 


Table 2. Alabama Home Health (HH) and 
Understanding and Diagnoses 

Community (CH) RNs' 
of Elder Abuse 



Statements 


Not 

True 

Unsure 

True 

Very few older adults are abused. 

HH 

67. 

9% 

18 

.2% 

13 

.9% 


CH 

74. 

9 

16 

.1 

9 

.0 


Other 

67. 

2 

20 

.7 

12 

.1 

Very few older adults are neglected. 

HH 

86. 

0 

4 

.8 

9 

.1 


CH 

84. 

8 

3 

.8 

11 

.4 


Other 

86. 

0 

7 

.0 

7 

.0 

Older adults are more prone to abuse 

HH 

25. 

1 

40 

.1 

34 

.8 

than children. 

CH 

27. 

0 

48 

.3 

24 

.6 


Other 

31. 

0 

46 

.6 

22 

.4 

There are clear-cut definitions of 

HH 

35. 

6 

38 

.3 

26 

.1 

elder abuse given by my professional 

CH 

29. 

5 

38 

.6 

31. 

.9 

association. 

Other 

29. 

8 

49. 

.1 

21 

.1 

Experienced people in my profession 

HH 

20. 

7 

14. 

.4 

64. 

.9 

can accurately detect cases of 

CH 

22. 

9 

14. 

.8 

62. 

.4 

elder abuse. 

Other 

27. 

6 

13. 

.8 

58. 

.6 

The largest number of incidents of 

HH 

49. 

5 

30. 

.9 

19. 

.7 

elder abuse involve only minor 

CH 

53. 

6 

27. 

.5 

19. 

.0 

injuries. 

Other 

44. 

6 

37. 

.9 

15. 

.5 

In my experience, DRGs have contri- 

HH 

14. 

5 

33. 

,3 

52. 

2 

buted to mistreatment of the elderly 

CH 

12. 

7 

39. 

.5 

47. 

,8 

in some cases. 

Other 

5. 

3 

47. 

,4 

47. 

.4 

Most cases of elder abuse are seen 

HH 

78. 

7 

12. 

.8 

8. 

,5 

in hospital emergency rooms. 

CH 

73. 

8 

15. 

2 

10. 

9 


Other 

60. 

3 

22. 

.4 

17. 

2 

Most cases of elder abuse are never 

HH 

9. 

0 

11. 

7 

79. 

3 

seen by a doctor or other health 

CH 

4. 

8 

8. 

1 

87. 

1 

care providers. 

Other 

10. 

3 

13. 

8 

75. 

9 


Source: 1988 Alabama Elder Abuse Survey of Home Health and Community 

Health Registered Nurses. 


such protection. The same uncertainty was shown in the responses to a 
potential fine or jail sentence. The law states that the fine for not 
reporting is $500, and there is a jail sentence of up to 6 months for not 
reporting abuse, neglect, or exploitation (Alabama, 1976). 


250 






Registered nurses and the reporting of abuse 


Table 3. Alabama Home Health (HH) and Community (CH) RNs' 
Understanding of the Mechanics and Operation of 
the Law 


Statements Not True Unsure True 


In Alabama, no older adult can be 

HH 

52. 

.7% 

21. 

.8% 

25. 

,5% 

removed from their home without 

CH 

43. 

.1 

39. 

.2 

17. 

,7 

his or her consent 

Other 

31. 

.0 

50. 

.0 

19. 

,0 

The State of Alabama has sufficient 

HH 

75. 

.0 

18. 

.6 

6. 

.4 

services available to meet the needs 

CH 

77. 

,6 

15. 

.7 

6. 

,7 

of abused elderly people. 

Other 

86. 

.2 

12. 

.1 

1. 

.7 

Most abused elderly people are able 

HH 

77. 

.2 

11. 

.7 

10. 

.6 

to get help if they need it. 

CH 

80. 

.0 

11, 

.4 

8. 

,6 


Other 

74, 

.1 

20. 

.2 

5. 

,2 

All health care providers in Alabama 

HH 

1 . 

.6 

4. 

.8 

93. 

.1 

have a legal responsibility to report 

CH 

5, 

.2 

3, 

.8 

92. 

,0 

elder abuse. 

Other 

5. 

.2 

6. 

.9 

87. 

,9 

Only physicians are required to 

HH 

94. 

.7 

3. 

.2 

2. 

,1 

report abuse of the elderly. 

CH 

92, 

.9 

3. 

.8 

3. 

.3 


Other 

86, 

.0 

12, 

.3 

1 . 

,8 

Anonymity will be guaranteed to any 

HH 

27. 

.1 

32, 

.4 

40. 

.4 

health care provider who reports 

CH 

28. 

.0 

27 

.0 

45. 

.0 

cases of elder abuse. 

Other 

22, 

.4 

43, 

.1 

34. 

,5 

There are standard procedures for 

HH 

23, 

.9 

36. 

.7 

39. 

.4 

dealing with elder abuse. 

CH 

15, 

.2 

37, 

.0 

47. 

.9 


Other 

24, 

.1 

29, 

.3 

46. 

.6 

I am protected from litigation if 

HH 

22, 

.9 

50, 

.5 

26. 

.6 

I report unfounded cases of 

CH 

19. 

.0 

49, 

.0 

31. 

.9 

elder abuse. 

Other 

15, 

.5 

56, 

.9 

27. 

.6 

In Alabama, there is a potential 

HH 

13, 

.3 

64, 

.4 

22. 

.3 

jail sentence if elder abuse is 

CH 

9. 

.6 

60, 

.3 

30. 

.1 

not reported to the authorities. 

Other 

3. 

.4 

82. 

.8 

13. 

.8 

In Alabama, there is a potential 

HH 

9, 

.1 

67, 

.9 

23. 

.0 

fine if elder abuse is not reported 

CH 

12. 

.0 

56, 

.9 

31. 

.1 

to the authorities. 

Other 

3, 

.4 

72, 

.4 

24. 

.1 

The abuse victim must consent 

HH 

78, 

.1 

16, 

.0 

5. 

.9 

before a report of abuse is made. 

CH 

77. 

.1 

19, 

.0 

3. 

,8 


Other 

53. 

.4 

37, 

.9 

8. 

,6 


Source: 1988 Alabama Elder Abuse Survey of Home Health and Community 
Health Registered Nurses. 


251 






Clark-Daniels 


Table 4. Alabama Home Health (HH) and Community (CH) RNs' 
Willingness to Report Elder Abuse and Neglect 


Statements 


Not True 

Unsure 

True 

Reporting cases of elder abuse is 

HH 

88.7% 

1 

.1% 

10. 

.1% 

my responsibility as a health care 

CH 

89.6 

2 

.4 

8. 

.1 

provider. 

Other 

87.9 

6 

.9 

5. 

,2 

I must be absolutely certain that 

HH 

55.3 

12 

.2 

32. 

.4 

abuse has occurred before reporting 

CH 

62.4 

6 

.2 

31. 

,4 

elder abuse. 

Other 

59.6 

10 

.5 

29. 

.8 

A major reason for failure to 

HH 

23.9 

17 

.6 

58. 

.5 

report elder abuse is the chance of 

CH 

26.5 

14 

.2 

59. 

.2 

a lengthy court appearance. 

Other 

17.2 

24 

.1 

58. 

.6 

I would rather handle cases of 

HH 

87.2 

6 

.4 

6. 

.3 

elder abuse myself than report 

CH 

90.5 

6 

.2 

3. 

.3 

them to the authorities. 

Other 

82.5 

12 

.3 

5. 

.3 

Reporting abuse will make the 

HH 

12.2 

16 

.0 

71. 

,8 

abuser angrier. 

CH 

11.9 

16 

.7 

71. 

.4 


Other 

12.1 

24 

.1 

63. 

.8 

Families of abuse victims will 

HH 

9.1 

14 

.4 

76. 

.5 

assume that I am the one who 

CH 

12.0 

21 

.5 

66. 

.5 

reported the abuse. 

Other 

13.8 

27 

.6 

58. 

.6 

Prompt action will be taken if 

HH 

56.4 

23 

.4 

20. 

.2 

I report cases of elder abuse. 

CH 

51.7 

29 

.9 

18. 

.5 

Other 

36.2 

41 

.4 

22, 

.2 

If I report a case of elder abuse, 

HH 

50.5 

23 

.9 

25, 

.5 

my relationship with the patient 

CH 

50.7 

29 

.2 

20. 

.1 

will be damaged. 

Other 

51.7 

27 

.6 

20. 

.7 

I believe that the identity of 

HH 

15.5 

30 

.5 

54. 

.0 

the reporter will eventually 

CH 

24.8 

20 

.5 

53, 

.7 

be disclosed. 

Other 

20.7 

39 

.7 

39. 

.7 

Abuse victims will usually deny 

HH 

7.0 

8 

.0 

85, 

.0 

that they have been abused. 

CH 

5.2 

10 

.5 

84, 

.3 

Other 

6.9 

12 

.1 

81. 

.0 

Reporting of elder abuse is a 

HH 

88.2 

8 

.0 

3, 

.7 

violation of the elderly person's 

CH 

86.6 

9 

. 6 

3, 

.8 

privacy. 

Other 

86.2 

10 

.3 

3, 

.4 



Source: 1988 Alabama Elder Abuse Survey of Home Health and Community 


Health Registered Nurses. 


252 






Registered nurses and the reporting of abuse 


The third set of statements concerned the willingness of profession¬ 
als to report abuse. Table 4 reports these responses. Again, responses 
varied little across specialties. Most of the nurses agreed that it was 
their responsibility to report abuse. A majority in all three catego¬ 
ries of nurses actually believed that they did not have to be absolutely 
certain abuse has occurred before reporting it. Even so, over 30% of the 
respondents in all groups reported that they had to be sure abuse had 
occurred. Over 50% of the respondents said that they would find the 
possibility of a lengthy court appearance to be a barrier to reporting 
abuse. Nevertheless, over 80% of all respondents would not want to handle 
cases of elder abuse themselves. 

Most believed that reporting abuse would make the abuser angrier and 
that the families of the victims of abuse would find out that they were 
the ones who had reported abuse. These same respondents believed that 
the victim would deny that abuse had happened. Still, over 74% of the 
respondents were either unsure or did not believe that their relation¬ 
ship with the patient would be damaged if they reported abuse. 

Conclusions 

Clearly, there is much confusion and ignorance about elder abuse 
legislation in Alabama. This uncertainty is not unique to either the 
particular categories of nurses surveyed or to the state. Physicians in 
Alabama who were surveyed in 1987, demonstrated this same confusion 
(Daniels, et al., 1988). Although nurses were fairly certain of their 
ability to detect abuse, they were unsure about important aspects of the 
law, and displayed considerable disillusionment with the effectiveness of 
reporting. These data demonstrate that nurses, who are often among the 
first non-family members to become aware of abuse or neglect, are 
ambivalent about reporting when these cases arise. Misconceptions remain 
concerning the meaning of the law, the degree of legal protection 
provided, and the degree of certainty required before abuse is reported. 

For this and a variety of other reasons, there is probably signifi¬ 
cant under reporting in Alabama. The mandatory reporting feature of most 
state laws has probably increased the awareness of abuse and neglect. The 
fact that over 90% of home health and community health nurses and 76% of 
the "other" nurses in Alabama knew that the appropriate agency for 
reporting cases of abuse was the Department of Human Resources reflects 
the increase in awareness. It is likely that more cases of abuse are 
being reported than ever before. Yet, it is not possible to truly measure 
the effectiveness of the law because unreported abuse of some magnitude 
still exists. Increases in reported cases may simply mean that more new 
cases of abuse are occurring that particular year than in previous years. 

Thus, human services workers may never be given the opportunity to 
deal with any but the worst cases of abuse or neglect because these cases 
are so obvious and demand immediate attention. There are still other 
difficulties for public administrators. The mandatory reporting law in 
Alabama and in many other states does not seem to give the necessary pro- 


253 


Clark-Daniels 


cedural guidelines which will actually protect the rights of elderly 
adults. Nor has the law been well publicized among health care providers. 
And even for those who know of the law, the law's provisions are not well 
understood. 

This survey demonstrates that nurses who are required to report cases 
of abuse or neglect are reluctant to invoke the law. The law in Alabama 
is now 12 years old and not many in the population of the state actually 
know what the law provides. Public administrators and human services 
workers could do considerably more to make the law and its amendment known 
to caregivers in the state and to help medical professionals define the 
meaning of the law. 

One of the key weaknesses of the law is in the area of services. The 
nurses in the survey were uniform in their belief that social services for 
the elder abuse victim in Alabama are inadequate. This lack of services 
is particularly damaging, as it imposes a cruel choice on DHR social 
workers: institutionalization or no intervention. 3 

Furthermore, protective services provided for elder adults are often 
sparse, particularly in rural areas. In rural areas, health care pro¬ 
viders may not know if there are any services available beyond nursing 
homes. This can serve to frustrate those who are required to report 
abuse. Even though relocation to an institution may clearly obviate the 
need to report further abuse, it may not be the best solution for the 
victim. For instance, the home where the abuse occurred is often owned 
by the victim and the abuser may be living there in order to care for the 
victim. It would seem that the removal of the abuser would leave the 
elder person less vulnerable than the removal of the victim. This 
requires the development of alternative in-home services. The law offers 
no guidelines on this point. 

Abuse and neglect of the elderly are a continuing problem that will 
not go away with the passage and implementation of new punitive laws. 
Mandatory reporting laws alone cannot prevent abuse or even reduce the 
problem. Laws tend to be punitive toward both the abuser and the abused 
as well as toward the non-reporting physician. Problems of abuse are 
particularly difficult when the abuser is a family member, as is often 
the case. Currently, most social and economic support of the aged is 
derived from family members. Elderly persons depend on this support even 
if their family members are the ones committing the abuse, The elderly 
person needs this support and expects that this support will continue even 
if abuse occurs. 

Beyond the immediate problem of abuse, all of us are growing older 
and want to lead productive lives without facing abusive situations. 
Punitive laws can protect us to some extent, but can deprive us of control 
over our lives. Moreover, the lack of guidance and coordination among 
professions most likely to encounter elder abuse makes the application of 
existing law sporadic and arbitrary. The lack of knowledge about existing 
law and lack of a common frame of reference in dealing with elder abuse is 
clearly apparent among some Alabama nurses. What is needed now is a more 


254 


Registered nurses and the reporting of abuse 


comprehensive education program for those professionals most likely to 
encounter abuse. A further demand for creative programs designed to meet 
the unique requirements of an aging population needs to be met. 

ENDNOTES 

’The starting age for "older adults" is uncertain. The Alabama Depart¬ 
ment of Human Resources (DHR) considers adults 50 years and older to be 
older adults. Others in the state and American Association of Retired 
People (AARP) define the age as 55 years of age. The United States Social 
Security Act of 1935 uses a retirement age of 62 years for early 
retirement and 65 years for the beginning of normal retirement and the 
beginning of the "older years." This article, and the survey on which it 
is based, used 65 as the cut-off point. 

2 Despite the complexity of the statements, most of them appear to fit 
reasonably well within the three categories: understanding and diag¬ 

nosis of abuse, understanding of the mechanics and operation of the law, 
and the willingness to report abuse and neglect. A factor analysis of 
the 21 statements revealed 12 factors. Thus, each of the categories was 
multidimensional; however, the overlap across categories was minimal. At 
most, only eight of the scales loaded on more than one factor or on no 
factors at all. Moreover, most of the factors were associated with 
primarily one category of scales. Only four of the twelve factors could 
not be unambiguously identified with one of the categories. 

3 The lack of services has become a real problem Even institutional¬ 
ization is not always a possibility because there simply are not enough 
nursing home beds available for those on Medicaid or who are unsponsored 
and not private pay patients in Alabama. At least some of the abused 
elderly are unable to pay to live in any other situation than the place 
they currently reside. This is a particularly difficult situation when 
the abused elderly person's abuser also lives in the same household. 

REFERENCES 

Alabama (1977). Adult protective services act of 1976. Act No. 780, 
Regular Session. 

Alabama (1989). Amendment to the adult protective services act of 1976. 
Senate Bill 337, Regular Session. 

Brent, Nancy J. (1988). "Elder abuse: The next step." Home 
Healthcare Nurse. 6:4,5. 

Clark, C. B. (1981). "Geriatric abuse--out of the closet." Journal of 
the Tennessee Medical Association. 77:470-71. 

Clark-Daniels, Carolyn Lea (1988). "Physician's response to abuse of 
the elderly: The not-so-surprising answers to a survey of doctors 
in Alabama." Presented at the Alabama Academy of Sciences Annual 
Conference. 


255 


i 


Clark-Daniels 


Clark-Daniels, Carolyn Lea, Lorin A. Baumhover, R. Steven Daniels (in 
press). "To report or not to report: Physicians' responses to 
elder abuse." Journal of Health and Human Resources Administration . 

Crouse, Joyce S., Deborah C. Cobb, Britta B. Harris, Frank J. Kopecky, 
and John Poertner (1981). Abuse and neglect of the elder in 
Illinois: Incidence and characteristics, legislation and policy- 
recommendations. Springfield, Illinois: Illinois Council on Aging. 

Daniels, R. Steven, Lorin A. Baumhover, and Carolyn L. Clark-Daniels. 
(1989). "Physicians' mandatory reporting of elder abuse. The 
Gerontologist. 29:321-327. 

Daniels, R. Steven, Carolyn L. Clark-Daniels and Lorin A. Baumhover 

(1988). "Abuse of elders: Physicians are confused." JAMA: Journal 
of the American Medical Association. 260:3276. 

Faulkner, L. R. (1982). "Mandating the reporting of suspected cases of 
elder abuse: An inappropriate, ineffective and ageist response to 
the abuse of older adults." Family Law Quarterly 16 No. 1):69-91. 

Hirst, Sandra P. and Jean Miller (1986). "The abused elderly." Journal 
of Psychosocial Nursing. 24:28-34. 

Kosberg, J. I. (1986). "Preventing elder abuse: Identification of high 
risk factors prior to placement decision." Presented at the Annual 
Meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, Chicago, Illinois. 

O'Brien, J. G. (1987). "Elder abuse and the physician: Factors 

impeding recognition and intervention." Unpublished manuscript, 
Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan State University, 
East Lansing, Michigan. 

O'Brien, J. G. (1986). "Elder abuse: Barriers to identification and 
intervention." Presented at the Annual Meeting of the 
Gerontological Society of America, Chicago, Illinois. 

Pillemer, K. A. and D. Finkelhor (1988). "The prevalence of elder 
abuse: a random sample survey." The Gerontologist 28:51-57. 

Salend, E., R. A. Kane, M. Satz and J. Pynoos (1984). "Elder abuse 
reporting: limitations of statutes." The Gerontologist 24:61-69. 

Thobaben, M., C. Anderson (1985). "Reporting elder abuse: It's the 
law." American Journal of Nursing. 85:371-375. 

U. S. House Select Committee on Aging, Subcommittee on Health and Long- 
Term Care (1985). Elder abuse: A national disgrace (H. Doc. 99- 
502). 99th cong., 1st Sess. Washington, D. C.: Government 
Printing Office. 


256 


Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 60, No. 4, October 1989. 


TRICHOSTRONGYUJS COLUBRIFORMIS (NEMATODA) INFECTION 
IN NORMAL AND ZINC-DEFICIENT GOATS 1 


Leon W. Bone 

USDA, ARS Animal Parasite Research Laboratory 
P. O. Box 952 
Auburn, AL 36830 

and 


Edward J. Parish, Waite Dykes, and Herbert H. Kohl 
Department of Chemistry 
Auburn University 
Auburn University, AL 36849 


ABSTRACT 

Goats infected with the intestinal nematode, Trichostrongylus colu- 
briformis , gained less weight than uninfected animals. Infection of zinc- 
deficient animals caused a weight loss while uninfected goats, given 
deficient feed, gained insignificantly. Loss of body weight was independ¬ 
ent of infection level. Levels of serum zinc declined in deficient- 
ration animals by 71% while zinc levels in the intestinal nematodes 
declined by 35%. Infection with various levels of nematode larvae 
indicated no effect on the zinc status of the host. 

INTRODUCTION 

The importance of dietary zinc is recognized in both man and ruminants 
(Hambridge, 1981; Blackmon et al., 1967). The role of zinc during infec¬ 
tion has been reviewed (Sugarman, 1983) , but few studies have examined the 
relation of zinc levels in the host and helminth disease. Plasma levels 
of zinc are reduced in human schistosomiasis while zinc supplementation 
reduces the schistosome burden in hamsters (Mikhail and Mansour, 1982; 
Mansour et al., 1983). These studies suggest an interaction of zinc 
status and helminthiasis. 

Helminths may also require trace levels of zinc. The zinc-dependent 
enzyme, leucine aminopeptidase, may be involved in both hatching of eggs 
and exsheathment of larvae of Haemonchus contortus (Rogers, 1982). Addi¬ 
tionally, schistosomes and their eggs concentrate zinc from the environ¬ 
ment of the host (Booth and Schulert, 1968). 

This study examined the influence of the ruminant nematode Tricho¬ 
strongylus colubriformis on growth and serum levels of zinc in normal and 
zinc-deficient goats. Zinc content of the parasite was determined also in 
these hosts. 


’Manuscript received 15 May 1989; accepted 6 June 1989. 


257 






Bone, Parish, Dykes, and Kohl 


MATERIALS AND METHODS 

Male, cross-bred goats, 10 to 12 weeks of age at infection, were 
weighed and placed in cages. Normal animals were fed a grain mix, hay- 
pellets and tap water that contained adequate levels of zinc. Two animals 
were held as uninfected controls while five additional goats were infected 
orally with 10, 25, 37.5, 45, or 65 x 10 3 larvae of Trichostrongylus 
colubriformis. 

Zinc deficiency was induced in another group of six goats. Animals, 
6- to 8-weeks old, were given a zinc-deficient diet (1.05 ppm; ICN) and 
reagent-grade water (Milli-Q; Millipore Corp.). Zinc was not detected by 
atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the reagent-grade water. The zinc- 
deficient diet was formulated according to Neathery et al. (1973). After 
1 month for zinc depletion, four animals were infected orally with 10, 25, 
35, or 50 x 10 3 larvae of T. colubriformis . Two goats were held as con¬ 
trols. Animals in both groups were weighed at biweekly intervals to 
determine the mean percentage of weight change, relative to their previous 
weight determination, over a 12-week period. Blood was taken by veni¬ 
puncture at biweekly intervals and allowed to clot overnight. The mean 
content of zinc (ug/ml) in the serum was determined during the 12-week 
period by atomic absorption with a Perkin Elmer Model 103 spectrophoto¬ 
meter versus standards (1974, Analytical Methods for Atomic Absorption 
Spectrometry, Perkin-Elmer Corp., pp. 5-20). Stainless steel cages and 
feed or water containers were used throughout the study to eliminate the 
availability of zinc in the host's environment. Animals were given normal 
food and water or zinc-deficient food and water ad lib. 

Normal and zinc-deficient animals that were inoculated with 25 x 10 3 
larvae were killed after 12 weeks for recovery of nematodes in a Baerman 
apparatus. Worms were rinsed repeatedly with reagent-grade water, 
weighed, and digested with warm, concentrated nitric acid. Digestion of 
the helminths was completed with perchloric acid at 200 C. Zinc content 
(ug/g) of the acid background and triplicate samples of helminths were 
determined by atomic absorption as described above. 

Data are given as mean + SEM. Data were evaluated by Student's t- 
test, analysis of variance, and linear regression. The 0.05 probability 
level was considered significant. 

RESULTS 

Infected goats on normal feed gained significantly less (F - 12.52) 
than the uninfected controls (Fig. 1). Mean gain in weight decreased 
linearly (r - 0.90) as the larval inoculum of T. colubriformis was 
increased. Weight gain in the animal that was given 65 x 10 3 infective 
larvae was only 36% of the uninfected controls; however, all infected 
animals exhibited some weight gain during the study. 

In contrast, little weight gain (0.9%) occurred in the uninfected 
animals that were given zinc-deficient feed (Fig. 2). Zinc-deficient 
animals that were infected with T. colubriformis lost significant weight 
(F - 41.88) during the study. Loss of weight was independent of the 
dosage of larvae (r - 0.13). Infection by T. colubriformis had no appar- 


258 


Trichostrongylus colubrlformis infection in zinc-deficient goats 



Figure 1. Percent change in weight (mean + SEM) of goats that were given 
normal feed and were uninfected or infected with the indicated 
dosage of T. colubrlformis larvae during a 12-week period. 


ent effect on the level of serum zinc in goats on either feed (Fig. 3). 
The level of serum zinc was significantly less (F - 17.65) in animals on 
zinc-deficient rations. 

The zinc content of T. colubrLformls was altered significantly 
(p < 0.05) by their host's status. Helminths from animals on normal feed 
contained 2.23 (+ 0.32) ug of zinc/g dry body weight while those from 
zinc-deficient animals had 1.44 (+ 0.18) ug/g dry body weight. Worms from 
zinc-deficient animals appeared morphologically normal and produced patent 
infections, based on fecal examinations. Viable third-stage larvae were 
recovered from fecal-spagnum moss cultures. 

DISCUSSION 

Infection of goats with T. colubrlformis had no apparent influence on 
the level of serum zinc when an adequate dietary source of zinc was 
produced. In contrast, plasma levels of calcium decline in sheep after 
3 weeks of Infection by T. colubrlformis (Coop et al., 1976). 

The infected animals showed significantly less weight gain than the 
uninfected controls. Also, infection with T. colubrlformis apparently 
contributed to weight loss in zinc-deficient animals. The absence of a 


259 











Bone, Parish, Dykes, and Kohl 



Figure 2. Percent change in weight (mean + SEM) of goats that were given 
zinc-deficient feed and were uninfected or infected with the 
indicated dosage of T. colubriformis larvae during a 12-week 
period. 


dose-dependency of larvae to weight loss suggests that fewer helminths 
(less than 10,000 larvae) affected the host when the helminth infection 
was superimposed on the zinc deficiency. Coop et al. (loc. cit.) reported 
a 50% reduction in weight gain by sheep with 17,500 larvae of T. colubri¬ 
formis while Steel et al. (1980) found that 9,500 T. colubriformis caused 
a 39% decrease in the sheeps' weight gain. 

The 35% reduction in total zinc in T. colubriformis while the host's 
serum declined by 71% during a dietary deficiency of zinc suggests a 
successful competition by the helminths for available zinc. Our interest 
in this facet originated with reports that various nematodes contain 
comparatively high levels of zinc for animal tissue (Deuhert and Gray, 
1974) and the occurrence of zinc sulfide in the often-described calcium 


260 











Trlchostrongylus colubrlformis infection in zinc-deficient goats 



Figure 3. Serum zinc levels (mean + SEM) of goats that were given normal 
(•) or zinc-deficient (o) feed and were uninfected or infected 
with the indicated dosage of T. colubrlformis larvae during a 
12-week period. 


granules of nematodes (Goldsmid and Jablonski, 1982). However, the lack 
of any effect of increasing larval dosages on the host's level of serum 
zinc indicated that zinc uptake by the parasite contributed little to the 
nutritional deficiency in the goat. 

REFERENCES 

Blackmon, D. M., Miller, W. J. and J. D. Morton. 1967. Zinc deficiency 
in ruminants: occurrence, effects, diagnosis, treatments. Vet. Med. 

62: 265-270 

Booth, G. H. and A. R. Schulert. 1968. Zinc metabolism in schisto¬ 
somes. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 127: 700-704. 

Coop, R. L., Sykes, A. R. and K. W. Angus. 1976. Subclinical tricho- 
strongylosis in growing lambs produced by continuous larval dosing. The 
effect on performance and certain plasma constituents. Res. Vet. Sci. 

21: 253-258. 

Deuhert, K. H. and R. Gray. 1974. Determination of zinc in individual 
terrestrial nematodes. Nematologica 20: 365-366. 


261 













Bone, Parish, Dykes, and Kohl 


Goldsmid, J. M. and W. Jablonski. 1982. Demonstration of ZnS in Temi- 
dens deminutus using EDAX analysis. Int. J. Parasitol. 12: 145-149. 

Hambridge, K. M. 1981. Zinc deficiency in man: its origins and 
effects. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 294: 129-144. 

Mansour, M. M., Mikhail, M. M. and N. I. Guirgis. 1983. Effect of zinc 
supplementation on S. mansoni -infected hamsters. Ann. Trop. Med. Hyg. 

71 517-521. 

Mikhail, M. M. and M. M. Mansour. 1982. The interaction of zinc and 
vitamin A in human schistosomiasis. Europ. J. Clin. Invest. 12: 345- 
350. 

Neathery, M. W. , Miller, W. J., Blackmon, W. M., Pate, F. M. and R. P. 
Gentry. 1973. Effects of long term zinc deficiency on feed utili¬ 
zation, reproductive characteristics, and hair growth in the sexually 
mature male goat. J. Dairy Sci. 56: 98-105. 

Rogers, W. P. 1982. Enzymes in the exsheathing fluid of nematodes and 
their biological significance. Int. J. Parasitol. 12: 495-502. 

Steel, J. W. , Symons, L. E. A. and W. 0. Jones. 1980. Effects of level 
of larval intake on the productivity and physiological and metabolic 
responses of lambs infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis Aust. J. 
Agric. Res. 31: 821-838. 

Sugarman, B. 1983. Zinc and infection. Rev. Infect. Dis. 5: 137- 
147. 


262 


Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 60, No. 4, October 1989. 


ABSTRACTS 

HEALTH SCIENCES 


NEW MEDICAL QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE. 
Robert E. Pieroni , Dept, of Internal Medicine and Family Medicine, 

Univ. of Ala., Tuscaloosa, AL 35487. 

In 1985 the Department of Defense (DOD), in its continued efforts 
to provide optimal patient care to patients in its world-wide medical 
treatment facilities, instituted a plan for external civilian peer 
review. Written standards were developed by a multidisciplinary 
advisory panel, and abstracted data from medical records (approximately 
8 % of total hospital discharges) were compared with criteria-based 
computer algorithms. In general, less than 1% of the medical records 
sampled failed to meet quality assurance criteria. Two areas of 
concern involved treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis, and decisions 
concerning need for hysterectomy. I shall discuss this innovative 
system which has been designed to improve medical and surgical care of 
DOD beneficiaries, as well as its potential application for civilian 
medical facilities. Specific examples of the functioning of the 
quality assurance program and its benefits in improving patient care 
will be described. 


ALCOHOLIC KETOACIDOSIS. Jim Zumstein and Robert E. Pieroni, College 
of Community Health Sciences, Univ. of Ala., Tuscaloosa, AL 35487. 

Alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA), a disorder of carbohydrate 
metabolism, was first described in 1940. Patients are usually 
chronic alcoholics who have been on a recent "binge," but, because 
of nausea and vomiting, anorexia, and abdominal pain, often have not 
taken food or alcohol for one to three days before hospital admission. 
Although serum glucose is usually slightly elevated, patients, not 
infrequently, are euglycemic or actually hypoglycemic. Even though 
it has been estimated that for every four cases of diabetic keto¬ 
acidosis there is one case of AKA, the majority of AKA cases are not 
correctly diagnosed. Because of an increased beta-hydroxybutyrate 
acid to acetoacetate acid ratio, the nitroprusside reaction, used to 
determine ketones, may be negative, thereby obscuring the diagnosis 
of AKA. We shall present the case of a female with classic manifes¬ 
tations of AKA, and discuss the characteristics of this disorder, 
including pathophysiology, clinical and laboratory findings, 
differential diagnosis, potential complications, and appropriate 
therapy. 


263 




Abstracts 


THE WHITE CLOT SYNDROME. Robert E. Pieroni , Dept, of Internal 
Medicine and Family Medicine, Univ. of Ala., Tuscaloosa, AL 35487. 

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is felt to be the most 
important idiosyncratic drug-induced thrombocytopenia because of its 
frequency (occurring in about 5% of patients) and its less common, 
yet potentially devastating, association with hemorrhage, as well as 
systemic thrombosis. Heparin has been in use as an anticoagulant for 
about 50 years, and its capacity to induce severe arterial thrombosis 
has been documented in a variety of reports for over a decade. 
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (the "HITT" or "White 
Clot Syndrome") most often occurs after a patient has received 
heparin for six days or more. However, in a previously exposed 
patient, the syndrome can develop in hours or days. This syndrome 
has occurred following administration of heparin by any route and at 
any dose. Heparin-IgG immune complexes are considered important in 
the etiology of this disorder which can result in strokes, amputa¬ 
tions, myocardial infarctions and other severe thrombotic events. We 
shall review the literature and discuss case reports pertaining to 
HITT. Emphasis will be directed toward proper use and monitoring of 
heparin in order to prevent the white clot syndrome and reduce 
potential complications during heparin utilization. 


ABNORMAL CHOLESTEROL VALUES: CLINICAL VIGNETTES. Robert E. Pieroni , 
Dept, of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Ala., Tuscaloosa, AL 35487. 

Increasing attention continues to be given to serum cholesterol as 
a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). The relatively 
high prevalence of CHD in this country has been convincingly associated 
with high cholesterol levels. It has been demonstrated that in high- 
risk hypercholesterolemic patients each 1% reduction in total serum 
cholesterol is associated with a 2% decline in CHD. Although prudent 
diet remains the cornerstone for lowering serum cholesterol, other 
risk factors (e.g. sedentary living habits, hypertension, stress, 
diabetes, smoking) should also be modified in order to lower CHD risk. 
We shall review recent recommendations on treatmet of hyperlipidemia 
emphasizing diet, exercise and use of medications that can diminish 
harmful low density lipoproteins (LDL), and potentially elevate high 
density lipoproteins (HDL) - the so-called "good cholesterol. 

Several clinical vignettes will be presented which underscore the 
importance of evaluating lipid profiles, as well as use of appropriate 
methods to lower CHD in dyslipemic subjects. 


264 




Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 60, No. 4, October 1989. 


INDEX 

Abbott-King, Janet P... 63 

Absher, Keith.163, 165 

Acetophenonetricarbonylchromium, the synthesis of some new 

derivatives of.139 

Acremonium coenophialum - the tall fescue endophyte, 

variation in...Ill 

Actin and myosin gene expression in chick cardiac 

cell cultures.126 

Adams, C. S. 122 

Adolescent self perceptions: an exposition based on 

personal interviews . 176 

Adolescents' level of knowledge of illness and 

hospitalization. 198 

Aggressive behavior in fenfluramine-treated rats, an 

assessment of. 188 

Agriculture in Alabama by the year 2000 .. 166 

AIDS seropositivity rates in southern states: a distribution 

analysis . ..192 

Air flow distribution in an underfeed residential stoker 

combustor using bituminous coals . 56 

Alabama Academy of Science visiting scientist program 

on student attitudes, impact of the.171 

Alabama scientists: profiles of five years' recipients 

of the Wright A. Gardner award, outstanding . .... 49 

Alabama's grain marketing system in the 1980's . 16 

Alcoholic ketoacidosis . 263 

Alexander, James G.162 

Algorithmic aspects of reconstruction of MOP graphs . . . 210 

Alkylating agents containing the bis (2-chloroethyl) amine 

functional group, metal complexes of. 134 

Allison, F. S.188 

Ambulatory health care in the western democracies: 

policies to foster its expansion. 187 

AMP deaminase isozymal changes in the heart of 

streptozotocin diabetic rats.194 

Amphibians and reptiles of Alabama--status update . . . 116 

Antibodies to protein kinase c isoforms, production and 

characterization of.120 

Armor, Jerry. 177 

Armstrong B. 139 

AsterLas vulgaris: a characterization of basic nucleoproteins 

isolated from pyrolic caeca, histones of the sea star . 119 

Asterias vulgaris, distribution of glycolytic enzymes 

in the sea star . .. 123 

Asterias vulgaris , steroid metabolism in somatic and 

gametic tissues of the sea star . ..126 

Astone, Nicholas A.. 174 

Astronomical photoelectric photometry at the University 

of North Alabama.152 

Atkins, Linda. 194 


265 


































Index 


Avery, Glenda. 189 

Backpropagation, spatial reconstruction using . . . 209 

Badhwar, G. D.152 

Baggott, Edward.209 

Balentine, Timothy C. 150 

Barrett, William A.175 

Basenspiler, Larry . 210 

Bates, Marlys . 189 

Battle, Teresa . 112 

Bearce, Steven C. 147 

Becker, Gayle . 197 

Bedrock fracture-zone patterns, topographic analysis of streams 

to determine gross characteristics of . 147 

Behringer, Richard R. 115 

Belcher, Milton E.175 

Benton, Carol . 200 

Bipartisanization of the black electorate: the case for the 

synthetic equal opportunity posture . 173 

Birds and mammals, status of Alabama.129 

Biswas, M. A. Salam.138 

Biting midge larvae (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), taxonomic 

potential of palatal sensilla of . 112 

Black farm family: family size, life cycles, and subsistence 

production, the changing structure of the . 212 

Black male in Alabama: a demographic portrait, the.175 

Blagbum, Byron L.128 

Bleam, William.141 

Boardman, William J.155 

Boettger, Holly L.112, 130 

Bogie, Donald W. .. 175 

Boitani, Lugi.171 

Bollenbacher, Walter E.....114 

Bond energies and entropies of gas-phase ion-molecule 

clusters: S0 2 + C0 2 , S0 2 + N 2 0 and S0 2 + S0 2 . 135 

Bond, Robert W.. . 207 

Bone, Leon W. . . . . .. 257 

Bone preservation from observed soil properties, 

predicting ... . ..... . ..... 211 

Borane competition reactions toward N, P, and As donor sites. . . . 136 

Borden, Amanda W. . ........ . 176 

Bosch, Isidro...... . 121 

Bowen, M. 139 

Brachyuran larvae in elkhorn slough and nearshore waters 
of Monterey Bay, California, seasonal occurrence and 

abundance of .. 122 

Bradley, James T.... 92, 111, 128 

Brasher, Larry D. 153 

Breastfeeding, identification of the information new mothers 

perceive as helpful during early. . . ......... 194 

Breast-feeding: identifying material-infant nurses' knowledge 

and attitudes. 201 

Brett, C. E. 188 


266 











































Index 


Briles, David . 203 

Brinster, Ralph L...115 

Brumlow, W. B.122 

Bryan, Ty W.127 

Bryant, Barrett R. 205, 208 

Buckner, Ellen B. ..49, 169 

Burns, D. H.. . 137, 141 

Burns, Jerald C. 174 

Burttram, Joan. ,.. 197 

Business district: a case study of Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 

functional change in the central.150 

Cancer among blacks, a communication model for reducing . 202 

Canonical band theory: a new approach, role of MTOs and 

the tail cancellation in.161 

Capers, Gesa.. . 113 

Carlisle, E. Christopher.170, 172 

Carrington, Thomas J. '. 147 

Carroll, Andrew J. 204 

Carter, Kevin W...138 

Caryospora bigeneCica (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), investigation 

of the caryocyst of . . .'.130 

Case, Jan 0.176, 181 

Caturegli, Patrizio . 128 

Chang, H.-C. 92 

Chaos and the theory of efficient markets.166 

Chappelear, Joyce . 200 

Charles Mohr, botanist in Alabama heritage . 48 

Cholesterol values: clinical vignettes, abnormal.264 

Christopher, Jan E.184 

Chromiak, J. A.235 

Chuang, Teh-Huey . 160 

Clark, R. Kent. 154 

Clark, Edward M. Ill 

Clark-Daniels, Carolyn Lea . 243 

Classroom, marketing the.164 

Cleveland, Pat...197 

Cline, George B. ... 113, 118, 120 

Cluster embedding within the method of linear combinations 

of atomic orbitals: application to F center in MgO. 159 

Coastal pollution - a reflection of global disaster . 169 

Coccidiosis in goats, trails of several drugs for the 

the control of...128 

Cody, Reynolds M... 11 

Collaborative writing, an interaction process 

analysis of ... ..176 

College education among police officers of selected Alabama 

law enforcement agencies.177 

Communication apprehension: reduction within a 

prison setting . ..175 

Communication skills: effects of teaching unskilled health 
care workers confirmation/discomflrmation communication 
patterns when interacting with elderly clients. ........ 189 


267 












































Index 


Competitive adsorption of corrosion inhibitors on metal 

surfaces.133 

Computer-related stress, correlates of . 173 

Computer science laboratory for upper-level undergraduate 

courses, a proposal for . ..... 210 

Conant, Elizabeth .... . 119 

Coping with regulations . 132 

Couch, Scott B. 149 

Courington, David. 211 

Crawford, Gerald L.165, 168 

Cretaceous water resources of the Montgomery area, 

Alabama, evaluation of upper.149 

Crime myths on individual fear of crime, repercussions 

of acceptance of. 178 

Criminal justice education programs: is there a need?, 

accreditation of.177 

Crocker, George T. 210 

Culvahouse, J. W.156 

Curott, David R.152 

Dagg, Charles P. 195 

Darch, Gabriele Glass . 201 

Datta, Mukul C. 187 

Davenport, Larry, J. 48 

Davis, Sheila P. 174, 201, 202, 203 

Dawkins, Theresa G. 92 

Dawson, Willard F. 0.205 

Dean, Derrick R.140 

Dean, Lewis S. 144 

Dean, Susan T.206 

Defense, new medical quality assurance program for 

the department of .264 

Degges, Carleton W. 147 

deGraffenried, Jeffries B., Jr.206 

Demko, Timothy M. 147 

Demographic and academic predictors of success of 
baccalaureate degree nursing students at the 
University of Alabama school of nursing at 

Birmingham, pilot study in progress-selected . 197 

Denotational semantics, a compiler for ADA using.205 

DeVivo, Michael J.... 191 

Dietary treatment of obesity in a group practice setting, 

pilot study: evaluation of. .. 191 

Diimide kinetics in aqueous solution .... . 133 

Dindo, John J. . ..... 121, 169 

Dole, Jennifer ..188 

Dove, Mary Frances.132 

Driskell, Boyce. 213 

Drought and the prospects for sustainable food production 
by small scale farmers in Zimbabwe: the influence of 

agricultural policies . . . ..... 151 

Drug terminology by beginning baccalaureate nursing 

students, learning of ..... ..169 


268 









































Index 


Drummond, Lawrence. 124 

Dubowitz scores of newborn infants at 2, 12, and 24 hours 

after birth, comparisons of. 184 

Dute , Roland R.117 

Dykes, Waite . 257 

Economics of educational investment . 167 

Eddy, James. 199 

Effective mass and probability density using a rectangular 

periodic potential: calculation of...159 

Eimeria papillata (Protozoa: Apicomplexa): early development 

in vivo and in vitro.125 

Elderly Alabamians: the behavioral risk factor survey, 

health status and behavior of.\ . 199 

Elderly and infant: is there a difference?, attitudes toward. . . . 195 

Electron concentration in intermediate concentration region 
for doped semiconductors, calculations of metallic and 

nonmetallic. 155 

Electron density analysis of bonding between inverted- 

tricoordinate carbons. 132 

Electron-phonon interaction in doped materials and its 
influence on thermal conduction in the ultralow 

temperature region of 5-35K . 157 

Elko switch cemetery.211 

Emerson, M.133 

Environmental control strategies for developing nations . 205 

Estridge, Barbara H.Ill, 124, 128 

Excavations at mound P, preliminary . 211 

Excavations at Smith bottom cave 1984-1988. 213 

Exchange rates and economic news . 167 

Fairchild, Elizabeth M. 214 

Fairhope, Alabama: a single tax experiment . 162 

Fat body protein metabolism after ovariectomy, 

altered cricket ..128 

Finite games, some surprises in the theory of.153 

Finley, Wayne H. 195, 204 

Fishes in Alabama in need of special attention, status of . 117 

Fishes in the lower Cahaba River, Alabama, distribution and status 

of rare or environmentally sensitive. 1 

Fluorinated epoxy resins containing the ester functional 

group, synthesis and characterization of. . . ..140 

Folkerts, George W. . . . ..116, 129 

Fones, Ben. ........ . 189 

Francis, Kennon . ......... 193 

Francisci, Francisco. ........... . 171 

Frandsen, John C. ........ ..128 

Free, W. Joe. 165, 168 

Free, Veronica A.163, 165 

Free, Donna A. 112 

Fues, Linda L. . 214 

Gabrology--"you are what you throw away": analysis of 
college students" garbage to determine student 

trends. 214 


269 







































Index 


Garbage samples of Birmingham-Southern.214 

Garner, Margaret P. . . .191 

Gastaldo, Robert A.146, 147 

Gatewood, Frances.180 

Gatlin, Kerry P.163, 165 

Geochemical implications for the origin of thin-layered 
amphibolites within the ropes creek amphibolite, 

western Lee County, Alabama . 143 

Geographic education, a center of excellence in . 151 

Geology and mineral resources of Elmore County, Alabama, 

correlation of soil associations to.144 

George, Abraham.159 

George, Joseph D.170, 172 

Gibson, Deborah E. . 200 

Gibson, Michael L. 139 

Gist, Richard ..193 

Glotfelty, Henry W.156 

Gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus ): a preliminary 

report, seed orchard establishment effects on the . 127 

Grant, Joan S.182 

Gregory, Don A.153 

Griffin, Marsha D. . .. 162 

Ground-dove in Alabama, distribution and status 

of common.224 

Groundwater microbiota associated with aquifer thermal 

energy storage (ATES), preliminary study of ......... . 188 

Groundwater protection, "drastic" model as a tool for 

planners concerned with. 148 

Gudauskas, Robert T. 11 

Guner, Osman F. . . . ..132 

Guttikonda, Rama R. . ..164 

Guyer, Craig.127 

Habitats in need of attention.115 

Hahn 0. J. .. 56 

Hall, Jill. 174 

Hall, Greg, D. . ..143 

Hamilton, J. . 139 

Handicapped students selected concepts about radon hazard, 

teaching .. 170 

Handley, Holley L. Ill 

Hanks, Lawrence J.173 

Harris, Richard I.. . 210 

Harris, S. C. .. 118 

Harrison, Joseph G. 159 

Hawk, James F. .. 153 

Hayes, Robert E. . 171 

Hazardous substances on small-college campuses, the 

management of . . .. 172 

Heat conduction "rays" through material media, 

propagation of. 157 

Hegji, Charles E.167 


270 











































Index 


Hembree, Beth S.198 

Hemoglobin (Hb S) in transgenic mice, synthesis of high levels 

of human sickle.115 

Hemoglobin proportions toward newborn values in adult rats 

by hydroxyurea is blocked by aspirin, switching of. 187 

Henderson, D. Michael . 150 

Heterocyclic ligands, transition metal complexes containing 

n-donor.141 

Hicks, R. J. 188 

Hill, Patrick H.214 

Himmler, Frank N.148 

Hines, Gene A.126 

HIV infection: a disease of individuals, not individual . 186 

HIV infections in Alabama, demography of. 182 

Holcombe, Carol L.184 

Holland, Cherie . . . . .. 113 

Holland, Priscilla . 148 

Holliman, Dan C.129 

Holstein, Harry 0.'.212 

Hoobler, Terry. 193 

Hopkins, Linda . 113 

Hopkinson, Rupert. 166 

Howell, W. Mike .172 

Hribar, Lawrence J. .. 112 

Hsu, Jian-Wien.159 

Hsueh, Pan-wen. 122 

Huchison, Richard A. 145 

Hudiburg, Richard A. 173 

Hughes, Timothy E. 180 

Human twinning as a compensatory mechanism: 

a unifying hypothesis . 63 

Hunsinger, Ronald N. 172 

Ibrahim, A.133, 137 

Ibrahim, Taleb, H. 140 

lilies, Andreas J.135, 142 

Income distribution in Alabama: an historical perspective . 101 

Inflation effects on the age distribution of wealth . 163 

Ingram, Cora A..174 

Inspiratory pressures applied by nurses during manual 

ventilation of an infant mannequin, peak. . 202 

Intensive care unit, perceived immediate needs of parents 

with young children in an.184 

Invertebrates with restricted distributions in Alabama, 

status of .......... .. 118 

Ion molecule clustering of H 3 0 + to C0 a and N a 0. Bond 

energies and entropies of reaction ..... . 142 

Irreducible representations of sl(2,C) and generating 

functions .. 160 

Jenkins, C.133 

Jenkins, C. Merrill . ..154 

Jenkins, Ronald L. 194 

Job satisfaction in staff registered nurses, comparison of. 189 


271 













































Index 


Joesten, Melvin D. 134 

John, Pamela C.205 

Johnson, James A.192 

Johnson, Kenneth E. 207 

Jolly, Curtis M.167 

Jones, Malcolm T,.224 

Jones, R. Bruce.163 

Jones, Tim.177 

Jones, Walter J.192 

Jones, Warren T. 209 

Joslin, Robert 0.170 

Joubert, Charles E. 178 

Justice, Joni.188 

Kallenberg, Olav.153 

Kay, Larry K. 39 

Kennemer, Gretchen A... 189, 200 

Koerper, Philip . 212 

Kohl, Herbert H.257 

Kothari, I. K.155 

Krannich, Larry K.136, 138 

Krasney, Ethel L. 134 

Krotzer, R. Stephen . 1 

Lacy, A. Wayne.101 

Lamb, James P. , Jr.144, 145 

Lammertsma, Koop.132, 136 

LaMoreaux, Philip E.143 

Langmuir equation as a model for P sorption by aluminium 

oxide surface.141 

Lanier, Mark M.178 

Lares, Michael T. . ..127 

Laser welding experiment in microgravity.208 

Lavender, Martha G.185 

Law, Tammie Lynn.203 

Learning curve models to analyzing cost variances, an 

application of.164 

Lee, Kara J. ..123 

Leonard, Kathleen. 200 

Leopard frog (Rana utricularia) at constant and fluctuating 
temperatures, growth and development in larvae of the 

southern . .. 131 

Leszczynski, Jerzy..... . 136 

Lett, Samuel L. .. 168 

Lienau, Andrew.214 

Lift resistance in a strength training program, 

determination of initial. 193 

Likens, Dennis A...'.154 

Lindsay, David S. . ........ . 130 

Liu, Yuejin. 146 

Long-Hall, Carolyn.... • 175 

Loo, B. H. . 133, 137, 141 

Luckhart, Shirley. 196 

Ludwick, Adriane G.. 138, 140 


272 

















































Index 


Lupien, Alfred E. ..... 169 

Luskin, Joseph . 177 

Lyme disease in Alabama, field studies of potential 

tick vectors of.....196 

Magee, Lyman. 124 

Magnetic resonance study of the protons in the hydrated 

complexes of cobalt: lanthanum zinc double nitrate.156 

Magnitude estimation scaling to examine the validity of 

nursing diagnosis, using.182 

Mahaffy, C. A. L.. . 139 

Male nursing student in the obstetrical area, role 

strain for the.190 

Manocha, H. L.160 

Marion, Ken R.121 

Marketing fresh fruits and vegetables, channel 

requirements in .168 

Marketing in Huntsville, Alabama, international . 162 

Marshall, Norton L. .. 48 

Martin, James C. 153 

Massey, Carl B.119 

Matrices, some special classes of . 160 

McCaleb, Alberta ..198 

McClintock, James B.. 114, 121, 122, 127 

McDaniel, Huey G.194 

McDaniel, Larry S. 180 

McLaughlin, Ellen W. 119 

Meade, Mark E.118 

Media and agency executives' perceptions of advertising 

mistakes.165 

Memauri, Haghdad S.156 

Mentally ill in urban communities, housing the.174 

Merkel, Edward T. ..162 

Metal nucleotides, model complexes of . 142 

Microcapros libanicus , the phylogenetic position of the 

fossil teleost fish.131 

Milly, K. A. 186 

Minimum wage, unemployment rate and the consumer price index - 

preliminary observations. ....... . 163 

Minutes, annual meeting . 215 

Mirarchi, Ralph E. 224 

Mishra, S. N. . . . .. 158 

Misra, Satish Chandra. 158 

Moeller, Michael B. . ..139 

Molecular structures arid niimerization energies of digallanes. . . . 136 

Monoclonal antibodies against cricket vitellogenin, 

characterization of ........ .. Ill 

Monoclonal antibodies specific for ciliary membranes of 

Tetrahymena pyriformis , production and characterization of. . . 124 

Montgomery theropod: a status report.145 

Moore, Stephanie Moxley. 163 

Moral dilemma discussions and moral reasoning ........... 198 

Moriarity, Debra M. 126 


273 










































Index 


Mosasaurs reassessed, functional hearing in . ... 144 

Mott, Penne.184 

Moundville and other Mississippian sites, population size 

estimates for.213 

Mount, Robert H. 116 

Mukherjee, N. L. 56 

Mullen, Michael William . 149 

Mullen, Gary R.112, 196 

Mulvaney, D. R. 235 

Munchausen's syndrome: a case report and literature review.193 

Murphree, Carol B.191 

Murphree, C. Steven.112 

Murthy, H.V.S .209 

Muthukude, Palitha . 167 

Myelogram: relationship between route of fluid administration 
and severity of side effects in post-iopamidol myelogram 

patients.185 

Naftel, Bromleigh . 200 

Nature's way series: a report on the implementation of a 

pilot science enrichment project.170 

Neidert, Jamie B. 134 

Nelson, David H.131 

Nelson, Kathy H. ..185 

Nematode*induced damage to cotton roots as monitored by 

Sudan Black B.117 

Neville, J. A. ..188 

Newton, J. G.143 

Ngwazikazana, Peter S. 151 

Nickell, Eugenie . 175 

Nilideals of local r-RSI rings, on . 156 

Nordness, Mary-Martin . 181 

Nurse-client relationship, a q-analysis of interpersonal 

trust in the.200 

Nurses in Alabama, registered nurses' responses to 
reporting abuse: a survey of home health and 

community health . 243 

Nurses, survey of caring behaviors among. 203 

Nursing documentation . 192 

Nursing documentation by evaluating perceptions of staff 

nurses regarding quality documentation, improving . 200 

Nursing education administrators as described by individuals 

In that position, evaluation of ..199 

Nursing service administration graduate students regarding 
the utilization of the clinical nursing specialist in 

the hospital setting, perceptions of. . 197 

Nursing students, cues and hypotheses identified by 

senior baccalaureate ... . 204 

Nutrasweet: a comparison of consumption levels of college 

students with the United States general population.181 

Odont&ster validus : an indicator of primary production in 
the shallow waters of antarctica, the ecology of the 
common sea star.121 


274 






































Index 


Optical correlation techniques, optimum character encryption 

and extraction for.153 

Ornithine decarboxylase and polyamine synthesis in embryos 

of the brine shrimp Artemia spp., induction of . 113 

Osterhoff, William E. 179 

Oxygen in heart muscle by myoglobin, calculation of 

intracellular transport of. 196 

Paleocene clayton formation, preliminary investigations on 

the origin of rhythmic bedding in the.145 

Palmiter, Richard D.115 

Pan, Aiqin ..208 

Parish, Edward J. 257 

Parsing in TAG, complexity of.209 

Patrick, Joseph E.206 

Patterson, Paul L.211 

Patterson, Algem... 11 

Pay, Y. L.137 

Payne, Donald R. . ... . 135, 142 

Peacock, Mary K. 197 

Pearse, John S.121 

Pennsylvanian coastal-deltaic system, northwestern Alabama, 

the persistence of forested swamp environments in a . 147 

Peritonitis: case report and literature review, primary . 183 

Perkins, Fran. 174 

Petromyzon marlnus , evolutionary and developmental implications 

of the structure of acetylcholinesterase from the lamprey . . . 125 

Pezzementi, Leo.125 

Physella cubensis with an analysis of the effects of 
temperature on embryonic and juvenile growth, the 

natural history of the common pulmonate gastropod . . 114 

Physics concepts, research into several factors affecting 

the understanding of basic.154 

Pickens, Barbara B. .195 

Pieroni, Robert E. 183, 191, 192, 193, 199, 263, 264 

Pierson, J. Malcolm.1, 117 

Pitcher plant habitats in the Gulf Coast area, unique 

characteristics of the flora of.129 

Plaster, Teresa C.208 

Poirier, Gary R...112, 130 

Police officer feminist attitudes and perceptions of female 

crime: an exploratory analysis . 179 

Police organizations and culture, analysis of dinosaurs: . 174 

Polyamines spermine, spermidine and putrescine in several 

invertebrate tissues, determination of the ..... . 123 

Polycarbosilanes, synthesis and characterization of . 140 

Polyethyloxazoline-Co-Polyethylenimine and Its precursor, 

structure analysis of .... .. 138 

Prehistoric north Alabama, painted "trophy skulls" from . 214 

President as perceived by children, role of the.. . 174 

Prolactin in reproductive tract of mature male mouse, 

Immunocytochemical detection of . .... 122 

Prolog, complete compiler specification using . . 208 


275 







































Index 


Prosecution: advantages and disadvantages from the 

perspective of the victim, vertical and horizontal.179 

Protein supplementation of IVF media affects preimplantation 

mouse embryo development.195 

Puleo, Stephanie G... 1 

Radon dangers, comparative.142 

Radon situation today.135 

Radon-222: a concern for middle school science.172 

Railroad rights-of-way for recreational open sapce, 

re-use of abandoned.150 

Ramsey, Darwin-Tamara . 214 

Ranking and selection: an exposition to new methodology . 158 

Rare earth substituted Y^aaCUjO,*,,, optical and magnetic 

properties of.141 

Ravinenment surface in the upper pottsville formation, 

northwestern Alabama, geometric model of a . 146 

Rawlings, J.139, 142 

Rayburn, Scott J.214 

Reasor, William G. 202 

Reed, Linda.197 

Reeves, Gay. 189 

Reilly, Kevin D. 209 

Renfroe, Darlene H.192 

Research interest among first year nursing students, 

strategies for stimulating . 201 

Respiratory gas exchange in softshell, mud, and musk 

turtles, aquatic and aerial . 115 

Reynolds, R. G.152 

Richetto, Jeffrey P._. 150 

Riggs, Janet M. 202 

Riggsby, Ernest D. ..170, 172 

Roberts, Linda . 183 

Rolin, Terry D.141 

Roper, Donna. 189 

Runquist, Jeanette . 214 

Russell, Randy D.161 

Russell, J. Colleen. 181 

Ryan, Thomas M. ..115 

Sahai, Hardeo...158 

Saito, Naoyuki. 123 

Salpas, Peter A. 143 

Sandplay therapy ..180 

Sargassum £luitans from the Gulf of Mexico, the biochemical 
and energetic composition of blades, stipes and 

pneumatocysts of living and decomposing . ..127 

Sauser, William I., Jr. 29 

Savrda, Charles E.1^5, 146 

Sayings test, recent research with the famous . 178 

Scanlon, Matthew ........... . 135 

Scyll&rides nodifer (Stimpson), morphological characterization 

of the hemocytes of the slipper lobster ............ 120 

Selenium blood levels in renal deficient patients . 186 


276 












































Index 


Self concept of school age survivors of acute leukemia and self 

concept of healthy school age children, comparison of . 190 

Self-esteem in the kindergarten child . 185 

SERS of dicyanogroups on metal surface.137 

Sex chromosome aneuploidy in women with recurrent spontaneous 

abortions.204 

Sharma, P. C. 155, 157, 159, 161 

Shea, C. 188 

Shelby, Richard A.Ill 

Shelby, Annete N. 176 

Sherrer, Todd. . 183 

Sherrod, Roy Ann.190 

Shields, Catherine . 197 

Shih, Tzenge-Huey.; 207 

Shiitake mushrooms: marketing problems facing the small farmer . . 165 

Shogren, Michael G. 211 

Simpson, Janis A. 199 

Sinkhole occurrence in Alabama and the eastern United States. . . . 143 

Skipjack herring, with notes on early life ecology, description 

of young . ...... 39 

Sloan, John J. 179 

Sludge-recycle rate and its control of the activated 

sludge system . ...... 207 

Smith, Myra...197 

Snowden, Kevin.135, 142 

Solid waste recycling programs, computer aids for 

planning community.149 

Solidification processing of alloys using an applied 

electric field to control microstructure.207 

South, Lisa D...190 

Spears, Harold J. 187 

Spence, Thomas G. 214 

Spinal cord injury, the economic impact of. .... 191 

SpLroplasma florlcola isolated from flowers in Alabama . 11 

Spoon, Robin . 113 

Srivastava, Dileep K. ..136, 138 

Stafford, Stephanie A.125 

Stallings, James L. ..... 16, 166 

Stanbury, David M...133 

Stanley, Ann E. . . ..134 

Steinkampf, Michael P. 195 

Steroidogenesis in insects (Manduca sexCa ) prothoracic 

glands, regulation of . 114 

Stevens, Clauzell . 11 

Steward, William S.165, 168 

Stewart, G. T. 162 

Stochastic evaluation of algorithms proposed for removing 

interference in chemical kinetic data . 139 

Stone, Cathy. 204 

Stone crabs, development of a computer library of IEF profiles 

of single aquacultured larval stages of ..118 

Stone, Paul A. .. 115 


277 












































Index 


Strategic planning as a management development tool . 29 

Street, Lee Ann.194 

Strength, D. R.235 

Cimaterol on growth and composition of neonatal 

rats, lack of effect of the beta-agonist.235 

Stressors, levels of stress, and self-care actions to reduce 

stress in preadolescent children.183 

Strong, William R.151 

Subramanyam, Shiva Shankar . 155 

Sundermann, Christine A.124, 125, 130 

Supercomputer, track reconstruction of high energy particle 

interactions on the Alabama.154 

Surface protein from a PspA (pneumococcal surface protein a) 

mutant, analysis of a.180 

SUSI: protecting the mainframe from the students (and 

vice versa).206 

Sutherland, David C.214 

Talkington, Deborah . 203 

Tallasseehatchee, an archaeological and historical 

investigation into a creek Indian war battlefield 

site in northeast Alabama, the battle of.212 

Tan, A.152, 157 

Tax simplification and the cost of tax compliance.168 

Taylor, Robert W. 141 

Taylor, Judy.197 

Teaching sample variance: divisor n, n-1, n+1,...? 158 

Teare, Catherine. 199 

Temperatures in children under four years of age, 

axillary versus rectal.181 

Tertiary arsines: novel synthesis . 138 

Thomas, Donald L...114 

Thomas, Nick..141 

Thompson, T. E.188 

Thrasher, Amy L.214 

Townes, Tim M. ..115 

Trace fossils within a lower paleocene transgressive 

sequence, western Alabama. ... . 146 

Trade area identification for factory-outlet shopping 

centers . ............. . 163 

Traffic effects on roadway temperature.161 

TrichosCrongylus colubriformis (nematoda) infection 

in normal and zinc-deficient goats.257 

Tulli, C. George, Jr. . ..187, 191 

Turner, Kenneth R...211, 213, 214 

Twilight --a new look at a famous problem, the problem 

of shortest...155 

Urbanizational influence on the Cahaba River basin since 1930 . . . 148 

Vaccinia virus, non-specific hyperplastic response in 

L-M cells induced by . ......... . 124 

Vaccinogenic effect of PspA (pneumococcal surface 

protein A) .. 203 

Veil, Nance V.171 


278 







































Index 


Velocity perturbations and directionality of the fragments 

in satellite fragmentation events, calculation of . 152 

Vibrios in oyster shellstock shipped inland, presence of . 113 

Vincent, Janice. 197 

Viohl, Frederick A. 164 

Vitellogenic protein synthesis by the cricket ovary . 92 

Voogt, Peter A. 126 

Walker, Charles W.126 

Wallus, Robert . 39 

Walters, James V... 205, 206, 207, 210 

Wang, N.141 

Ware, Bradley R...182, 186 

Warren, Lee.. . 141 

Warren, Joe R.195 

Waste disposal: toss it! using exsys, an expert system for.134 

Wastewater treatment--are they a real alternative?, 

artificial wetlands in . 206 

Watkins, Charles L...136, 138 

Watson, R. Douglas.114 

Watts, Stephen A.113, 119, 123, 126 

Watts, Elizabeth K.214 

Weather events on an Alabama coastal heronry, the influence 

of major.121 

Wells, Gretchen . 204 

White clot syndrome, the.263 

White, Patricia A.197 

Whitfield, Johnnie-Marie.137 

Whitt, Carlton D.135, 142 

Wilbourn, Macon.166 

Williams, Kasandra E.... 176 

Wingo, W. J. 196 

Winters, A. L.188 

Wit, L. C. 186 

Witherspoon, Del. 175 

Wolves and this woman, of.171 

Women and the american society of zoologists.119 

Wood, Felecia G. 199 

Wooten, Angela L. 120 

Wooten, Marie W...120 

Workman, Gary L. 207, 208 

Wynn, William Timothy. 148 

Yackzan, K. S. . .. 196 

Yeager, Joan. 197, 204 

Young, Ronald B. .. 126 

Your right to know. 137 

Zabawa, Robert. 212 

Zehren, Steven J.... . 131 

Zinc recovery from brass-foundry flue dust with ion 

exchange ......... . . . 210 

Zona pullucida, a murine sperm component which recognizes the . . . 130 

Zona pellucida binding component on murine sperm, 

redistribution of a.112 


279 
















































Index 


Zumstein, Jim.263 

Zwanziger, Lee L.126 


280 




Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 60, No. 4, October 1989. 


SECTION I 

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 
Abbott-King, Janet 
Abee, Christian R. 
Adams, Caroline 
Allan, Mary Ann 
Angion, Wlnford 
Angus, Robert 
Appel, Arthur G. 
Armitage, Brian 
Bailey, Mark A. 
Bart, Henry L., Jr. 
Beasley, Philip G. 
Bell, Nancy 
Bell, P. Darwin 
Benford, Helen H. 
Best, Troy L. 
Beyers, Robert J. 
Bilbo, Thomas 
Blackmore, Mark S. 
Boettger, Holly L. 
Bone, Leon W. 
Borden, Amanda W. 
Boyd, Robert S. 
Bradley, James T. 
Braid, Malcolm 
Brown, Jack S. 
Brown, Rather 
Brumlow, William B 
Bryan, Ty W. 
Buckner, Richard L. 
Campbell, Olivia 
Campbell, P. Samuel 
Carey, Steven D. 
Carter, Gregory A. 
Cassell, Gall H. 
Cherry, Joe H. 
Chromiak, Joseph A. 
Clark, Edward M. 
Clements, Ben A. 
Cliburn, J. William 
Cline, George B. 
Cochis, Thomas 
Coleman, Theresa 
Cooper, W. Wade 
Costes, Danice H. 
Curl, Elroy A. 
Darden, W. H., Jr. 
Datta, M. C. 
Davenport, L. J. 


1989 Membership Roll by Section 


Davis, Donald E. 
Denton, Tom E. 

Diamond, Alvin R., Jr. 
Diener, Urban L. 

Dindo, John 
Dixon, Carl 
Dobson, F. Stephen 
Dodd, Thomas H., III 
Douglas, Robert J. 
Dusi, Julian L. 

Dusi, Rosemary D. 

Dute, Roland R. 

Elder, Don 
Emert, George H. 
Estridge, Barbara H. 
Fain, Jennifer 
Finley, Sara C. 
Folkerts, Debbie R. 
Folkerts, George W. 
Frandsen, John C. 
Freeman, John D. 
French, Elizabeth 
Garstka, William 
Gau, Paul 

Gauthier, Joseph J. 
Gibbons, Ashton 
Glaze, Robert P. 

Golab, Dorothy K. 
Goode, Naaman D. 

Goode, Paula Rae 
Grizzle, John M. 
Gudauskas, Robert T. 
Guyer, Craig 
Haggerty, Thomas M. 
Handley, Holley 
Hardy, Michael E. 
Harper, James D. 
Herbert, Richard 
Henderson, James H. 
Henry, Raymond P. 

Hepp, Gary R. 

Hileman, Douglas R. 
Hines, Gene A. 
Holifield, Quintaniay 
Holland, Richard D. 
Holler, Nicholas R. 
Holliman, Dan C. 
Hopkins, Linda H. 
Hribar, Lawrence 
Hsueh, Pan Wen 


Hudgins, Michael D. 
Hulcher, Richard F. 
Ivey, William D. 
Jandebeur, Thomas S. 
Johnston, Carol 
Jolly, Curtis M 
Jones Lawanda 
Kempf, Stephen C. 
Kendrick, Aaron B. 
Kirby, Albert W. 
Kittle, Paul 
Koiki, Adeniyi F. 
Koopman, William J. 
Lane, Jacqueline M. 
Langdon, James W. 
Lares, Michael T. 
Lartey, Robert 
Lawrence, Faye B. 

Lee, Kara 
Lindsay, David S. 
Lisano, Michael E. 
Lishak, Robert S. 

Liu, Frank 
Long, Calvin L. 
Luckhart, Shirley 
Lydeard, Charles 
MacMillan, William H. 
Marion, Ken Roy 
Marshall, John E. 
Mason, William H. 
Massey, Carl B. 
Mathews, Robert 
McClintock, James B. 
McCord, Joe 
McCullough, Herbert A. 
McKee, Dorothy W. 
McKinney, Rose B. 
McLaughlin, Ellen W. 
McMillan, Charles 
Miller, Demetrius 
Miller, Gary 
Miller, Melissa K. 
Milly, Kat 
Mirarchi, Ralph E. 
Modlin, Richard F. 
Moore, Bobby G. 

Moore, Irene 
Moore, Jack H. 

Moore, Teresa Kelley 
Moriarity, Debra M. 


281 


Membership Roll 


Mullen, Gary R, 
Mulvaney, Donald R. 
Murphree, C, Steve 
Myers, Lawrence J. 
Nancarrow, D. V, 
Nance, Marione E. 
Nelson, David H. 
Nelson, Fannie 
Nelson, Karl M. 
Nesdill, Daureen 
Niedermeier, William 
Okezie, B. Onuma 
Ottis, Kenneth 
Paxton, Mary Jean W. 
Peterson, Curt M. 
Pezzementi, Leo 
Pierson, J. Malcolm 
Plakas, Steven M. 
Poirier, Gary R. 
Porter, Eural 
Pritchett, John F. 
Pyle, Joseph 
Quindlen, Eugene A. 
Ramsey, John S. 

Regan, Gerald T. 

Reid, Robert R., Jr. 
Richardson, Velma B. 
Riley» Thomas N. 
Robinson, George H. 
Rochowiak, Daniel M. 
Runquist, Jeannette 
Ryan, Thomas 
Salto, Naoyuki 
Sanford, L. G. 

Shea, Catherine 
Shew, H. Wayne 
Sizemore, Douglas R. 
Smith, Robert G. 
Sparks, Timothy H. 
Spears, Harold J. 
Spencer, Elsie 
Stafford, Stephanie 
Stanbrough, Sheila 
Stevens, Clauzell 
Stinson, Narvaez 
Stone, Paul 
Strada, Samuel J. 
Strickland, Richard C. 
Sundermann, Christine 
Swanson, Kay A. 

Tadtos, Manasin 
Taylor, Michael S. 
Thomas, Donald 


Thomas, Laquita 
Thompson, W. Joseph 
Thornton, Keith 
Truelove, Bryan 
Tucker, Charles E. 
Turner, C. J. 

Waits, E. Douglas 
Walker, J. H. 

Walker, Scotty 
Ward, Edward R., Jr. 
Watson, R. Douglas 
Watts, Stephen A. 
Wester, Ed 
White, J. F. 
Whitlock, Suzanne 
Wilkes, James C. 
Wilkoff, Lee J. 
Williams, Ann H. 
Williams, Carol S. 
Williams, Dean A. 
Williams, Delbert E. 
Williams, John W. 
Williams, Kasandra 
Wilson, H. J. 

Wilson, Mack A. 
Wilson, Thomas H. 
Winkler, Fred 
Wit, Lawrence C. 
Wooten, Michael C. 
Yackzan, Kamal S. 
Young, Ronald B. 
Zehren, Steven J. 

SECTION II 
CHEMISTRY 
Alexander, Kliem 
Allen, Roger W. 

Arendale, William F. 
Armstrong, Brian M. 
Barrett, William J. 
Beck, Mary Jim 
Brown, Mary A. H. 
Bugg, Charles E. 
Cappas, Constantine 
Carter, Kevin W. 
Chang, Ki Joon 
Chastain, Ben B. 
Coble, Dwain 
Cooper, E. A. 

Corona, Barry 
Darling, Charles M. 
Davis, Robert S. 
Dean, Derrick R. 


Dillion, H. Kenneth 
Doorenbos, Norman J. 
Dove, Mary Frances 
Finkel, Joe M. 

Finley, Wayne H. 

Fisk, James D. 

Ford, Jonathon B. 
Gibson, Michael L. 
Godbey, S. E. 

Gray, Gary M. 

Guner, Osman F. 
Haggard, James H. 
Hazlegrove, Leven S. 
Hung, George W. C. 
Ibrahim, Taleb 
Ihejeto, Godwin 
lilies, Andreas J. 
Ingram, Sammy W., Jr. 
Isbell, Raymond R. 
Jackson, Margaret E. 
Jotani, Kishor P. 
Kispert, Lowell 
Koons, L. F. 

Krannich, Larry K. 
LaGrone, Craig 
Lambert, James L. 

Legg, J. Ivan 
Leszczynski, Jerzy 
Livant, Peter 
Locklar, Kelley G. 

Loo, Boon H. 

Ludwick, Adriane 
Mahaffy, C. A. L. 
McDonald, Nancy C. 
Meehan, Edward J., Jr. 
Moeller, Michael 
Moore, McDonald, Sr. 
Mountcastle, William 
Muller, John H. 

Murray, Thomas P. 
Neidert, Jamie B, 

Okike, Uchechuku 
Peters, Henry B. 

Radel, Robert J. 
Rawlings, Jill 
Riordan, James M. 
Setzer, William N, 
Sheridan, Richard C. 
Small, Robert 
Spence, Thomas 
Stanbury, David 
Stanley, Ann 
Taylor, Robert W. 


282 


Membership Roll 


Thomas, Joseph C. 
Thomas, Nicholas 
Thomaskutty, Mary G. 
Thompson, Davis H. 
Thompson, Wynelle D. 
Toffel, George M. 
Toren, E. C., Jr. 
Vallarino, Lidia M. 
Ward, E. H. 

Warren, Lee 
Watkins, Charles L. 
Webb, Thomas R. 
Wells, David 
Wheeler, G. P. 
Whitfield, J.-M. 
Whitt, Carlton D. 
Youngblood, Bettye 

SECTION III 
GEOLOGY 
Bearce, Denny 
Brande, Scott 
Brosheer, Clinton J. 
Carrington, Thomas J 
Chase, David 
Cranford, Norman B. 
Cross, Whitman, II 
Dean, Lewis S. 
Degges, Carleton W. 
Dejarnette, David L. 
Esposito, Rick 
Hall, Greg D. 

Hawkins, William 
Henson, Sharon 
Huchison, R. A., Jr. 
Joiner, Thomas J. 
King, David T., Jr. 
Lamb, James P., Jr. 
Lamb, George M. 

Liu, Yuejin 
McCarroll, Steven M. 
McMillan, Richard C. 
Newton, John G. 
Owens, Daryl S. 
Patterson, Daniel J. 
Powell, William 
Raymond Dorothy E. 
Rheams, Karen F. 
Russo, Brian R. 
Salpas, Peter A. 
Savrda, Charles E. 
Shultz, Albert W. 
Sides, Garry L. 


Skotnicki, Michael C. 
Smith, Charles C. 

Stock, Carl W. 

Thurn, Richard L. 
Wright, Kenneth R. 

SECTION IV 
FORESTRY, GEOGRAPHY, 
CONSERVATION, AND 
PLANNING 

Balentine, Timothy C. 
Boyer, William 
Cagle, Karen K. 

Couch, Scott B. 

Deaver, Paul F. 

DeVall, Wilbur B. 

Dodds, Philip M. 

Espy, Amanda J. 

Gardner, Robert 
Gibbs, George S. 
Henderson, H. A. 
Himmler, Frank N. 
Holland, Andrea P. 
Icenogle, David W. 
Johnson, Howard P. 
Jonakin, James L. 
Mathur, Surendra P. 
Mclnnish, Mary K. 
Nettles, Jami Espy 
Ngwazikazana, Peter S. 
Richetto, Jeffrey P. 
Rivizzigno, Victoria 
Stribling, H. Lee 
Strong, William Reese 
Tang, R. C. 

Vaughn, Danny 
Weaver, David C. 
Wilbourn, Macon 
Williams, Louis G. 

Wynn, W. Timothy 

SECTION V 

PHYSICS AND MATHEMATICS 
Agresti, David G. 
Alford, William L. 
Allison, D. Lee 
Bauman, Robert P. 
Bearden, T. E. 
Beiersdorfer, Peter 
Boardman, William 
Boyd, Louise M. 

Byrd, Gene G. 

Case, Jan 0. 


Castillo, Oreste 
Christensen, Charles 
Chuang, Teh-Huey 
Clark, R. Kent 
Colvett, Robert Dee 
Comfort, Richard 
Curott, David R. 
Destito, Lou 
Dubard, James L. 
Easterday, Kenneth 
Essenwanger, Oskar M. 
Forte, Aldo 
Furman, W. L. 
Gallagher, Dennis 
Gathright, Carolyn H. 
George, Abraham 
Gibson, Faison P., Sr. 
Glotfelty, Henry W. 
Harrison, Joseph G. 
Hawk, James F. 

Hayes, Cathy 
Howell, Kenneth B. 

Hsu, Jiann-Wien 
Hudson, Glenn 
I-la, Daryush 
Jenkins, C. Merrill 
Jones, Stanley T. 
Lester, William 
Lundquist, Charles A. 
May, Louis D. 

Mishra, Satya N. 
Misra, Satish Chandra 
Miyagawa, Ichiro 
Morton, Perry W., Jr. 
Omasta, Eugene 
Payne, Donald R. 
Piccirillo, John 
Polan, Marvin 
Rash, Ed 
Reid, William J. 
Reisig, Gerhard 
Roberts, Thomas G. 
Robinson, Edward L. 
Ruffin, Paul B. 
Russell, Randy D. 
Scarborough, J. M. 
Sharma, P. C. 

Shealy, David L. 
Shelton, Darryl G. 
Shipman, Jerry R. 
Smith, Micky 
Smoot, Henrene 
Spencer, Gilbert 0. 


283 



Membership Roll 


Steedly, Dwight 
Stewart, Dorothy A. 
Subranmanyam, Shiva S. 
Sulentic, J. W. 

Tan, Arjun 
Turner, M. E., Jr. 
Varghese, S. L. 

Vinson, R. G. 
Werkheiser, A. H. 
Wheeler, R. E. 
Wilkinson, E. L. 

Wills, Edward L. 

Y oung, John H. 

SECTION VI 

INDUSTRY AND ECONOMICS 

Absher, Keith 
Aebersold, Kris 
Bobo, James R. 

Caudill, Donald W. 
Clark, Joy L. 

Cole, S. W. 

Crawford, Gerald 
Free, W. Joe 
Gatlin, Kerry P. 

Geer, William D. 
Gentle, Edgar C., Jr. 
Gibson, Dennis W. 
Grant, Eugene W., Jr. 
Graves, Benjamin B. 
Gregorowicz, Philip 
Griffin, Marsha D. 
Guttikonda, Rama R. 
Harrison, Golson 
Heacock, Marian V. 
Hegji, Charles E. 
Holmes, Mac R. 

Jackson, Leslie T. 
Johnson, Raymond 
Jones, R. Bruce 
Kamnikar, Edward G. 
Lacy, Wayne 
Lake, Robert C. 

Lester, Rick 
Left, Samuel L. 

Lortie, John W. 
Moberly, H. Dean 
Moore, Stephanie 
Norrell, Fred M. 
Peacock, Richard 
Rawlins, V. Lane 
Rodgers, M. R. 

Salimi, Awais T. 


Sanders, Robert L. 
Sauser, W. I., Jr. 
Stallings, James L. 
Stewart, G. T. 

Thomas, Rebecca L. 
Viohl, Frederick A. 
Vitelli, Maria 
Wheatley, Robert, Jr. 
Willhardt, John A. 

SECTION VII 
SCIENCE EDUCATION 
Baird, Bill 
Ball, Patsy 
Bentley, Donna 
Caudle, Sandra I. 
Clark, Neil Penton 
Coffman, Lindsey F. 
Curry, Julie B. 

Fish, Frederick P. 
George, Joseph D. 
Gonce, Mary N. 

Hayes, Lee T. 

Hayes, Robert E. 
Henrikson, Matthew T. 
Jones, Diana D. 
Landers, John I. 
Ludwick, Larry M. 
McDade, Claudia 
Nall, Jane 
O'Brien, James M. 
Rainey, Larry 
Reynolds, Barbara S. 
Riggsby, Dutchie S. 
Riggsby, Ernest D. 
Rowsey, Robert E. 
Rust, Debra 
Short, William A. 
Shumaker, Anne W. 
Smith, Karl Dee 
Thompson, Tracy 
Turner, E. J. 
Wolfinger, Donna M. 
Wright, Jada F. 

SECTION VIII 
SOCIAL SCIENCES 
Astone, Nicholas 
Belcher, Milton 
Buckalew, L. W. 

Burns, Jerald C. 
Cantrell, Clyde H. 
Crampton, Roger B. 


Dunkelberger, John E. 
Elixon, Joseph M., Jr 
Eule, Edward E. 
Gatewood, Frances 
Hanks, Lawrence J. 
Haynes, Mike 
Hoke, Daniel M. 
Hudiburg, Richard A. 
Huggins, Joseph F. 
Ingram, Cora A. 
Johnson, James A. 
Jones, Tim R. 
Jourbert, Charles E. 
Kelly, Bill 
Lanier, Mark 
Longnecker, Gesina L. 
Longnecker, Herbert E 
Luskin, Joseph 
Mabry, Helen 
Mashatt, Marilyn 
Nickell, Eugenie 
O'Neill, Sue B. 
Osterhoff, William E. 
Sadowski, Cyril J. 
Schlotterback, D. L. 
Sink, David W. 

Sloan, John J. 
Thrasher, Amy Lee 
Vocino, Thomas 
Weber, B. C. 

Wheelock, Gerald C. 
Williams, Walter S. 
Witherspoon, Arnold D 
Yeager, J. H. 

SECTION IX 
HEALTH SCIENCES 
Adams, Cara 
Barfield, Betty R. 
Barker, Samuel B. 
Barton, James C. 
Baugh, Charles 
Beaton, John M. 

Beck, Lee R. 

Bennett, J. Claude 
Bergman, Joan S. 
Boerth, Robert C. 
Boots, Larry R. 
Breslin, Frances A. 
Briles, David E. 
Brown, Jerry W. 
Bubien, James K. 
Bubien, Rosemary 


284 


Membership Roll 


Buckner, Ellen 
Chappelear, Joyce 
Christopher, Jan 
Clark-Daniels, Carolyn 
Clelland, Jo 
Clovers, David 
Compans, Richard W. 
Conary, Jon T. 
Cornwell, P. E. 

Cosper, Paula 
Cusic, Anne 
Dansak, Daniel A. 
Darch, Gabriele G. 
Davis,“Richard 
Davis, Sheila P. 

Davis, W. R. 

Dechesnay, Mary 
DeRuiter, Jack 
Devivo, Michael J. 
Drummond, Lawrence C. 
Elgavish, Ada 
Emerson, Geraldine M. 
Frederick, A, P. 
French, James H. 
Gardner, W. A., Jr. 
Gaubatz, Jim W. 

Gibson, Deborah E. 
Gilbert, Fred 
Gist, Richard 
Gossman, Marilyn 
Grant, Joan S. 

Gwebu, Ephraim T. 
Hembree, Beth S. 
Herban, Nancy L. 
Herbert, Donald 
Higginbotham, M. C. 
Hoffman, Henry H. 
Holcombe, Carol 
Hoobler, Terry 
Hopkins, John B. 
Hughes, Edwin R. 
Hughes, Glenn H. 
Hunsinger, Ronald N. 
Jenkins, Ronald L. 
Jensen, Gail M. 
Johnson, Evelyn P. 
Jones, Harold P. 

Jones, Walter J. 

Katz, Judd A. 

Keith, Robert E. 
Kelley, Jean 
Kennamer, Gretchen A. 
Kirkpatrick, M. B. 


Kleinstein, Robert 
Knopke, Harry 
Lamon, Eddie W. 
Lavender, Martha 
Long-Hall, Carolyn K. 
Matalon, Sadis 
McCaleb, K. Alberta 
McCallum, Charles 
McDaniel, Larry 
Meezan, Elias 
Morgan, Alice H. 

Mott, Penne 
Nanda, Navin C. 

Navia, Juan M. 

Nelson, Kathy H. 
Nordness, Mary M. 
Owings, William 0. 
Parsons, Daniel L. 
Perry, Nelson 
Peters, Henry B. 
Phillips, J. B. 

Pickens, Barbara 
Pieroni, Robert E. 
Pillion, Dennis J. 
Pirkle, James A. 
Pitman, Angelia 
Pittman, James A., Jr. 
Reed, Linda 
Reeves, Gaynell 
Renfroe, Darlene H. 
Riggs, Janet M. 
Roberts, Linda R. 
Rodning, Charles B. 
Roozen, Kenneth J. 
Roush, Donald 
Rudd, Steven 
Russell, J. Colleen 
Salser, Janice 
Sanders, Sharena R. 
Schnaper, Harold W. 
Self, Barbara F. 
Shepard, Richard B. 
Sherrod, Roy Ann 
Shoemaker, R. L. 
Simpson, Janis A. 
Skalka, Harold W. 
Smith, Myra A. 

South, Lisa D. 

Street, Lee Ann 
Swansburg, Russell C. 
Tulli, C. George, Jr. 
Vacik, James P. 

Vezza, Anne E. 


Waites, Ken B. 

Walker, Brenda S. 

Ware, Bradley R. 
Warren, Joe R. 

Wells, Gretchen 
White, Patricia 
Wilborn, W. H. 

Wilson, Graeme 
Wintemitz, William W. 
Winters, Alvin L. 

Wise, Sandra R. 

Wood, Felecia 
Wooley, Thomas W. 
Wooten, Marie W. 
Yeager, Joan 
Zorn, George, Jr. 

SECTION X 
ENGINEERING AND 
COMPUTER SCIENCE 
Albright, C. Wesley 
Astone, Mary K. 
Baggott, Edward 
Barrett, John 
Basenspiler, Larry 
Beck, Oscar 
Brullman, August W. 
Bryant, Barrett 
Byrne, Peter C. 

Craig, Thomas F. 
Crawford, Martin 
Crocker, George 
Dean, Susan T. 

Glover, Terry C. 
Goodman, Charles H. 
Harrison, Benjamin 
Hayes, R. M., Jr. 
Hearn, William H. 
Hermann, Rudolf 
Hicks, James W., Jr. 
Hirth, Leo J. 

Hollis, D. L., Jr. 
Hool, James N. 

Jacobs, Paul L. 
Kurzius, Shelby C. 
Lane, James H. 

Lim, Joon Shik 
Lindly, Jay K. 

Moon, Taesam 
Moulton, V. Gordon 
Mukherjee, Nanda Lai 
Murthy, H. V. S. 

Pan, Aiqin 


285 


Parker, Donald L. 
Rangaswamy, Partha 
Rlndt, Donald W. 
Sarathy, Vijaya K. 
Shaffer, Harry B. 
Walters, J. V. 

Weiss, James T. 
Wisniewski, Raymond B. 
Workman, Gary L. 

SECTION XI 
ANTHROPOLOGY 
Barnes, Nancy 
Bizzoco, Bruce D. 
Courington, David S. 
Driskell, Boyce N. 

Gay, Robert W. 
Gillaspie, Leon W. 
Gilliland, M. Janice 
Hansen, Asael T. 
Henson, B. Bart 
Hill, Cassandra 
Hollingsworth, C. Y. 
Holstein, Harry 0. 
Huscher, Harold A. 
Mistovich, Tim 
Patterson, Paul L. 
Ramsey, Darwin-Tamar 
Rowe, Bobby 
Sheldon, Craig T. 
Shogren, Michael G. 
Turner, Kenneth R. 
Zabawa, Robert 
Zeanah, Shelby 








' 

















































































INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS 


Editorial Policy: Publication in the Journal of the Alabama Academy 
of Science is restricted to members. Membership application forms 
can be obtained from Dr. Ann Williams, 101 Cary Hall, Auburn Univer¬ 
sity, AL 36849. Subject matter should address original research in 
one of the discipline sections of the Academy: Biological Sciences; 
Chemistry; Geology; Forestry, Geography, Conservation, and Planning; 
Physics and Mathematics; Industry and Economics; Science Education; 
Social Sciences; Health Sciences; Engineering and Computer Science; 
and Anthropology. Timely review articles of exceptional quality and 
general readership interest will also be considered. Invited arti¬ 
cles dealing with Science Activities in Alabama are occasionally 
published. Book reviews of Alabama authors are also solicited. 

Reviews: Each manuscript will receive at least two simultaneous peer 
reviews. Include in your letter of transmittal the names, addresses, 
and telephone numbers of at least four qualified referees. Do not 
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Manuscripts: Consult recent issues of the Journal for format. Dou¬ 
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all pages. Submit the original and two copies to the Editor. Papers 
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be returned. The title page should contain the author's name, affil¬ 
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and subdivisions where necessary for clarity. Common headings are: 
INTRODUCTION (including a literature review), PROCEDURES (or MATE¬ 
RIALS AND METHODS), RESULTS, DISCUSSION, and LITERATURE CITED. Other 
formats may be more appropriate for certain subject matter areas. 
Headings should be in all-caps and centered on the typed page; sub¬ 
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Avoid excessive use of footnotes. Do not use the number 1 for foot¬ 
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or clear black and white glossy photographs. Width must be 14-15 cm 
and height must not exceed 20 cm. Illustrations not conforming to 
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Tables: Place each table on a separate sheet. Place a table title 
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Literature Cited: Only references cited in the text should be listed 
under LITERATURE CITED. Do not group references according to source 
(books, periodicals, newspapers, etc.). List in alphabetical order 
of senior author names. Cite references in the text by number or by 
author-date. 








THE JOURNAL OF THE 
ALABAMA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 










-* COVER PHOTOGRAPH: Sunset over a sinkhole pond In Geneva County, Alabama. 
A variety of sinkhole habitats exist on the Lower Coastal Plain. They 
have-not be^n extensively investigated by biologists. Most types are 
i’faisappearing'jrapidly as a result of drainage, timber harvest, and other 
alterations by man. Photo by George Folkerts, Department of Zoology and 
Wildlife Science, Auburn University. 


THE JOURNAL 
OF THE 

ALABAMA ACADEMY 
OF SCIENCE 


LIBRARY 

mar i 4 w 

A. M. N. H. 


AFFILIATED WITH THE 
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE 
ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 


VOLUME 61 JANUARY 1990 NO. 1 


EDITOR: 

W. H. Mason, Extension Cottage, Auburn University, AL 36849 

ARCHMST: 

C. M. Peterson, Department of Botany, and Microbiology, Auburn 

University, AL 36849 

EDITORIAL BOARD: 

J. T. Bradley, Chairman, Department of Zoology-Entomology, Auburn 
University, AL 36849 

Charles Baugh, 1005 Medical Science Building, University of South 
Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688 

J. W. Sulentic, P.O. Box 1921, University of Alabama, University, AL 35486 

Publication and Subscription Policies 
Submission of Manuscripts: Submit ali manuscripts and pertinent 
correspondence to the EDITOR. Each manuscript will receive two 
simultaneous reviews. For style details, follow instructions to Authors (see 
inside back cover). 

Reprints: Requests for reprints must be addressed to Authors. 

Subscriptions and Journal Exchanges: Adcfress all correspondence 
to the CHAIRMAN OF THE EDITORIAL BOARD ~ 


ISSN 002-4112 


BENEFACTORS OF THE 
JOURNAL OF THE 

ALABAMA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 


The following have provided financial support 
to partially defray publication costs of the Journal. 


AUBURN UNIVERSITY 
BIRMINGHAM-SOUTHERN COLLEGE 
UNIVERSITY OF MONTEVALLO 
AUBURN UNIVERSITY AT MONTGOMERY 
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA 
TROY STATE UNIVERSITY 
UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA AT BIRMINGHAM 
JACKSONVILLE STATE UNIVERSITY 
TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY 
UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA 
UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA AT HUNTSVILLE 
TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY 
MOBILE COLLEGE 
UNIVERSITY OF NORTH ALABAMA 
SAMFORD UNIVERSITY 







CONTENTS 


ARTICLES 


Spatio-Functional Reorganization within Urban 
Areas: Toward a Redefinition of the Central 

Business District 

Jeffrey P. Richetto and D. Michael Henderson .... 1 

A Roving Creel Survey of Anglers using Guntersville 
Reservoir, Alabama: Geographic Origins, Seasonal 
Patterns of Fishing Effort and Success, and 
Contributions to the Local Economy 

Robert A. Angus and Ken R. Marion.18 

Changes in Extensibility and Tissue Cholesterol 
of Rat Aortas with Exercise 

R. C. Vesterfield, T. J. Pujol, and 


F. S. Bridges.29 

A Black Bear Tooth Anomaly 

Julian L. Dusi.39 






































































































































Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 61, No. 1, January 1990. 


SPATIO-FUNCTIONAL REORGANIZATION WITHIN URBAN AREAS: 
TOWARDS A REDEFINITION OF THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT 1 


Jeffrey P. Richetto 
Department of Geography 
The University of Alabama 
Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 

and 


D. Michael Henderson 
Department of Geography 
The University of Alabama 
Tuscaloosa , Alabama 35487 


ABSTRACT 

Since the mid 1950s there has been a significant spatial reorgani¬ 
sation of human and economic activities within the American city. In 
response to the continuing suburbanization of the urban population; retail 
and commercial activities have decentralized. In the wake of this aban¬ 
donment several office and service-related functions have found the rental 
opportunities in the central business district attractive. In order for 
local government and booster organizations to more effectively target 
their resources for reinstating the economic base of the central business 
district, it is necessary to identify those traditional tertiary activi¬ 
ties responding to decentralizing forces and those quaternary activities 
that are sensitive to the centripetal forces operating within the CBD. 
Within this context, this study (1) traces the extent of retail/commercial 
decline in the central business district, (2) examines the in-migration of 
office and service-related functions into the central business district, 
and (3) investigates the extent to which the availability and pattern of 
low-cost rental opportunities affect the spatial distribution of retail 
and office activities. The City of Tuscaloosa, Alabama serves as a case 
s tudy. 


INTRODUCTION 

Since the mid 1950s there has been a significant spatial and 
functional reorganization of human and economic activities within the 
American city. The centrifugal movement of residential, retail, and 
commercial activities away from the central business district (CBD) 
towards the urban fringe and beyond has been widely documented (Andrews, 
1962; Hoyt, 1968; Murphy, 1974; Taeuber, 1974; Gale, 1982; Brown, et al., 
1982; Schwartz, 1984). Numerous spatio-economic and socio-political 
processes have served as push-pull factors resulting in the massive exodus 
of residential and retail activities from the CBD. However, in the wake 
of such abandonment, a centripetal movement pattern has emerged as several 


’Manuscript received 5 June 1989; accepted 25 July 1989. 


1 



Richetto and Henderson 


office-related functions have found the increasing number and lower cost 
rental opportunities in the central business district attractive. 

Within this context the primary purpose of this study was fourfold: 
(1) document the extent of retail/commercial decline in the CBD by type 
of activity and where, in general, relocation occurred; (2) identify 
factors underlying such decentralization; (3) investigate the increasing 
attraction of the CBD for the location of office activities; and (4) 
examine the trends of commercial rental opportunities in order to project 
the future locations of retail and office activities. Although the city 
of Tuscaloosa, Alabama served as the case study to evaluate empirically 
these objectives, it is necessary and informative to discuss CBD function¬ 
al reorganization in its most general form. 

CBD FUNCTIONAL REORGANIZATION 

Since the early 1960s considerable attention has focused on central 
business districts throughout the United States; particularly functional 
land-use changes occurring within these areas associated with increasing 
suburbanization. Several studies have attempted to determine the extent 
and nature of this functional change, specifically the decline in retail/ 
commercial activity (Rannells, 1956; Cox, 1967; Bowden, 1971; Davies, 
1984) and more recently the locational patterns of office functions 
(Armstrong, 1972; Black, et al., 1982; Bateman, 1985). 

As early as 1932, Rolph noted that the four most important factors 
determining the location of retail and commercial activities were popula¬ 
tion, income, transportation, and topography. Five years later, Proudfoot 
wrote: "the central business district represents the retail heart of the 
city". Historically, such a characterization of the CBD was accurate. 
The central business district served as the nucleus of the American city; 
it functioned as the terminus of major transport systems and provided the 
most central and accessible location for commerce, industry, and govern¬ 
mental activities. The end of World War II, however, signalled the 
beginning of an era of near cataclysmic change in urban spatial patterns. 
Transportation, population density, and the geography of household income 
underwent profound change. The nation's urban population increased from 
20% in 1860 to nearly 75% in 1980 (Figure 1). As a result, the compact 
prewar city grew into the postwar suburban spread city. Perhaps the most 
important factor contributing to the modern day, spread city was the 
automobile and its attendant highway development. Between 1940 and 1980 
automobile ownership increased from 27.3 million to 120.9 million; a 343% 
increase. This mode of transportation provided a more flexible and 
quicker means of movement, therefore, opening up areas for development 
which were once considered too distant. As a result, the geography of 
residential development shifted ever outward away from the CBD, creating 
retail market opportunities that before were nonexistent (Figure 2). 

Between 1960 and 1970 the increase in population of areas outside the 
central city in major metropolitan areas exceeded that of the central 
city, indicating that the relative significance of the central city for 
residential development was declining. Other evidence in support of this 


2 


Spatio-functional reorganization within urban areas 



Figure 1. Percent of the United States population in urban 
areas, 1960-1980. 



YEARS 

Figure 2. Population of central cities and outside central 
cities for United States SMSAs, 1950-1980. 


functional reorganization occurring within the American city includes the 
locational trends of retail stores. In 1967, for example, 12,682 stores 
were operating in major cities across Alabama, of which nearly 1,200 or 
9.2% were located in the CBDs. By 1982, the total number of stores in¬ 
creased to over 17,500; however, the number located in the CBDs decreased 
to less than 1,000 or 5.7%. Several national-based studies concur with 
the above Alabama statistics noting significant residential and retail 


3 







Richetto and Henderson 


abandonment of the CBD (Simmons, 1964; Murphy 1974; U.S. Department of 
Commerce, 1980; Johnston, 1984). 

In the wake of the continued residential and retail abandonment of 
the CBD (thereby vacating large amounts of available floor space), the 
declining level of competitive use for land within the CBD, and the trend 
toward functional separation within large businesses; an increasing number 
of comparatively low cost rental opportunities has emerged in the CBD. In 
turn, the office sector which has developed as an outgrowth of the spatial 
separation of clerical, administration, and executive functions has been 
increasingly attracted into the CBD in growing numbers (Ginzberg, 1974; 
Stanback, 1976; Sim, 1982; Bateman, 1985). Finally, although nearly every 
type of retail/commercial activity has responded to the centrifugal forces 
of suburbanization, not all office functions have found the CBD to be a 
favorable location (Table 1). Those office functions where external 
personal contact and access to public documents is critical and decision 
making and negotiation requires face-to-face communication; the amenities 
associated with the central business district become increasing-ly 
important in the location decision. 


Table 1. Concentration of Selected Types of Office Activities 
in Houston and Denver (Percent of Total Space). 


Business 

Type 

Houston 

CBD 

Houston 

Suburban 

Denver 

CBD 

Denver 

Suburban 

Banking 

84 

16 

87 

13 

Legal Services 

74 

26 

61 

39 

Accounting 

71 

29 

-- 

-- 

Insurance 

20 

80 

14 

86 

Real Estate 

11 

89 

23 

77 

Engineering 

3 

97 

“ • 

. « 


Source: Black, J., et al. Downtown Office Growth and the Role 
of Public Transit, 1982. 


Therefore, by examining the trends of both retail and office 
activities and their respective roles in reorganizing the functional 
landscape of the American city, local governments may better understand 
those factors causing functional change within the CBD before determining 
that retail decline is worthy of the massive investment necessary to 
reverse this phenomenon. The city of Tuscaloosa serves as a data base for 
examining the extent and nature of CBD functional reorganization. 

THE CASE STUDY 

The city of Tuscaloosa is situated on the Black Warrior River in West 
Central Alabama and is the fifth largest urban area in the state, with a 


4 






Spatio-functional reorganization within urban areas 


population of nearly 100,000. For the purpose of this study Tuscaloosa is 
defined as the urbanized area of Tuscaloosa County, including the incorpo¬ 
rated cities of Tuscaloosa and Northport, and the unincorporated urbanized 
areas of Tuscaloosa County (Figure 3). Between 1940 and 1980, the total 
population of Tuscaloosa County increased from 76 thousand to over 137 
thousand, an increase of 81%. During the same period the urban population 
of Tuscaloosa increased from 40.3% to 72.4% of the total population. As 
Tuscaloosa's population increased, most of the residential expansion oc¬ 
curred along the urban fringe. Such outward movement of the population 
away from the CBD, along with the development of an integrated transport 
system and changes in retail marketing strategies, also facilitated the 
decentralization of the retail sector. This decentralizing trend began in 
Tuscaloosa as early as 1960 with the development of the Parkview Shopping 
Plaza located two miles east of the central business district. Subsequent 
to this development, several other suburban-oriented retail districts have 
developed and continue to develop at ever-increasing distances away from 
Tuscaloosa's CBD (Table 2). 



Figure 3. The urbanized area of Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 


In reference to the above general trend describing Tuscaloosa's retail 
sector, the remainder of this paper explores the hypothesis that the city 


5 

















Richetto and Henderson 


Table 2. Retail Shopping Districts in Tuscaloosa. 


Name of 

Retail District 

Distance from 

CBD (miles) 

Year 

Developed 

Parkview 

1.6 - 2.0 

1960 

Alberta City 

3.0 - 3.5 

1963 

McFarland 

3.6 - 4.0 

1969 

University 

2.6 - 3.0 

1980 

Northport 

3.6 - 4.0 

1984 


Source: calculated by authors. 


of Tuscaloosa has undergone functional reorganization. Specifically, Tus¬ 
caloosa's central business district no longer serves as the city's primary 
area of retail and commerce; rather it has become an area predominated by 
office and ancillary activities. 

THE METHODOLOGY 

A list of business establishments was compiled including retail and 
office activities found in the urbanized area of Tuscaloosa (Table 3). 
Although the list is composed of general functional classifications, it 
is limited to those functions which have in the past or are presently 
locating in Tuscaloosa's CBD. A base map was constructed consisting of 
a series of concentric zones centering on Tuscaloosa's peak value inter¬ 
section (Figure 4). In an effort to document the spatial and temporal 
trends in retail and office location patterns, the radius of each succes¬ 
sive concentric zone was increased by one-half mile; thereby dividing the 
city into 9 zones. In turn, each zone was identified by its predominant 
function. 

Table 3. Retail and Office Functional Classifications 
in Tuscaloosa. 


Retail 

Office 

Apparel 

Lawyer 

Shoe 

Accountant 

General Department 

Real Estate 

Furniture 

Insurance 

Jewelry 

Financial 

Automobile 

Engineer 

Florist 




Source: calculated by authors. 


Telephone directories for select years between 1940 and 1983 were used 
to determine the locations of establishments for each functional classifi- 


6 










Spatio-functional reorganization within urban areas 



Figure 4. Concentric Zone Base Hap. 


cation. This information resulted in a time series of maps for each re¬ 
tail and office activity determining the number and type of establishments 
by zone and year. 

Finally, in order to examine the interrelationship between retail 
outmigration and office inmigration into the CBD, data were collected on 
available rental opportunities from the Sunday edition of the city's 
newspaper between January 1985 and January 1986. Rental opportunities 
were divided into retail and office and both were plotted on the study’s 
base map so as to determine the number and average rental price for each 
zone. 

Although all of the above tasks were performed for each retail and 
office activity identified in Table 3, the remainder of this paper will 
discuss, in detail, one retail (clothing) and office (lawyer) activity and 
then present summary findings for all other activities. 

RETAIL/OFFICE ACTIVITY ANALYSIS 

Between 1940 and 1983 the total number of clothing outlets in 
Tuscaloosa increased from 15 to 58 with the largest increase occurring 
between 1963-1973 when the number of establishments grew by 23 (Table 4). 
Notwithstanding this dramatic overall increase, there were substantially 
fewer clothing stores operating within the central business district in 
1983 as compared to 1940. In particular, there occurred a significant 
outward shift in retail clothing establishments between 1973-1983 favoring 


7 









Richetto and Henderson 


Table 4. Number of Apparel Establishments by Zone and Year. 


Year 

Zone 1940 1953 1963 1973 1983 

(miles from CBD) 


0.0 

- 

0.5 

15 

15 

18 

24 

12 

0.6 

- 

1.0 

0 

2 

3 

6 

2 

1.1 

- 

1.5 

0 

1 

3 

6 

2 

1.6 

- 

2.0 

0 

0 

5 

2 

2 

2.1 

- 

2.5 

0 

0 

0 

0 

1 

2.6 

- 

3.0 

0 

0 

0 

2 

26 

3.1 

- 

3.5 

0 

0 

0 

0 

1 

3.6 

- 

4.0 

0 

0 

3 

15 

12 

4.1 

+ 


0 

0 

0 

0 

0 


TOTAL 15 18 32 55 58 


Source: calculated by authors. 


newly developing suburban locations (Figure 5). The most important force 
underlying this decentralizing pattern was the development of suburban 
retail districts. 

Data for 1940 and 1953, a period during which no major shopping center 
development occurred, reveals that clothing stores were located primarily 
in the central business district of Tuscaloosa; with only two outlets 
situated in the Northport zone and one outlet located in the University 
zone (between 0.6 and 1.0 miles and 1.1 and 1.5 miles from the CBD, re¬ 
spectively). By 1960, however, the Parkview shopping district was opened 
(between 1.6 and 2.0 miles from the CBD) and commercial development was 
occurring along University Boulevard in Alberta City (between 3.6 and 4.0 
miles from the CBD). Data for 1963 indicate that the number of clothing 
stores opened in these areas was 5 and 3, respectively or 25% of all 
clothing outlets. In 1969, McFarland Mall opened in the McFarland-Leland 
zone (between 3.6 and 4.0 miles from the CBD) and subsequently the number 
of clothing establishments in this zone increased by 12, from 3 to 15. 
Later, in 1980, the development of University Mall (between 2.6 and 3.0 
miles from the CBD) resulted in the largest increase in the number of 
clothing stores for all concentric zones over any ten-year period. The 
number of outlets increased by 24, from 2 to 26. During this same time 
period (1969-1980) the number of clothing stores located within the CBD 
decreased by more than one-half. Similarly, all other retail functions 
listed in Table 3 illustrated a decentralizing location pattern, although 
furniture, jewelry, and florists to a lesser extent (Table 5). 

In contrast, the location of office-based activities became in¬ 
creasingly concentrated within the CBD between 1940-1983. In particular, 
the total number of lawyer offices increased nearly eightfold, from 20 
(1940) to 152 (1983). Moreover, not less than 90% of all lawyer offices 


8 






Spatio-functional reorganization within urban areas 



1940 


1953 




Figure 5. Location of apparel stores in Tuscaloosa, Alabama 
for select years. 


were located within the CBD for any given year (Table 6). This sizable 
and consistent clustering of lawyer offices in the CBD (Figure 6) may be 
explained by several factors including reduced travel time to and from the 
courthouse, ready access to both city and county government documents, 
direct access to other attorneys for council and negotiation, and an 
abundant supply of low-cost rental space. 

Office space within the central business district became increasingly 
available as retail use diminished. The CBD was less than successful in 


9 






















Table 5. Summary of Retail Establishments by Retail Classification. Zone and Year. 


Richetto and Henderson 


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Spatio-functional reorganization within urban areas 



1940 


1953 




Figure 6. Location of lawyer offices in Tuscaloosa, Alabama 
for select years. 


replacing those retail activities relocating to the suburb with other 
retail establishments. Thus, several office reconversion projects 
occurred within the CBD (1980-1986) resulting in an oversupply of office 
rental opportunities. While accountant offices became increasingly 
concentrated within the CBD; insurance, real estate, financial, and engi¬ 
neering activities increasingly favored suburban locations in an effort to 
maximize their community visibility and minimize inconvenience to their 
prospective clientele (Table 7). 


11 





















Richetto and Henderson 


Table 6. Number of Lawyer Offices by Zone and Year. 


Zone 

(miles from CBD) 

1940 

1953 

Year 

1963 

1973 

1983 

0.0 - 0.5 

20 

73 

70 

76 

141 

0.6 - 1.0 

0 

0 

1 

4 

4 

1.1 - 1.5 

0 

1 

0 

0 

0 

1.6 - 2.0 

0 

0 

0 

2 

3 

2.1 - 2.5 

0 

0 

0 

0 

4 

2.6 - 3.0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

3.1 - 3.5 

0 

0 

0 

2 

0 

3.6 - 4.0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

4.1 + 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 


TOTAL 20 74 71 84 152 

Source: calculated by authors. 


SPATIAL PATTERN OF RENTAL OPPORTUNITIES 

In 1985 there were 96 retail rental opportunities in Tuscaloosa which 
were located primarily east and southeast of the central business district 
(Figure 7). In fact, the CBD contained only 10 or 10.4% of all retail 
rental opportunities. In contrast, out of 120 office rental opportuni- 

I— 



Figure 7. Location of retail rental opportunities in 
Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 1985. 


12 













Table 7. Summary of Office Establishments by Office Classification, Zone and Year. 


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Financial 

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Richetto and Henderson 


ties, 62 or 51.6% were concentrated in the CBD (Figure 8). Because retail 
activities were decentralized, the average rental price for office space 
in the central business district became lower than would be expected. 
That is, the loss of retail establishments from the central business 
district, in conjunction with a vast number of retail-to-office reconver¬ 
sion projects, and reduced competition, especially from activities capable 
of high rental bids (e.g., retailers), resulted in a short-term oversupply 
of low-cost vacant space and a below normal rental market. In turn, the 
office sector quickly began to establish itself as the predominant func¬ 
tion within the CBD. Although Tuscaloosa's central business district 
calculates to be the highest average cost per square foot for office 
space, by comparison the cost is substantially lower than corresponding 
retail rental costs in other zones of the city. In these other zones the 
higher per square foot rental costs reflect greater levels of retail- 
based competition that is capable of bidding higher prices for use of the 
land (Table 8). 



Figure 8. Location of office rental opportunities in 
Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 1985. 


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 

Throughout the last 40 years the American city has undergone 
considerable reorganization in human and economic land use patterns. 
Households have continually shifted their locational preferences away from 
the central business district and towards the periphery of the built-up 
city. In response, economic activities, especially retail and commercial, 
have similarly shifted their site selections. With some major changes, 
including the development of a suburban-oriented transport system, an 


14 














Spatio-functional reorganization within urban areas 


Table 8. Number and Average Cost Per Square Foot of Retail and Office 
Rental Opportunities in 1985 by Zone. 


Zone Number of Rental 

(miles from CBD) Opportunities 

(Retail) (Office) 


Average Cost Per 
Square Foot 

(Retail $) (Office $) 


0.0 - 0.5 

10 

62 

7.62 

7.10 

0.6 - 1.0 

7 

18 

4.00 

3.98 

1.1 - 1.5 

10 

11 

3.20 

2.62 

1.6 - 2.0 

5 

3 

3.47 

3.25 

2.1 - 2.5 

9 

12 

7.87 

3.33 

2.6 - 3.0 

25 

6 

8.25 

2.85 

3.1 - 3.5 

11 

3 

4.33 

not available 

3.6 - 4.0 

14 

3 

4.33 

not available 

4.1 + 

5 

2 

not available 

not available 


Source: calculated by authors. 


outward movement of middle-to-high income households, the substitution of 
space for labor in retailing, and the development of mini shopping dis¬ 
tricts, retailers have increasingly favored non-CBD locations. By com¬ 
parison, office activities have responded positively to the central 
business district's changing environment. The exodus of retail activity 
has resulted in an overabundance of vacant space. With reduced competi¬ 
tion for this space, vis-a-vis retail replacement, there has and likely 
will continue to be a depressed rental market encouraging office location. 

Finally, the results of this study may be beneficial to cities which 
have or are currently experiencing decline in their central business dis¬ 
trict. Office and retail functions identified as favoring a CBD location 
may be targeted for incentive programs, ensuring that those already 
located in the central business district remain and any revitalization 
efforts to restore the CBD's viability include these functions. Moreover, 
this study provides a methodology to determine what unique combination of 
office and retail activities may positively serve the central business 
district for other cities. 

In conclusion, local governments must recognize and understand the 
factors underlying functional change within the central business district 
before determining that retail decline is a problem worthy of the massive 
resource investment necessary to reinstate the CBD as the retail heart of 
the city. Rather, it may be expedient to redefine the primary function of 
America's central business district as 'central service districts' and 
allow retail and commerce to respond to the ever changing geography in our 
cities' market conditions. 


REFERENCES 

1. Andrews, R., Urban Growth and Development: A Problem Approach. New 
York: Simmons-Boardman Publishing Corporation, 1962. 


15 






Richetto and Henderson 


2. Armstrong R., The Office Industry: Patterns of Growth and Location. 
Cambridge: MIT Press, 1972. 

3. Bateman, M., Office Development: A Geographical Analysis. Sydney: 
Croom Helm, 1985. 

4. Black, J., D. O'Connell and M. Morina, Downtown Office Growth and 
the Role of Public Transit. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Land 
Institute, 1982. 

5. Bowden, M., "Downtown Through Time: Delimitation, Expansion and 
Internal Growth", Economic Geography (47), 1971. 

6. Brown, L., F. Williams, C. Youngman, J. Holmes and K. Walby, "The 
Location of Urban Population Service Facilities: A Strategy and its 
Application", in Internal Structure of the City, L. Bourne (ed), New 
York: Oxford University Press, 1982. 

7. Cox, E. and L. Erickson, Retail Decentralization. East Lansing: 
Michigan State University, 1967. 

> 8. Davies, R., Retail and Commercial Planning. New York; St. Martins 
*-> Press , 1984. 

9. Gale, D., "Middle Class Resettlement in Older Urban Neighborhoods: 
The Evidence and the Implications", in Internal Structure of the 
City. L. Bourne (ed.). New York: Oxford University Press, 1982. 

10. Ginzberg, E., The Future of the Metropolis: People, Jobs and Income. 
Salt Lake City: Olympus Publishing Company, 1974. 

11. Hoyt, H., "Recent Distortions of the Classical Models of Urban 
Structure", Land Economics (40), 1964. 

12. Johnston, R., The American Urban System: A Geographical Perspective. 
New York: St. Martins Press, 1984. 

13. Murphy R., The American City: An Urban Geography. New York: McGraw- 
Hill Book Company, 1974. 

14. Proudfoot, M., "City Retail Structure", Economic Geography (13), 
1937. 

15. Rannells, J., The Core of the City. New York: Columbia University 
Press, 1956. 

16. Rolph, I., "The Population Pattern in Relation to Retail Buying: As 
Exemplified in Baltimore", The American Journal of Sociology (38), 
1932. 

17. Schwartz, G., Where's Main Street U.S.A.7 Westport: ENO Foundation 
for Transportation, Inc., 1984. 


16 


Spatio-functional reorganization within urban areas 


18. Sim, D., Change in the City Center. Hampshire: Gower Publishing 
Company, Ltd., 1982. 

19. Simmons, J., The Changing Pattern of Retail Location. Chicago: The 
University of Chicago, 1964. 

20. Stanback, T. and R. Knight, Suburbanization and the City. 

Montclair: Allumheld, Osmun and Company, 1976.. 

21. Taeubers, K., "Social and Demographic Trends: Focus on Race:, in The 
Future of the Metropolis: People, Jobs, Income: E. Ginzberg (ed.): 
Salt Lake City: Olympus Publishing, 1974. 

22. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, United States 
Census of Population Journey-to-Work Statistics , 1980. 



17 


Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 61, No, 1, January 1990. 


A ROVING CREEL SURVEY OF ANGLERS USING GUNTERSVILLE RESERVOIR, 
ALABAMA: GEOGRAPHIC ORIGINS, SEASONAL PATTERNS OF FISHING 
EFFORT AND SUCCESS, AND CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 
LOCAL ECONOMY’ 


Robert A. Angus and Ken R. Marion 
Biology Department 
University of Alabama at Birmingham 
Birmingham , AL 3529 4 


ABSTRACT 

This report summarizes the results of a roving creel survey of anglers 
which was conducted on two creeks on Guntersville Reservoir during spring, 
summer, and fall, 1987. Spring fishing activity was almost three times as 
heavy as in summer and fall, with weekend usage much heavier than week¬ 
days. Most anglers were from northern Alabama. The mean distance driven 
was 49.6 miles one-way. Each angler spent an average of $8.68 per day for 
nondurable trip-related goods and services. Based on extrapolation of our 
data over the entire reservoir, we estimate conservatively that anglers 
contributed approximately $1.98 million to the regional economy over the 
three seasons included in the study. Overall, 41.5% of the parties inter¬ 
viewed indicated they were fishing for bass. Bass fishermen caught nearly 
1 bass per hour in the spring and averaged 0.72 bass per hour for the 
entire year; they released 62.5% of the bass they caught. Fishermen 
apparently have widely differing expectations of success from a fishing 
trip on the reservoir; their rating of the fishing quality showed little 
relationship to the actual numbers of fish caught. 

INTRODUCTION 

Reservoirs provide numerous aesthetic, recreational, and economic 
benefits to American society. These large artificial lakes were estimated 
to have supported 22% of all freshwater fishing in 1980 and generated 
total retail expenditures of over $3 billion (Hall, 1985). Effective 
management of large reservoir fisheries is one of the most important 
challenges in North American fishery management. The objectives of 
successful management are (1) satisfactory water quality and fish habi¬ 
tats, (2) satisfactory fish population structure and dynamics, and (3) 
satisfactory fish quality as perceived by anglers (Anderson, 1984). 

It often requires significant expenditure of resources, both of 
manpower and materials, to ensure that the aforementioned objectives are 
met. It is easier to present a strong case in favor of preserving the 
reservoir environment if some reasonable estimates of the extent of usage 
by anglers and the economic "value" of the reservoir, both as a recre¬ 
ational and economic resource, is known (Propst and Gavrilis, 1987; 
Tschirhart and Crocker, 1987). In addition, analysis of the economic 


’Manuscript received 13 July 1989; accepted 21 August 1989. 


18 



Angus and Marion 


impact of a reservoir can evaluate the significance of sportfishing to 
economic development and tourism. It can identify the relative contri¬ 
butions of different kinds of anglers, identify businesses directly 
affected, and suggest approaches to strengthening the interactions between 
various sectors of the economy to maximize impact (Martin, 1987). 

Guntersville Reservoir is a 69,100 acre impoundment of the Tennessee 
River in northern Alabama near the cities of Guntersville and Scottsboro. 
Impounded In 1939, the reservoir has enjoyed a national reputation among 
anglers for its abundant production of quality-sized largemouth bass 
(Hicropterus salmoides) , "bream" ( Lepomis species e.g., L. macrochirus , 
L. mlcrolophus, L. auritus, L. megalotis), and crappie ( Pomoxis nigro- 
maculatus and P. annularis) . Fishermen visiting the area to enjoy the 
fishery have undoubtedly generated much income to the state and local 
economy by patronizing area businesses such as marinas, fishing tackle/ 
bait shops, restaurants, and motels. At present, however, the value of 
the reservoir to the local economy is not precisely known. 

This report summarizes the results of a roving creel survey conducted 
on Guntersville Reservoir during the spring, summer, and fall of 1987. 
The purpose of the study was to obtain information on the numbers of 
anglers using the reservoir, geographic origins of anglers, the species 
they were primarily seeking, their success rates, and to estimate the 
amount of money they contribute to the local economy via expenditures for 
nondurable, trip-related goods and services. 

SURVEY SITES AND METHODS 

Two embayments on Guntersville Reservoir were chosen for study: Spring 
Creek (lower reservoir) at the city of Guntersville, Marshall County, and 
North Sauty Creek, (mid reservoir) near Scottsboro, Jackson County. The 
two embayments are approximately 30 miles apart and represent different 
regions of the reservoir. The survey areas were selected because they 
were relatively well-delimited, being bounded by causeways in most in¬ 
stances. At Spring Creek, an area of approximately 845 acres is delimited 
by U.S. highway 431 on the upper end and by Marshall Co. highway 67 on the 
lower. On North Sauty Creek, an area of approximately 2,347 acres was 
delimited by Jackson Co. highway 11 on the upper end and an imaginary line 
across the creek at Goose Pond launch at the lower end. 

Angler surveys were conducted on four days a month during the spring 
(March-May), and on three days a month during summer (June-August) and 
fall (September). "Fall" included only one month as funding ceased after 
September. Each survey began with an instantaneous count of anglers using 
the predefined study areas. This was done by the clerks travelling 
throughout the study area in a small aluminum boat. After recording the 
count of anglers, the interviews were taken. Questions asked of the 
anglers fell Into three categories: (1) geographic origin of the anglers, 
(2) expenses related to the fishing trip, and (3) species sought and 
angling success. The clerks spent a minimum of two hours per site (summer 
and fall), and considerably more than that in the spring, interviewing 
anglers. During spring and fall, surveys were conducted from mid-morning 


19 


Roving creel survey from Guntersville Reservoir 


to mid-afternoon. In the summer months, the surveys were concentrated in 
the early morning and later afternoon hours as very few anglers used the 
reservoir during the heat of the day. Except for the busy spring months, 
two-three hours was sufficient to interview all anglers within a study 
site. This schedule also permitted the crew to travel from Birmingham, 
survey both sites and return in a single day. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 


Usage 

Spring fishing activity on Lake Guntersville is almost three times as 
heavy as in summer and fall (Fig. 1 and Table 1). Weekend usage of the 
reservoir is more common than on weekdays, but especially so in spring, 
when the number of weekend angling parties more than doubles the number 
fishing during weekdays. 

Of all anglers interviewed, approximately two-thirds were fishing from 
boats and one-third were fishing from the bank. Most anglers on Lake Gun¬ 
tersville are from North Alabama (Tables 2-4). Almost one-third (30.3%) 
are from the local area (<10 miles from launch site) and 76.2% are from 50 
miles or less. The mean distance driven was 49.6 miles one-way. A sig¬ 
nificant number of anglers at Spring Creek (25.9%) come from Birmingham 
(Jefferson County), which is more than 50 miles from the reservoir (Table 
4). However, few Birmingham anglers appear to drive much further than 



Figure 1. Seasonal trends in numbers of anglers using 
the two study sites. SC - Spring Creek, 

NS - North Sauty Creek. 


20 




Angus and Marion 


Table 1. Seasonal angler usage of Guntersville Reservoir study sites. 
Numbers in the table are average numbers of anglers observed in a de¬ 
signated region of the study site (see methods). Number of surveys in 
brackets, standard error of mean in parentheses. SC - Spring Creek, 
NS - North Sauty Creek. 


Spring 
Site 


Boats 


SC 

Weekend 

[3] 

30.3 

(10.8) 

21.0 

(8.2) 

43.7 

(18.4) 

74.0 

(28.7) 


Weekday 

[3] 

6.7 

(2.0) 

9.7 

(1.3) 

18.0 

(1.5) 

24.7 

(3.4) 

NS 

Weekend 

m 

33.0 

(6.9) 

21.5 

(5.0) 

44.0 

(9.9) 

77.0 

(16.7) 


Weekday 

[3] 

15.3 

(1.8) 

14.3 

(1.9) 

26.3 

(3.3) 

41.7 

(4.1) 

Summer 










Site 



Bank Anelers 

Boats 

Boat Anelers 

Total 

Anelers 

SC 

Weekend 

[5] 

8.4 

(2.9) 

3.2 

(0.5) 

5.6 

(1.2) 

14.0 

(3.6) 


Weekday 

[4] 

10.7 

(3.8) 

4.0 

(1.4) 

8.3 

(2.7) 

19.0 

(5.7) 

NS 

Weekend 

[5] 

10.8 

(3.9) 

6.6 

(0.8) 

12.2 

(1.6) 

23.0 

(4.8) 


Weekday 

m 

1.9 

(0.9) 

3.3 

(1.1) 

7.5 

(2.6) 

9.4 

(2.6) 

Fall 











Site 



Bank Anglers 

Boats 

Boat Anglers 

Total 

Anelers 

SC 

Weekend 

[2] 

8.0 

(5.0) 

8.0 

(0.0) 

13.5 

(1.5) 

21.5 

(6.5) 


Weekday 

tl] 

2.0 

(-) 

4.0 

(-) 

9.0 

(-) 

11.0 

(-) 

NS 

Weekend 

[2] 

2.5 

(0.5) 

9.5 

(3.5) 

17.5 

(6.5) 

20.0 

(6.0) 


Weekday 

[1] 

1.0 

(-) 

2.0 

(-) 

4.0 

(-) 

5.0 

(-) 


Spring Creek. Only 1.6% of the parties at North Sauty Creek were from 
Jefferson County. Madison County (Huntsville) dominated the angling 
parties at North Sauty (52.7%, Table 4). Obviously, anglers are tending 
to utilize the closest available location on the reservoir. 


Table 2. Distances travelled by anglers to 
Guntersville Reservoir (one way). 

Distance Number of 

(miles) Parties Percent 


0-10 

116 

30.3 

11-30 

84 

21.9 

31-50 

92 

24.0 

51-100 

69 

18.0 

101-500 

18 

4.7 

>500 

4 

1.0 

Total 

383 

100.0 


21 











Roving creel survey from Guntersville Reservoir 


Economic Impact 

By his/her own estimation, each angler spent an average of $8.68 for 
nondurable goods and services during the day's fishing trip to Lake Gun¬ 
tersville (Table 5). If gasoline purchases are limited to sites within 10 
miles of the reservoir, $6.89 is contributed directly to the local economy 
by each person-trip to the local area. These are the actual figures pro¬ 
vided by the anglers. No "multipliers" have been used in this study to 

Table 3. Home states of Guntersville Reservoir 
anglers. 

Number of 

State Parties Percent 


Alabama 

352 

91.9 

Tennessee 

17 

4.5 

Georgia 

5 

1.3 

Ohio 

3 

0.8 

Kentucky 

2 

0.5 

Florida 

1 

0.3 

New York 

1 

0.3 

Pennsylvania 

1 

0.3 

Texas 

1 

0.3 

Total 

383 

100.0 


Table 4. County of origin of Alabama anglers at Guntersville 
Reservoir. 


Spring Creek North Sauty 

County # Parties % # Parties % 


Baldwin 



1 

0.5 

Blount 

5 

2.9 

1 

0.5 

Calhoun 

1 

0.6 



Cullman 

10 

5.9 

2 

1.1 

Dekalb 



3 

1.6 

Etowah• 

10 

5.9 



Hamilton 



1 

0.5 

Jackson 

1 

0.6 

54 

29.7 

Jefferson 

44 

25.9 

3 

1.6 

Madison 

10 

5.9 

96 

52.7 

Marshall 

81 

47.6 

18 

9.9 

Montgomery 

1 

0.6 

1 

0.5 

Morgan 

5 

2.9 

1 

0.5 

St. Clair 

1 

0.6 



Tuscaloosa 



1 

0.5 

Walker 

1 

0.6 



Total 

170 

100.0 

182 

100.0 


22 






Angus and Marion 


Table 5. Summary of financial expenditures (in dollars 
per person) as estimated by anglers. 



Mean 

S. E. 

n 

Gasoline (Total) 

4.25 

0.36 

374 

Gasoline* 

2.35 

0.22 

380 

Food* 

1.67 

0.18 

380 

Bait* 

1.62 

0.13 

380 

Lodging* 

1.25 

0.31 

380 


*Spent within 10 miles of Guntersville 
Reservoir 


take into account that dollars brought into an area change hands many 
times within the economy. Economists typically introduce multipliers in 
the range of 2.5 to 7 or more (e.g., see Anderson et al., 1986). How¬ 
ever, they can be misinterpreted if analysts fail to state the type of 
multipliers and the context in which they were derived (Propst and 
Gavrilis, 1987). 

Estimates of the numbers of anglers using the two sites were obtained 
by extrapolating from the instantaneous counts. For example, on spring 
weekend days at Spring Creek, an average of 74.0 anglers were counted. 
Since there were 27 weekend days during the spring months of 1987, an 
estimated 1,998 anglers (-74.0 x 27) used the Spring Creek embayment dur¬ 
ing that time (Table 6). Overall, for the three-quarter sample period, 
13,282 anglers are estimated to have visited one or the other of the study 
sites. This method assumes that the days and hours when counts were 
obtained were representative ones and that the number of anglers using the 
study sites on similar days, e.g. spring weekend, would have been simi¬ 
lar. The estimated totals of anglers visiting each area are underesti¬ 
mates because they are based solely on fishermen present at the same time 
the clerks were there. Fishermen leaving before the clerks arrived, or 
arriving after they left, of course, were not counted or allowed for by 
some expansion factor. Evening and night fishermen may have been con¬ 
siderable users of the study sites, especially in the summer. 

Further extrapolation can be done to provide an estimate of the total 
numbers of anglers using the entire reservoir during the spring, summer, 
and fall seasons. The two defined study areas represent 4.62% of the 
total surface area of the reservoir. Assuming that the number of anglers 
per surface acre of the study sites is representative of the whole reser¬ 
voir, an estimate of 13,282 x (100/4.62) - 287,489 anglers using the 
entire reservoir is obtained. The validity of this extrapolation to the 
whole reservoir may be questioned since both study areas are embayments, 
and if the amount of usage is different on the main reservoir (which makes 
up most of the surface area), the estimate will be in error. Seasonal 
fishing patterns do exist. In the spring, when fish are in shallow 
waters, there are clearly more anglers in the embayments than on the main 
reservoir. Thus, the total number of anglers on the reservoir would be 


23 







Roving creel survey from Cuntersville Reservoir 


Table 6. Extrapolation of angler counts to estimate the 
total number of anglers using the study sites 
during spring, summer, and fall, 1987. SC - 
Spring Creek, NS - North Sauty Creek. 

Average # Days per Total 

Type of day # Angler/Count Season (Average x Days) 


Spring Weekend (SC) 

74.0 

27 

1,998 

Spring Weekend (NS) 

77.0 

27 

2,079 

Spring Weekday (SC) 

24.7 

64 

1,581 

Spring Weekday (NS) 

41.7 

64 

2,669 



Spring Total 

8,327 

Summer Weekend (SC) 

14.0 

26 

364 

Summer Weekend (NS) 

23.0 

26 

598 

Summer Weekday (SC) 

19.0 

66 

1,254 

Summer Weekday (NS) 

9.4 

66 

620 



Summer Total 

2,836 

Fall Weekend (SC) 

21.5 

26 

559 

Fall Weekend (NS) 

20.0 

26 

520 

Fall Weekday (SC) 

11.0 

65 

715 

Fall Weekday (NS) 

5.0 

65 

325 



Fall Total 

2,119 


GRAND TOTAL 13,282 


overestimated by counting only creek fishermen. However, the situation 
probably reverses in the summer when fish tend to move to deeper water. 
At this time of year, the anglers follow the fish and more will be found 
on the main reservoir than in the creeks. During these seasons, counts on 
the embayments tend to underestimate the total number of anglers using the 
entire reservoir. Thus, we believe that over all seasons, these over- and 
underestimates tend to balance each other. 

The economic information from the interviews indicated that the 
average angler spends $6.89 per trip in the immediate vicinity of the 
reservoir (within 10 miles). Thus, over the three most active fishing 
seasons, anglers contribute an estimated $6.89 x 287,489 - $1,980,799 to 
the regional economy. This is a very conservative estimate of the impact 
of angling on the regional economy since no "multipliers” have been ap¬ 
plied to the numbers. It also should be noted that this represents only 
money spent for nondurable goods associated with daily fishing trip 
expenses and does not include money spent on more expensive durable goods 
such as rods, reels, tackle, and boats. Most of these items are probably 
purchased around the angler's home town and may not represent a signifi¬ 
cant source of outside money flowing into the regional economy. 


24 










Angus and Marion 


Species Sought 

Large-mouth bass angling is the most important recreational fishery on 
Lake Guntersville in terms of the numbers of anglers who are actively 
seeking a specific species. Between 31.3 and 61.4 percent of the fisher¬ 
men interviewed during the three seasons were fishing for largemouth bass. 
Overall, 41.5% of all parties interviewed indicated they were fishing for 
bass (Table 7). Crappie fishermen were abundant (25.6% of parties) in the 
spring, but virtually disappeared from the summer and fall samples. Bream 
fishermen were active in the spring (17.5%) and summer (11.7%). In all 
seasons, less than 10% of those interviewed were seeking catfish. Roughly 
one-fourth of the fishermen were fishing for no particular species. 


Table 7. Fish sought by Guntersville anglers. Entries in 
the table represent the percentage of angling 
parties surveyed which expressed preference for 
each category of fish. Numbers of parties surveyed 
in spring, summer, and fall were 211, 128 and 44, 
respectively. 


Species 

Spring 

Summer 

Fall 

Bass 

31.3 

51.6 

61.4 

Crappie 

25.6 

0 

4.5 

Bream 

17.5 

11.7 

2.3 

Catfish 

1.9 

1.6 

6.8 

No Preference 

23.7 

35.2 

25.0 


Angler Success and Satisfaction 

Bass anglers were most successful in the spring when catch rates 
approached one fish per hour. Catch rates remained high (over 0.7 fish/ 
hr) during the summer (Table 8). However, the fall surveys, conducted 
only during September, may not have provided an accurate representation 
of fall fishing conditions. This may have produced an under-estimation of 
the fall angling success which, presumably, increased with dropping water 
temperatures later in the season. 


Table 8. Bass angler success as average catch per hour 
(standard error in parentheses). 



Spring 

Summer 

Fall 

Spring Creek 

North Sauty Creek 

0.91 (0.17) 
0.87 (0.14) 

0.78 (0.18) 

0.71 (0.18) 

0.28 

0.24 

(0.17) 

(0.07) 



25 








Roving creel survey from Guntersville Reservoir 


The abundance of bass in Lake Guntersville appears to be good as bass 
fishermen caught an average of 0.72 bass per hour over the study period. 
A national Bass Angler Sportsman Society tournament in April, 1987 pro¬ 
duced outstanding results (Tucker, 1987). The three-day tournament 
produced a record number of seven-bass limits and an average of 16 bass 
(12" or greater) per angler. The average catch rate, 0.60 bass per hour, 
is an underestimate of total bass catch rate since the top anglers caught 
and released many more than their seven-fish limit. In April, 1^87, 50.8% 
of the B.A.S.S. tournament anglers brought in limits, which is excep¬ 
tionally high. According to D. Kendrick, B.A.S.S. tournament director 
(Tucker, 1987), "Normally, if 20 to 25% of the fishermen bring in a limit, 
we're impressed with the lake's fishery." Similar tournament successes 
were repeated over the next two years at Lake Guntersville. In fact, the 
1989 tournament set records for total number of bass caught, number of 
seven-bass limits, and total weight (Vincent, 1989). 

Among persons fishing for species other than bass, bream fishermen 
had the highest catch per hour, followed by the crappie fishermen (Table 
9). Catfish fishermen experienced much lower catch rates. This was 
apparently compensated for by the fact that they were angling for larger 
fish. 


Table 9. Non-bass angler success. Mean catch per hour 

among anglers stating the particular species as 
their preference. Standard errors in parentheses. 


Crappie 

Bream 

Catfish 

1.36 

3.96 

0.19 

(0.32) 

(0.53) 

(0.09) 



Overall, interviews indicated that bass anglers released 62.5% of the 
bass they caught (all sizes included). This is encouraging, since the 
maintenance of a quality fishery with good numbers of fish in the larger 
size classes may depend on the anglers releasing more bass, especially the 
larger ones. 

Despite the relatively high catch rates, most people interviewed were 
somewhat dissatisfied with the result of their fishing trip. More than 
85% perceived fishing as fair or poor, whereas only about 14% indicated 
that their success was good or excellent (Table 10). It was clear, 
however, that one's rating of the days' fishing success (as excellent, 
good, fair, or poor) often had little to do with the actual numbers of 
fish caught. People apparently have widely differing expectations of 
success from a fishing trip. Persons who caught relatively few fish would 
often rate the fishing as good or better than others who had been much 
more successful. The relationship of stated satisfaction to actual 
angling success is shown graphically for bass fishermen in Figure 2. 


26 





Angus and Marion 


Table 10. Quality of fishing as judged by anglers. 


Number % 


Excellent 

8 

2.1 

Good 

46 

12.1 

Fair 

122 

32.0 

Poor 

205 

53.8 

Total 

381 

100.0 


Conclusions 

At the time of this study, Guntersville Reservoir was attracting 
anglers from throughout northern Alabama, surrounding states, and even 
nationwide. These anglers contributed millions of dollars annually to 
the regional economy. Since 1987, fishing has continued to be excellent 
on the reservoir and its reputation as one of the nation's premier fresh- 



Estimation of Success 

Figure. 2. Relationship between actual bass angling success 
(as catch per hour) and estimation of success 
(stated as Excellent, Good, Fair, or Poor). 


27 








Roving creel survey from Guntersville Reservoir 


water fisheries has grown. It is likely that the numbers of anglers 
travelling to Guntersville Reservoir from outside the region has continued 
to increase If this is the case, then the present economic impact of the 
fishery is even greater than estimated in 1987. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

This study was funded by a grant from the Alabama Universities/ 
Tennessee Valley Authority Research Consortium and by funds from the 
Tennessee Valley Authority. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Anderson, R.O. 1984. Perspectives on bass length limits and reservoir 
fishery management. Fisheries 9:6-9. 

Anderson, R.S. 1986. Regional economic impact of the Devils Lake 
fishery. Fisheries 11:14-17. 

Hall, G.E. 1985. Reservoir fishery research needs and priorities. 
Fisheries 10:3-5. 

Martin, L.R.G. 1987. Economic impact analysis of a sport fishery on 
Lake Ontario: An appraisal of method. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 
116:461-468. 

Propst, D.B., and D.G. Gavrilis. 1987. Role of economic impact 

assessment procedures in recreational fisheries management. Trans. 
Am. Fish. Soc. 116:450-460. 

Tschirhart, J., and T.D. Crocker. 1987. Economic valuation of 
ecosystems. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 116:469-478. 

Tucker, T. 1987. Clunn wins at Guntersville-again. Bassmaster 
Magazine, August, 1987, pp. 68-71. 

Vincent, M. 1989. Byrd soars to Alabama victory. Bassmaster Magazine, 
July/August, 1989, pp. 75-76. 


28 


Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 61, No. 1, January 1990. 


CHANGES IN EXTENSIBILITY AND TISSUE CHOLESTEROL 
OF RAT AORTAS WITH EXERCISE 1 


R. C. Westerfield, T. J. Pujol, and F. S. Bridges 2 
Department of Health Studies 
The University of Alabama 
Tuscaloosa , Alabama 35487-0312 


ABSTRACT 

The effects of a moderate aerobic exercise program on arterial 
extensibility and aortic tissue cholesterol levels were determined in 
rats. Forty-six Lewis strain rats were randomly assigned to an exercise 
or non-exercise group. The exercise group was given daily aerobic 
exercise on a small animal treadmill for 14 weeks. Thoracic aortic 
segments from 202-day old subjects were excised and evaluated. Esteri- 
fied, unesterified, and total cholesterol were determined through chemical 
analysis. Tubular aortic segments were circumferentially stretched 
utilizing an Instron Instralab Instrument. Extensibility measure of 
aortic stiffness and circumferential stretch distance were determined at 
15%, and 30%, of an 0.91 kg load and at the breaking point of the aortic 
segment. Only the breaking load was significantly higher for the exercise 
group. The exercise group had significantly lower levels of unesterified 
and total cholesterol. The findings support an inhibitory role of ex¬ 
ercise in cholesterol accumulation. 

INTRODUCTION 

The role exercise may play in exerting a preventive effect on the 
pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is ambiguous and conflicting. Several 
non-human studies have demonstrated, with moderate exercise, an inhibitory 
effect on atherogenesis (20,22,24,35). In other animal studies, exercise 
failed to decrease the extent and severity of atherosclerosis or prevent 
its occurrence (24,34,40). Evidence has been presented that moderate 
regular exercise alters the metabolism and absorption patterns of lipids 
in human and non-human subjects (12,14,38). Research has demonstrated 
with atherosclerosis there is a concomitant loss of arterial extensibility 
(10,29,30). Kramsch, et al. (22) and Leung, et al. (23) have presented 
evidence that one of the factors by which exercise inhibits the develop¬ 
ment of atherosclerosis may be the effect of exercise on arterial ectensi- 
bility. 

The present study was undertaken to determine how a moderate exercise 
program would affect aortic tissue cholesterol levels and arterial ex¬ 
tensibility in rats fed an atherogenic diet. 


’Manuscript received 31 August 1989; accepted 6 November 1989. 
Presently at Northeast Louisiana University. 


29 



Westerfield, Bridges, and Pujol 


METHODS AND MATERIALS 


Subjects 

Forty-six 50 day old male rats of the Lewis strain were randomly 
assigned to either an exercise (N-23) or non-exercise (N-23) group. 
Subjects were housed together in identical environmental conditions: 
temperature, 21.1°C, humidity 50%, and light 12 hours/day. Food and water 
were offered ad libitum. The subjects were fed an atherogenic diet 
(standard rat food pellets enriched with 2% cholesterol) for 44 days prior 
to the commencement of the exercise regimen and continuing until termi¬ 
nation of the study. The rat is known to be somewhat resistant to 
demonstrable atherosclerotic lesions (8,26,36). Therefore, in order to 
determine any effects of aerobic exercise on arterial extensibility and 
tissue cholesterol, an atherogenic diet was utilized to facilitate the 
pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. 

Exercise Training 

Non-exercise subjects remained limited to standard rat cages (20.3 cm 
x 25.4 cm x 45.7 cm) throughout the investigation. Exercise animals 
received daily (7 days/week) aerobic physical exercise on a small-animal 
treadmill for a 14-week duration. The exercise protocol and intensity 
were patterned after previous research (1,2,16,27). During weeks 1,2,3, 
and 4, the exercise was 0.96 km/h at 5% incline for 10 minutes; week 5 was 
0.96 km/h at 10% incline for 15 minutes; weeks 6 and 7 were 1.12 km/h at 
10% incline for 15 minutes; weeks 8.9, and 10 were 1.12 km/h at 10% 
incline for 10 minutes twice daily; week 11 was 1.28 km/h at 10% incline 
for 15 minutes twice daily; weeks 12, 13, and 14 were 1.28 km/h at 15% 
incline for 15 minutes daily. Exercise subjects received one week of 
training on the treadmill prior to the experimental study to ensure 
familiarity and proficiency. Subjects were weighed every three days to 
determine if exhaustion, anorexia, or weight loss occurred. There was no 
significant differences in body weight between the groups at commencement 
or termination of the study (P < .05). 

Pathological Procedures 

The subjects were 202 days old upon termination of the experiment. An 
intraperitoneal injection of Nembutal (.1 ml/100 gm of body weight) was 
used to anesthetize the subjects. A midline chest and abdominal incision 
was made exposing the thoracic aorta. A 31 mm tubular segment of the 
aorta, beginning at the innominate branch, was excised and maintained in 
a Lock-Ringer's solution at 37°C to reverse any spontaneous constriction. 
After 15 minutes, the aortic segment was stripped of its adventitia 
utilizing procedures described by Wolinsky and Daly (37) and utilized in 
previous research 3,4,6,29). A 6 mm tubular segment was excised (phrenic 
end) for assessment of arterial extensibility, with the remaining segment 
used to determine tissue cholesterol levels. Both specimens were 
temporarily stored in isotonic saline at 4°C. 

Arterial extensibility was measured by utilization of the Instron 
Instralab University Testing Instrument (7). The equipment and testing 


30 


Extensibility and tissue cholesterol of rat aortas 


procedure allowed visualization and strip chart recording of circumfer¬ 
ential stretch of arterial segments under a given load at a constant rate 
of elongation. The equipment and procedure were similar to techniques 
published by Bailey (4). Arterial segments (6 mm) were held in place to 
two high-tensile strength specimen hooks (.76 mm dia.) secured vertically 
by specimen grips. The horizontally held arterial segments were circum¬ 
ferentially stretched by application of a load up to 0.91 kg. Initially 
a circumferential stretch tension of 5% of a 0.91 kg load (45.5 g) was 
employed to induce lumen tautness and thus minimize error in measurement 
attributable to anatomical size differences in arterial segments. Circum¬ 
ferential stretch was induced until a force of 15% of a 0.91 kg load 
(136.5 g) was reached. The circumferential stretch or tension was un¬ 
loaded to the initial 5% point. This procedure was repeated at 30% of a 
0.91 kg load (273 g). Circumferential stretch was finally induced until 
the arterial segment broke or fractured. 

Measures of extensibility in the form of arterial stiffness and 
stretch distance were derived from recordings of the Instralab strip chart 
recorder. From the graphline generated and recorded on the Instralab 
strip chart recorder, the distance the arterial segment stretched under a 
given load could be determined in mm. In addition, from the slope of the 
graphline, generated from circumferential stretch tension, arterial 
stiffness was calculated. The slope of the arterial stretch, due to load 
tension, would differ according to the elastic properties of the segment 
being stretched under load. The arterial stiffness values (kg/cm) were 
calculated in the following manner: From the point where the loading line 
(slope line) crossed the vertical predetermined 15% and 30% load points, 
a line was drawn horizontally backward 5% and then drawn vertically 
downward until it intersected the loading line. This vertical distance 
was measured to the nearest 0.5 mm and divided by the predetermined and 
standardized recorder magnification ratio (chart speed of 12.7 cm/min. to 
crosshead speed of 0.127 cm/min). This quotient was finally divided by 
0.0455 kg (5% of 0.91 kg load) to derive the stiffness value (kg/cm). 
Breaking load was the tension in kg necessary to break or fracture the 
arterial segment. Stretch distance was derived by calculating the 
distance (nearest 0.08 cm) from the initial 5% load t the 15%, 30%, and 
breaking point. 

Cholesterol Assay Methods 

The technique for cholesterol extraction was adopted from methods 
utilized by Folch (11). For chemical analysis of tissue cholesterol, 
arterial segments were homogenized and extracted with methylene chloride- 
methanol (2:1). The methylene chloride-methanol was washed with 0.2 
(0.2x40) volumes of saline. The aqueous phase was separated by centri¬ 
fugation, removed, and washed with 40 volumes of methylene chloride - 
methanol-saline (86:14:1). The methylene chloride-methanol phases were 
pooled and evaporated to dryness under nitrogen at 40°C. Samples were 
divided into two equal fractions from analysis of free and esterified 
cholesterol. The fractions analyzed for cholesterol esters were treated 
with cholesterol esterase and analyzed for free cholesterol. The amount 
of cholesterol in the untreated fraction was subtracted from the treated 


31 


Westerfield, Bridges, and Pujol 


fraction to give the amount of esterified cholesterol present. Choles¬ 
terol was isolated from other lipids by three-dimensional thin layer 
chromatography. Cholesterol was visualized by standing the plates in an 
iodine-vapor chamber at room temperature for one hour. The amount of 
cholesterol was determined by calorimetric analysis using the Dow method 
(32). Measurements were made in a Beckman spectrophotometer at 565 nm and 
reported as milligrams of cholesterol per gram of aortic tissue. 

Statistical Analysis 

Data from extensibility measures and chemical analysis for cholesterol 
were statistically treated through multivariate analysis of variance (17). 
Hotellings multivariate test of significance was significant (P<.001). 
Univariate F-tests were used to determine significant difference between 
the two groups. 

RESULTS 

The aortic breaking load value was the only extensibility determi¬ 
nation which was significantly different between the exercise and non¬ 
exercise groups (Table 1). Mean aortic breaking load for exercise group 
(0.563 + 0.025) was significantly greater than the non-significantly 
different between the two groups. Measurements of circumferential stretch 
distance of the two groups at 15%, 30%, and breaking point also were 
significantly different. 

Significant mean differences between the exercise and non-exercise 
groups in aortic tissue cholesterol (mg of cholesterol per gm of aortic 
tissue) was demonstrated (Table 1). The non-exercise group had a sig¬ 
nificantly higher unesterified cholesterol level (0.215 + 0.003) than did 
the exercise group (0.173 + 0.002) and a significantly higher total 
cholesterol level (0.852 + 0.002) than the exercise group (0.817 ± 0.002). 
There was no significant difference between the exercise and non-exercise 
groups with regard to esterified cholesterol (0.644 + 0.003 vs. 0.637 + 
0.002, respectively). 

DISCUSSION 

The results of this study partially support previous research in 
demonstrating exercise as a preventive measure in the pathogenesis of 
atherosclerosis (22,24). The findings of significantly higher levels of 
unesterified and total cholesterol in the non-exercise, and higher 
breaking load for the exercise group, support the preventive actions of 
moderate exercise. The study failed to detect significant differences 
between the exercise and non-exercise groups in arterial extensibility 
measures of stiffness at 15% load, 30% load, all stretch distances, and in 
esterified cholesterol tissue levels. 

Studies by Newman et al. (29), and Pynadath and Mukherjee (30), have 
demonstrated a decrease in arterial extensibility with increasing athero¬ 
sclerosis, and the loss of arterial elasticity being proportional to 
atherosclerotic involvement. The present study's failure to detect 


32 


Extensibility and tissue cholesterol of rat aortas 


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extensibility; #Stretch distance is cm,: @Cholesterol is mg/g aortic tissue; **15%, 30% 
and percentages of 0.91 kg load applied circumferentially at a constant rate; ++Mean +SE. 











Westerfield, Bridges, and Pujol 


significant differences between the exercise and non-exercise groups in 
extensibility at 15% and 30% load was in conflict with these previous 
studies. The detection of a significant difference in arterial tissue 
lipids would appear to indicate physiological if not pathological changes 
had occurred. Perhaps the extent of atherosclerotic development was not 
sufficient to elicit subtle changes in arterial extensibility. The rat 
model has been shown to be appropriate for atherosclerosis research but 
is known to be more resistant to diet induced atherosclerosis than other 
animal models (8,26,36). Hasler (20,21) utilizing an atherogenic diet 
consisting of 10% lard and 4% cholesterol was able to produce only 
moderate atherosclerotic changes in the intimal surface of rat aortas. In 
addition, the researcher found minimal differences between exercise and 
sedentary rats in intimal surface plaques. In the current investigation 
the resistant nature of the subjects, coupled with the experimental time 
frame, 14 weeks, may have prevented sufficient changes in the intimal 
layer necessary for detection of extensibility variations. 

The finding of a significant difference between the groups with regard 
to breaking load would be in agreement with previous studies. With ex¬ 
treme or high levels of artery stretch, the medial layer becomes signifi¬ 
cantly involved. The ratio of elastin to collagen tissue in the medial 
layer is an important factor in elasticity demonstrated at high levels. 
Ruderman et al. (31) and Wong et al. (39) have provided evidence that 
exercise can and does lower the collagen to elastin ratio thus preventing 
a loss of elastic characteristics. 

The demonstrated higher levels of unesterified and total cholesterol 
in the non-exercise subjects would appear to indicate an acceleration of 
lipid deposition in arterial tissue. Numerous studies have shown exercise 
to lower serum lipid levels in humans and non-humans (5,9,14,18). The 
measurement of arterial tissue lipids has not been as extensive as serum. 
Forsythe et al. (12) found exercise lowered the total heart lipid levels 
in pigs. Gollnick (15), Fukida et al. (13), and Naratan et al. (28) 
determined that exercised animals had significantly lower liver lipids 
than sedentary controls. 

The failure of exercise to significantly reduce esterified cholesterol 
was surprising since unesterified and total cholesterol levels were re¬ 
duced. Atherosclerotic lesions demonstrated a higher relationship to 
esterified cholesterol than unesterified or total levels. The conversion 
of lipids to the esterified form has been shown to be partially attribu¬ 
table to the level of unesterified cholesterol, which in turn is partially 
related to serum lipid levels. The significantly lower levels of un¬ 
esterified and total cholesterol in the exercise group would be consistent 
with the lowering of serum lipids through exercise. Previous researchers 
(19) found cholesterol esterification in the atherosclerosis resistant rat 
was higher than in other more susceptible animals. These researchers as 
well as Small and Shipley (33) postulate that esterification may be a 
protective mechanism in converting toxic atherogenic free cholesterol to 
a less toxic esterified form. Perhaps exercise initially stimulates the 
protective mechanism which converts unesterified to esterified, but long¬ 
term effects would be the reduction of esterified through limiting the 


34 


Extensibility and tissue cholesterol of rat aortas 


unesterified available for conversion. Other plausible explanations 
include physiological, enzymatic, and chemical changes in the arterial 
wall due to exercise. 


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2. Ahrens, R.A. and E.T. Koh. Effect of dietary carbohydrate sources 
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3. Apter, J.T., M. Rabinowitz, and D.H. Cummings. Correlation of 
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6. Band, W., W.J. Goedhard, and A.A. Knoop. Comparison of effects of 

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7. Carden, G. Instralab Instructors guide: Publication #10-348-1. 
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8. Clarkson, T.B. Animal models of atherosclerosis. Adv. Vet. Sc. 
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9. Durstine, J.L., K. Keumo, and R. Shepherd. Serum lipoproteins of 
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10. Farrar, D.J., H.D. Green, M.G. Bond, W.D. Wagner, and R.A. Gobbee. 
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12. Forsythe, W.A., E.R. Miller, B. Curry, and M.R. Bennick. Aerobic 
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35 



Westerfield, Bridges, and Pujol 


13. Fukida, N., T. Ide, Y. Kida, K. Takamine, and M. Sugano. Effects of 
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14. Garman, J.F. Coronary risk factor intervention: A review of 
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15. Gollnick, P.D. Cellular to exercise. In Frontiers to Fitness, R.D. 
Shepard, editor, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, 1971. 

16. Hanson, D.L., J.A. Lorenzen, A.E. Morris, R. A. Ahrens, and J.E. 
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17. Hardyck, C.D. and L.F. Petrinovich. Multivariate statistical 
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Extensibility and tissue cholesterol of rat aortas 


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37 



Westerfield, Bridges, and Pujol 


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48:51-55, 1987. 


38 


Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 61, No. 1, January 1990. 


A BLACK BEAR TOOTH ANOMALY 1 


Julian L. Dusi 

Department of Zoology and Wildlife Science 
Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station 
Auburn University, AL 36849 


A female black bear, Ursus americanus , was killed by a truck, 29 
November 1979, near Turnerville, Mobile Co., Alabama. The bear weighed 
about 150 lb (68 kg), and measured 420 cm total length, 65 mm tail length, 
180 mm hind foot, and 105 mm ear length. A longitudinal section of an 
upper first premolar showed the following pattern of annuli in the 
cementum (Fig. 1). Regardless of the method of assigning age to annuli, 
there is no doubt that it is an older bear. 

On examining the cleaned skull it was discovered that there was a 
stone wedged between lower molars 2 and 3 in the right dentary bone (Fig. 
2A, B, C). The stone had caused the teeth to separate and the dentary to 
erode around them, exposing the roots of the teeth (Fig. 2A, E) . The 
stone also caused the bear to chew with its left molars, causing them to 
wear much more than the right molars (Fig. 2A, D). Figure 2D also shows 
the normal, uneroded dentary by the molars of the left mandible. The bear 
obviously lived with the discomfort of the stone for a number of years. 



Figure 1. Cross Section of Upper Premolar Showing Annuli (A) in the 
Cementum. 


’Note received 3 October 1989; accepted 30 November 1989. 


39 









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40 





INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS 


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»-"’j wMm 


THE JOURNAL OF THE 
ALABAMA ACADEM 















COVER PHOTOGRAPH: Upper Left: Rainbow snake. A harmless, secretive 
species very rarely encountered in Alabama. Upper Right: Alabama red- 
bellied turtle. Found only in Alabama, in Mobile and Baldwin counties, 
this federally listed, endangered species faces an uncertain future. 
Center: Flattened musk turtle. Found only in Alabama in streams of the 
upper Black Warrior River system. A federally listed, threatened species. 
Lower Left: Dusky gopher frog. Known in Alabama from only a few 
localities, the welfare of this frog is linked closely with that of the 
gopher tortoise, in whose burrows it resides. Lower Right: Red Hills 
salamander. This threatened species occurs only in a small area of 
southern Alabama, where much of its habitat is being degraded by certain 
forestry practices. Dusty gopher frog photo by Mark Bailey, Alabama 
Natural Heritage Inventory, Montgomery. Others by Robert Mount, Depart¬ 
ment of Zoology and Wildlife Science, Auburn University (see article on 
page 117) . 




THE JOURNAL 
OF THE 

ALABAMA ACADEMY 
OF SCIENCE 

AFFILIATED WITH THE 
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE 
ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 

VOLUME 61 APRIL 1990 NO. 2 


EDITOR: 

W. H. Mason, Extension Cottage, Auburn University, AL 36849 
ARCHMST: 

C. M. Peterson, Department of Botany, and Microbiology, Auburn 
University, AL 36849 

EDITORIAL BOARD: 

J. T. Bradley, Chairman, Department of Zoology-Entomology, Auburn 
University, AL 36849 

Charles Baugh, 1005 Medical Science Building, University of South 
Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688 

J. W. Sulentic, P.O. Box 1921, University of Alabama, University, AL 35486 

Publication and Subscription Policies 

Submission of Manuscripts: Submit all manuscripts and pertinent 
correspondence to the EDITOR. Each manuscript will receive two 
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inside back cover). 

Reprints: Requests for reprints must be addressed to Authors. 

Subscriptions and Journal Exchanges: Address all correspondence 
to the CHAIRMAN OF THE EDITORIAL BOARD 


ISSN 002-4112 


wff ?4 


BENEFACTORS OF THE 
JOURNAL OF THE 

ALABAMA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 


The following have provided financial support 
to partially defray publication costs of the Journal. 


AUBURN UNIVERSITY 
BIRMINGHAM-SOUTHERN COLLEGE 
UNIVERSITY OF MONTEVALLO 
AUBURN UNIVERSITY AT MONTGOMERY 
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA 
TROY STATE UNIVERSITY 
UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA AT BIRMINGHAM 
JACKSONVILLE STATE UNIVERSITY 
TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY 
UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA 
UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA AT HUNTSVILLE 
TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY 
MOBILE COLLEGE 
UNIVERSITY OF NORTH ALABAMA 
SAMFORD UNIVERSITY 







CONTENTS 


lbdra&y 

rug 2 1 1990 

&. fV$. Us Ha 

ARTICLES 


The Black Bear in Southwestern Alabama 

Julian L. Dusi and D. Tommy King.41 

Sylacauga Meteorite Fall 

Harold Povenmire . 50 

A Range Extension of the Oligochaete PiqueCiella 
michiganensis 

C. Rex Bingham and Andrew C. Miller.60 

Symposium on the Status of Endangered Species 
in Alabama 

Richard F. Modi in.62 

Preliminary Considerations on Rare and Endangered 
Invertebrates in Alabama 

Steven C. Harris .64 

Status of Alabama Birds and Mammals 

Dan C. Holliman.93 

Status of Endangered, Threatened and Special Concern 
Freshwater Fishes in Alabama 

J. Malcolm Pierson.106 

The Status of Alabama Amphibians and Reptiles — 

An Update 

Robert H. Mount. 117 


































































































































Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 61, No. 2, April 1990. 


THE BLACK BEAR IN SOUTHWESTERN ALABAMA 1 


Julian L. Dusi and D. Tommy King 
Department of Zoology and Wildlife Science 
and Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station 
Auburn University, AL 36849 


ABSTRACT 

This was the first ecological study of the black bear, Ursus 
americanus , in Alabama. The study was conducted near Saraland (Mobile 
County), where the greatest bear population density occurs. Our study 
area (103.6 km 2 ) contained a population of at least 10 bears that utilized 
about 60 km 2 . Five bears, ranging from 2 to 8 years of age, were trapped, 
measured, and radio-tagged. Annual home ranges of 4 bears ranged from 4.5 
- 42 km 2 , with a mean of 25.9 km 2 . Winter home ranges of these same bears 
ranged from 0.5 - 1.5 km 2 , with a mean of 0.93 km 2 . Greatest activity 
occurred between May and December. Winter activity was greatly re¬ 
stricted. During the winter, radio-tagged bears were alert and moved when 
we tried to home in on them. Of the baits used in trapping, shelled corn 
and honey was the best combination. Bears did not respond to scent or 
bait posts. Habitats used were upland mixed pines and deciduous trees, 
with oaks ( Quercus sp .) and other mast trees, adjacent to swamps with very 
dense cover of - titi ( Cyrilla racemiflora and Cliftonia monophylla). 
Acorns, berries, and other fruits provided most food items. The bears 
tolerate people living on the edge of the area. They were not affected 
by the gas wells and drilling crew activity scattered through the area. 

INTRODUCTION 

The black bear was originally distributed in suitable habitat 
throughout Alabama and the Eastern United States (Hall 1981). Howell 
(1921) stated that the black bear occurred only in the lower tier of 
counties in Alabama. Prior to Howell's work, a large portion of Alabama 
had been deforested and cotton and other agricultural crops occupied the 
land that was not mountainous or swampy (Lineback 1973) . In 1924 the 
black bear was listed as a game mammal with an open hunting season. In 
1940, however, the State Department of Conservation closed the black bear 
season, as it remains today (Gary Moody pers. commun.). 

The Rare and Endangered Vertebrates of Alabama Symposium (Anon. 1972) , 
listed the black bear as "rare." In 1976, both subspecies of the black 
bear (Ursus a. americanus and Ursus a. floridanus ) were listed as "endan¬ 
gered," and the number of Alabama black bears was estimated to be about 
150 (Boschung 1976). In 1983 the first Alabama nongame wildlife con¬ 
ference was held at Auburn University (Anon. 1984, Mount 1986) in which 
a group of specialists grouped the vertebrate species of the state into 
the categories: endangered, threatened, special concern, and poorly known. 
The black bear was reclassified in the "special concern" category. 

’Manuscript received 6 December 1989; accepted 18 January 1990. 


41 





Dusi and King 


The objectives of this study were to assess the ecology of the black 
bear in southwestern Alabama and to formulate management recommendations. 

METHODS 

The main study area was located in Hells' Creek Swamp northwest of 
Saraland, Mobile County, Alabama. It was bounded on the south and west by 
Celeste Road, on the north by Salco Road, and on the east by Interstate 
Highway 65, U. S. Highway 43, and by the Burlington Northern Railway. 
Radcliff Road subdivided the area into northern and southern halves. The 
Mobile Water Canal extended from southwest to northeast. This canal was 
about 10-m wide and was flanked on both sides by roads, one of which was 
surfaced with oystershell and the other unimproved. The total width of 
the water canal clearing was about 100 m. On either side of the water 
canal was swampy land covered with tupelo (Nyssa aquaCica ) and titi. The 
land gradually increased in elevation providing upland, mixed forest 
habitat in the western part of the study area. A number of gas wells was 
present, mostly along the water canal, and access roads connected them. 
Houses were located along parts of Celeste and Radcliff roads. Hunting 
rights of the study area were owned by several hunting clubs. This 
restricted our free use of the area during the deer and turkey seasons, 
which were from early November to January 31 and from March 1 to April 30. 

We carried out a trapping program from early May until November of 
each year, utilizing culvert traps and Aldrich snares (Dusi and King 
1987). The snares were set in cubbys made of old, discarded, corrugated 
sheet iron (Fig. 1) which was present on the area and was familiar to the 
bears. Traps were baited with 1 qt each of shelled corn and honey. 
Several baits were tested at the traps and at scent posts (shelled corn 
and honey, sardines, meat scraps, and burned bacon, Fig. 2). Opossums 
(Didelphis virginiana) and raccoons (Procyon loCor ) were so abundant that 
control using small live traps near our bear sets was necessary to keep 
them from raiding the bear traps. 

Trapped bears were anesthetized with ketamine hydrochloride and 
xylazine, using a dart gun. The sedated bears were then radio tagged with 
Wildlife Materials, Inc. HLPM-22200-LD transmitters, ear tagged with 
National Band 6t Tag Co. #49 self-piercing tags, and measured (total 
length, tail length, hind foot length, ear length, canine length, chest 
girth, and weight). The first upper premolar tooth was removed for 
ageing, the bears were released, and their positions were monitored with 
a Wildlife Materials, Inc. TRX-24 receiver and a 3-element Yagi antenna, 
once or twice a day, for the rest of the study. 

Habitat data were obtained using transects (Lome Malo, pers. 
commun.). It soon became evident that the key vegetation was the thick, 
impenetrable cover in the swamps, which could not be sampled by our 
transect methods, because we would have to destroy the understory 
vegetation to enter the swamp. Food habits were determined from the 
analysis of bear scats for seeds and animal remains (Lome Malo, pers. 
commun.). 


42 


The black bear in Alabama 



Fig. 1. Trap cubby using an Aldrich snare. 


RESULTS AMD DISCUSSION 

A total of 5 bears was trapped over a period of 611 trap nights (an 
average of 122 trap nights per bear). One large bear, whose size was 
estimated from his large footprints, broke a snare and escaped. During 
the study one unmarked female bear was killed in an automobile accident on 
Celeste Road. A female and 2 cubs were seen on the area. This is a total 
of at least 10 bears, that we could account for, using about 60 km 2 of the 
103.6 km z study area, or about 1 bear per 6.5 km 2 . Felton and Markam 
(1977), from 1972 - 1974, had a density of bears in their Tennessee study 
area of 1 bear per 2.71 km 2 . The Tennessee density is over twice the 
density of our population, which we believe to be the most dense popula¬ 
tion for Alabama. 

The age distribution of the population of Hells' Creek Swamp varied 
from 2 yr for the 15.4-kg female and 24.5-kg male, to 6 yr for the 55.7- 
kg female and 8 yr for the 70.3-kg female. The ages and weights of the 
female with cubs and the large bear that escaped the snare can only be 


43 




Dusi and King 



estimated. Several years prior to the study there was a Celeste Road male 
bear kill that was 193.2 kg and 17 yr old. 


Population movements and home ranges varied seasonally. Winter (Janu¬ 
ary - March) home ranges were small, ranging from 0.26 km 2 to 1.04 km 2 
(Fig. 3, Table 1). Annual home ranges varied from 2.3 km 2 to 20.7 km 2 
(Fig. 4, Table 1). The young male, B-2, had the largest annual home 
range. The female, B-3, had an annual home range that was almost iden¬ 
tical with that of B-2. These data suggest that he may have been her 
offspring. His home range may also reflect his sex and the generalization 
that males have larger home ranges than females. The 2-year-old female 
had the smallest home range. 


The food habits for some of this population were, in part, determined 
from the crude analysis of 22 scats and 1 stomach sample (fall-6, winter- 


Bacon burner at scent post. The bottom can was filled 
with charcoal to cook and burn bacon in the top can. 


44 










The black bear in Alabama 



Fig 3. Winter home ranges of bears: B-2 (2 year old, 24.5 kg male)- B- 
(6 year old 55. 7 kg female); B-4 (8 year old, 70 kg female); and’B-5 
(2 year old, 16 kg female). The dotted squares are section lines. 


45 




































Dusi and King 



Fig. 4. Annual home ranges of bears B-2, B-3, B-4, B-5.2. The dotted 
squares are section lines. 


46 




































The black bear in Alabama 


Table 1. 

Weight, Age, 

Sex and Home Range 

s for Four Radio 

- tagged Bears. 

Number 

Weight Kg. 

Age 

Sex 

Winter Range 

Summer Range 

B-2 

24.5 

2 

M 

1.04 km 2 

20.70 km 2 

B-3 

55.7 

6 

F 

0.26 km 2 

18.65 km 2 

3-4 

70.3 

8 

F 

0.26 km 2 

8.80 km 2 

B-5 

15.4 

2 

F 

0.39 km 2 

2.30 km 2 


6, spring-9, and summer-2; Lome Malo, pers. commun. ) . He found that 
acorns (Quercus spp.) were the principal foods of fall and winter and that 
they were supplemented in the fall by black gum ( Nyssa sylvatica) , blue¬ 
berries (Vaccinium sp.), beetles, and other invertebrates. In the spring 
corn (Ruhus sp.) and plums ( Primus sp.) were supplemented by beetles. In 
the summer, corn was the only grain recovered in the 2 samples. This com 
could have been from our trap bait. Acorns were abundant during the fall 
and winter seasons of this study. Oak trees were adjacent to the swamps 
and acorns were easily accessible. Except for several small food plots, 
no planted corn was available. Our traps were heavily baited and were 
often raided by bears without making a catch. Therefore, com was readily 
available during the spring and summer when we could trap. This corre¬ 
sponds with the seasons when com was found in the scats, 

When we designed our study we tried to find an area with a bear 
population that was representative of the low density populations of the 
state but with enough bears to get movement data, etc. As it turned out, 
we probably located the most dense population in the state. This was a 
fortunate mistake because we were able to get an amount of data which 
would otherwise have been missed. 

While we carried out our study, we became involved in several bear 
damage cases. We spent about 68 trap nights on the farm of James Daly,, 
north of Grand. Bay, which is southwest of Mobile and in Mobile County. 
Here a female bear and her cub occupied an area estimated to be between 
40 and 50 ha. The bear had raided Daly's bam and eaten shelled corn that 
he had stored for livestock feed. It also had chewed and scratched 268 
trees and dug holes in his lawn and adjacent fields. We attempted to 
capture the female bear in culvert traps and snares but only succeeded in 
capturing his dog or livestock. This was the only site we visited where 
a bear scratched so many trees and dug so many holes. We visited several 
other sites where bears were reported to be causing problems and in no 
cases were we able to trap the problem bears. They appeared to be much 
more wary than the bears on our study site. 

During the period of the study, a bear was hit by an automobile near 
Decatur, Limestone County. This bear was taken to the Jimmy Morgan Zoo 


47 






Dusi and King 


Rescue Unit, in Birmingham, and wa& treated and later released by us in 
Clarke County, where it has since been seen several times. This bear had 
been tagged by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources and had been 
relocated once before it came to Alabama. Another bear was active in the 
Birmingham area, where it dug in a yard and scratched on an adjacent 
mobile home. A third bear appeared for several days near Eufaula, Barbour 
County. A fourth bear appeared at Fairhope, Baldwin County for several 
days. Another bear was shot by a landowner near Cedar Bluff, Cherokee 
County. Still another was reported at the eastern side of Bankhead 
National Forest, in Cullman County. Another bear has been reported near 
the Tuskegee Airport, Macon County, and still another near Spring Villa, 
Lee County. All these reports indicate quite a change from 20 years ago 
when we rarely heard of a bear, except in the Mobile area. 

With the growth in the human population and the increases in forested 
lands, bears are noticed more and perhaps increasing in numbers. There¬ 
fore, more study is needed on these isolated individuals and their habitat 
requirements. We also need to develop proper handling of garbage and 
other attractants which may lure bears near houses. Finally, we need a 
good education program so that the people of Alabama know what to expect 
from bears and learn to exist harmoniously with them. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

Many people helped us in this project. We especially want to thank 
Conservation Officer James Harbin and his son Bruce, Fred Kellum, District 
Biologist Eugene Widder, John Cutts, Raymond Keyser and Charles Radcliff. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Anonomous 1972. Rare and endangered vertebrates of Alabama. Ala. Dept. 
Con. and Nat. Res., Montgomery, Ala. 92pp. 

_ 1984. Vertebrate wildlife of Alabama. Ala. Agr. Exp. Sta., 

Auburn Univ., Ala. 44pp. 

Boschung, H. 1976. Endangered and threatened plants and animals of 

Alabama. Bui. Ala. Mus. Nat. Hist. No. 2, University, Ala. 92pp. 

Dusi, J. L. and D. T. King 1987. Ecology of the black bear in southwest 
Alabama. Ala. Dept, of Cons, and Nat. Res., Montgomery, Ala. 52pp. 

Hall, E. R. 1981. The mammals of North America, 2 Ed. Wiley, N.Y. 
1175pp. 

Howell, A. H. 1921. A biological survey of Alabama. N. Am. Fauna No. 

45. Gov. Print. Off., Washington. 88pp. 

Lineback, N. G. 1973. Atlas of Alabama. Univ. of Ala., University, Ala. 
138pp. 


48 



The black bear in Alabama 


Mount, R. H. 1986. Vertebrate animals of Alabama in need of special 
attention. Ala. Agr. Exp. Sta., Auburn Univ., Ala. 124pp. 

Pelton, M. C. and L. C. Marcum 1977. The potential of radioisotopes for 
determining density of black bears and other carnivores. Pages 221- 
236 in R. C. Phillips and C. Jonkel, eds. Proc. 1975 Predator Symp. 
Mont. For. and Cons. Exp. Sta., Univ. of Mont., Missoula. 268pp. 


49 


Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 61, No. 2, April 1990. 


SYLACAUGA METEORITE FALL 1 


Harold Povenmire 
215 Osage Dr. 

Indian Harbour Bch., FL 32937 


ABSTRACT 

This paper summarizes the available data concerning the first well- 
documented" injury to a human being by a meteorite fall. Precise co¬ 
ordinates of the primary mass have been determined. A determination of 
its radiant and its orbital parameters have been made. Several candidates 
for related meteorite falls and an asteroidal parent body have been 
suggested based upon solar longitude, approximate radiant, and petrologic 
classification. Suggested strewnfield parameters are indicated, since 
more unrecovered fragments probably survived impact. 

Sylacauga , Alabama Revisited 

On November 30, 1954, the first well-authenticated case of a meteorite 
striking a human being occurred. It was written up briefly in a report by 
the geologists who were on the scene (Swindel and Jones, 1954). The 
meteorite itself has been described separately (Mason, 1963). The purpose 
of this report is to record many of the details that were not recorded 
previously before they are historically lost, as most of the persons 
involved are now deceased. 

The site of the meteorite fall was in the southwest corner of an 
approximately 136 year old farm house located on Odens Mill Road. The 
house is located just south of the old Birmingham highway (Rt. 91) in the 
town of Oak Grove, northwest of Sylacauga in Talladega County, Alabama. 
The postal address is Rt. 7, Box 726 B, Sylacauga, Alabama, 35150. 

The house was owned by Mrs. Birdie Guy until her death in 1988. The 
precise coordinates of the impact of the primary mass were: longitude 
86°17' 40".2 W, latitude 33°ll'18".l N as scaled from the U. S. Geological 
Survey 7.'5 Sylacauga West, Alabama, 1980 topographic map. The elevation 
of this site is 180 meters. 

On December 1, 1954, a farmer, Julius Kempis McKinney, recovered the 
second and smaller fragment. The approximate impact coordinates of this 
object were scaled as longitude 86°17'20".7 W, latitude 33°13'08".4 N at 
an elevation of 161 meters. The distance between these impact points is 
3750 meters. It was found southwest of the railroad tracks and across 
from the road connecting Odena and Lipsy (formerly called Zubers). 

Mr. J. K. McKinney was hauling a load of firewood along a woods trail 
in a wagon pulled by two mules. One of the mules shied away from an 
object, apparently because of its odor. (Has any meteorite hunter ever 

’Manuscript received 8 May 1989; accepted 9 February 1990. 


50 



Povenmire 


considered using bloodhounds to help search for freshly fallen meteor¬ 
ites?) Mr. McKinney thought it must be a snake but instead found only a 
black rock. He threw it down, but later retrieved it, and kept it until 
December 8, 1954. It was then reported and given to geologists to examine 
(Swindel and Jones, 1954). He later sold the meteorite for a "handsome 
sum" which allowed him to purchase an automobile and a 10 acre farm. 

In falls of stony chondritic meteorites, especially large ones where 
fragments show highly angular plane surfaces and thin fusion crusts, 
several fragments are usually found. At least three distinct fragments 
were reported to have been visible after the terminal burst and at least 
three very loud sonic booms were heard and felt. If more fragments 
survived to impact, they should be found along the same azimuth as the 
line from the Hodges fragment to the McKinney fragment. The rolling 
terrain between the impact sites is partly farm land and partly resi¬ 
dential neighborhoods with a fairly high population density. This 
researcher believes that if people in the area were made aware of the 
possibilities, the chances of recovering additional fragments are 
reasonably high. 

The strewfield containing such fragments should be an ellipse with the 
long axis in a north-south direction centered at longitude 86°17'30."0 W. 
It should have a minor axis diameter of at least 3.0 km. The southern end 
should be at 33°09' N and extend north to 33°20'N. This is a large area 
but the observations support these parameters. 

It is interesting to note that many persons from Montgomery to 
Sylacauga reported that they experienced television interference at the 
time the meteorite fell (Birmingham News, 1954, December 1). This 
phenomenon has been noted on other fireball reports analyzed by the 
Florida Fireball Patrol. 

On this Tuesday afternoon, Mrs. Ann Elizabeth Hodges, 34, was not 
feeling well and took a nap after lunch. She was sleeping on her right 
side on a couch in her front room. Apparently the sonic boom and the 
meteorite impact occurred almost simultaneously. She was stunned by the 
noise of the impact and did not at first realize that she had been hit by 
the ricocheting meteorite. She and her mother, Mrs. Ida Franklin, who was 
sewing in the adjacent room, at first believed that the gas heater had 
exploded. A large bruised knot quickly appeared on Mrs. Hodges hand. It 
was only when sunlight was noticed coming through the square (0.35 meter 
on a side) hole in the corner of the ceiling was the meteorite found (Fig. 
1). Its black surface appeared sooty, but the black color did not rub 
off. It had a slightly sulfurous odor and was very warm to the touch. 
Mrs. Hodges reportedly saw a boiling dust column over her house shortly 
after the impact. Mrs. Hodges called the police. The Chief of Police, W. 
D. Ashcraft, took Mrs. Hodges to a doctor, Moody D. Jacobs, and with her 
permission, kept the meteorite. She was thoroughly examined and x-rayed 
by the doctor and released even though her left hand, left hip, and 
abdomen were sore and swollen (Jacobs, 1988). 


51 


Sylacauga meteorite fall 



Figure 1. Mrs. Hewlett Hodges holding the 3.68 kg meteorite 
that hit her after penetrating the roof and 
ceiling of the house. 


The next night she was admitted to Sylacauga General Hospital for five 
days of rest as "the excitement was too much for her to sleep and to 
shield her from the endless string of visitors and telephone calls." It 
was reported that there were traffic jams in the area for several miles. 
There were also approximately 200 reporters trying to interview Mrs. 
Hodges. 


52 








Povenmire 


Mrs. Hodges was not seriously injured and no bones were broken. The 
next day, a 10 x 20 cm bruise appeared on her hip and abdomen showing the 
imprint of the meteorite even though she was covered by two heavy quilts 
(Life Magazine, 1954). She believed that these saved her from serious 
injury. Mrs. Hodges required several hours of daily bedrest and suffered 
severe pain for many weeks. While her physical health returned to normal 
after several months, she never completely recovered her emotional and 
mental health. Mrs. Hodges, who was by nature quiet and shy did not even 
want to look at the meteorite when it was returned to her. Both Mr. and 
Mrs. Hodges remarked that the meteorite had caused a lot of pain, suf¬ 
fering and expense, and stated many times that they wished that the event 
had not involved them (Birmingham News, 1979). 

The notoriety and publicity of the event did not bring them happiness 
and was a contributing factor to their divorce in 1964. Mrs. Hodges' 
health declined further after that and she died of a stroke in a Sylacauga 
nursing home in 1972. She is buried in the Baptist Charity Cemetary at 
Hazel Green, Alabama with a very small, undistinguished headstone (Sims, 
1988). 

On one corner of the meteorite, the fusion crust is broken showing the 
grey interior (Fig. 2). This broken end made first contact with the roof 
and small amounts of the roofing tar are embedded in the meteorite at this 
point. An examination of the roof, walls, and radio that were struck 
first appears to indicate that the meteorite's kinetic energy had essen¬ 
tially been damped to zero when it struck Mrs. Hodges. The last object 
the meteorite contacted before it hit Mrs. Hodges was a large Philco 
console radio. The radio chassis was made of tough, curved, laminated 
plywood. The meteorite broke a hole approximately 8 x 8 cm in it. This 
radio has been preserved by Eugene Hodges. Prior to penetrating the roof, 
the meteorite had a calculated velocity of approximately 270 km per hour 
(Halliday, Blackwell and Griffin, 1978). A direct hit would have almost 
certainly been fatal. 

The Hodges fragment of the meteorite was taken by helicoper to Maxwell 
A.F.B. Montgomery, Alabama. It was then flown to the Air Force Technical 
Intelligence Center at Wright - Patterson A.F.B., Dayton, Ohio for identi¬ 
fication and analysis. 

In the United States, three separate appellate court decisions 
(Oregon, Iowa, and New York) state clearly that a meteorite belongs to the 
owner of the land on which the impact occurred. The Hodges were renting 
the property on which the house stands, so legal possession of the 
meteorite defaulted to the landowner, Mrs. Birdie Guy. Mrs. Guy gave up 
all rights of possession of the meteorite on September 22, 1955. Mrs. 
Hodges immediately received offers of over $5500 for the object. Mrs. 
Hodges later becme the sole owner and kept it for 15 months until March, 
1956. Mrs. hedges donated it (for remuneration) to the Alabama Museum of 
Natural History, then a branch of the Geological Survey of Alabama. The 
Hodges fragment had a mass of 3.68 kg and a specific gravity of 3.70 and 
is on permanent display at the University of Alabama-State Museum of 
Natural History at Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 


53 







Sylacauga meteorite fall 



Figure 2. The Sylacauga 3.68 kg primary mass showing the 
typical highly angular flat sides. 


The McKinney fragment, (1.68 kg) is pyramidal is shape with a flat 
top. Its basic dimensions are 10 x 10 x 12.5 cm. It is on display at the 
National Museum (The Smithsonian) in Washington, D.C. 

The time of the fall has been frequently (but incorrectly) published 
as 1:00 p.m., C.S.T. (Graham, Bevan and Hutchison, 1985). The fireball 
was widely sighted and timed at or slightly before 12:45 p.m. (+/- 1.0 
minute), C.S.T. The calculated duration for the dark portion of the 
flight was approximately 130 seconds (Halliday, Blackwell and Griffin, 
1978). Because of many small timing uncertainties the adopted time for 
this object's impact is 12:46 p.m., C.S.T. (18:46.0 U.T.) (Lovelass, 
1988). The sidereal time of the impact of the primary mass is 17:36:15 
(Dunham, 1987). The corresponding Julian date is 2435077.2819 (Sims, 
1988). 

The meteorite is an olivine bronzite chondrite (H4). It is a rough 
parallelepiped with dimensions of 17.7 x 11.8 x 11.0 cm. Low-angle 
lighting shows one side is smoother than the other and exhibits atmos¬ 
pheric ablative orientation. The black fusion crust is less than 1.0 mm 


54 











Povenmire 


thick. The interior resembles grey concrete. An approximately 31 mm 
diameter core has been removed from the bottom of this object (34 mm deep) 
for internal examination and thin section analysis (King 1987). This 
researcher examined the primary mass and counted as many as 15 flat 
surfaces where fragments may have broken off. Most of these were probably 
consumed in the ablation process as evidenced by the many small sparks, 
long dust train, and mushroom-shaped terminal burst. Most observers 
described the massive train and terminal burst cloud as white. Some 
observers, who were looking nearly into the Sun and saw the dense cloud by 
silhouette, described it as dark or black (Swindel and Jones, 1954). The 
cloud lasted at least 15 minutes and trailed off in a spiral. 

The sky was very clear and the terminal burst and start of the dark 
flight portion of the fall was clearly visible from the R.O.T.C. field at 
the University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa (Swindel and Jones, 1954). Donald 
Lovelass, a student, was facing east and saw the descent of the fireball. 
The fireball appeared to be light orange in color and had very slow 
apparent motion in its several seconds of visibility. Its apparent 
diameter at this distance was much less than the full moon and reminded 
him of a ball from a roman candle at "some distance" (Lovelass, 1988). 
This observation site was approximately 116 km to the WNW of the Hodges' 
house and would indicate that the terminal burst occurred at an altitude 
of approximately 19 km. The loud sonic phenomena heard in the Sylacauga 
area and to the SSW support this (Swindel and Jones, 1954). The sonic 
phenomena were heard and felt so strongly in Montgomery, some 75 km to the 
SSW that a boy was nearly knocked off a bicycle (Time, 1954). 

A line connecting the impact points indicate a trajectory azimuth of 
approximately 9.5° east of north. The winds at this time were from the 
south-west as indicated by the conspicuous dust train and terminal burst 
cloud (Swindel and Jones, 1954). Since lighter fragments are affected by 
the winds more than heavier ones, the flight azimuth adopted for computa¬ 
tional purposes is 0°. 

The radiant was high in the SSW sky as indicated by the observed 
azimuth, nearly vertical train column, and the intense sonic phenomena. 
The massive terminal burst was observed essentially at the zenith over 
Sylacauga. This would place the radiant in or near the constellation of 
Ophiuchus. This is very near the southernmost declination of the 
ecliptic. The exact position of the Sun at the time of the meteorite 
impact was Right Ascension 246.°12, Declination - 21.°37 (Equinox 1950.0) 
(Kronk, 1987). The meteorite's position is east of the position of the 
Sun at the time of impact, so an observer at Sylacauga would see the 
meteorite apparently coming almost directly out of the Sun. 

This meteorite crossed the Earth's orbit at Solar Longitude 247° 
42'58."9 (Equinox 1950.0) (Dunham, 1987). Since the meteorite came in on 
the sunward side of the Earth, it had passed perihelion and was traveling 
outward from the Sun. Since it probably passed perihelion when it was 
north of the celestial equator, it would have crossed the Earth's orbit at 
its descending node. 


55 


Sylacauga meteorite fall 


All chondritic meteorites fragment during their entry into the Earth's 
atmosphere. The aerodynamic stresses on these meteorites are greater than 
their tensile strength. 

At the latitude of Sylacauga, 33° N, the Sun was approximately 44° 
above the southern horizon at the time of impact. The observed path of 
the meteor indicated a radiant with a higher altitude. After much study 
of the observers' descriptions of the path, and the impact locations, the 
following radiant was computed using both the graphical and mathematical 
methods of Olivier (Olivier, 1925). 


Date 

November 

30, 1954 

Time 

18:46.0 

U.T. 

R. A. 

261. °0 


Dec. 

+ 5 ,°0 

(1950.0) 


An attempt was made to determine a general shape of the orbit and a 
range of approximate orbital elements. Even with the many approximations, 
the orbit is surprisingly consistent and is close enough for comparison 
purposes to link other known or related objects. A literature search was 
made for the orbital elements of Apollo asteroids, fireballs, meteorite 
falls, earth crossing comets, and radar meteor orbits. When this orbit 
was compared with the known Apollo asteroids it became obvious that (1685) 
Toro was a much more likely candidate than any other known asteroid. 

Visual meteor showers cannot be compared with this event because their 
radiants would be too near the Sun and therefore in daylight. Two radar 
meteor orbits are being examined. Comets that make close approaches (< .1 
A.U.) to the earth's orbit have been examined but no likely candidates 
have been found (Lovell, 1954). 

The best candidates for related meteorite falls on the basis of a 
combination of solar longitude, radiant altitude, and petrological 
classification are as follows: 


NAME OF FALL 

DATE 

LOCAL 

TIME 

LONGITUDE 

TYPE 

Kerilis, France 

Nov. 

26, 

1874 

10:30 

3° 

18 'W 

H5 

Kutais, USSR 

Nov. 

28, 

1977 

08:00 

39° 

18' E 

H5 

Xingyang, China 

Dec. 

1. 

1977 

18:57 

114° 

19' E 

H5 

Farmville, N.C. 

Dec. 

4, 

1934 


77° 

32 'W 

H4 

Conquista, Brazil (early) 

Dec. 


1965 

6:00 

47° 

33 'W 

H4 

Cangas de Onis, Spain 

Dec. 

6, 

1866 

11:00 

5° 

09 'W 

H5 


After a major fireball or meteorite fall, it is common for numerous 
reports of other fireballs, meteors, and unusual stones to be brought to 
the public's attention. It is the opinion of this researcher that none of 
the numerous reports that were received in the local press in the fol¬ 
lowing weeks had any connection with this event since the radiant of this 
meteorite fall was below the horizon in those locations at their reported 
times. 


56 






Povenmire 


BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Advance, 1954 Sylacauga, December 2. 

Advance, 1954 Sylacauga, December 9. 

Atlanta Journal and Constitution, 1954 December 26, 6-7. 

Avondale Sun, 1954, December 20, Vol. 29 # 46, Pg. 3. 

Birmingham News, 1954 December 1. 

Birmingham News, 1954 December 2. 

Birmingham News, 1954 December 3. 

Birmingham News, 1955 Sun Star, February 13, Sec C, p. 11. 

Birmingham News, 1979 July 8. 

Birmingham News, 1985 November 24, 8A. 

Bridgeman, Bernice 1987, Personal Communication. 

Brown, Gladys Tartt 1987, Personal Communication. 

Ceplecha, Zdenek 1961, Multiple Fall of Pribram Meteorites Photographed. 
Bulletin of the Astronomical Institutes of. Czechoslovakia, vol. 12, 
no. 2 Ondrejov, Czechoslovakia p. 21-47. 

Culver, Rudolph and Myrtle 1988, Personal Communication. 

Cunningham, Clifford 1988, Asteroids, Willmann-Bell, Richmond, VA. 

Dunham, David W. 1987, Personal Communication. 

Field, William 1987, Personal Communication. 

Fowler, Mrs. Arthur H. 1988, Personal Communication. 

Graham, A.L., A.W.R. Bevan and R. Hutchison 1985 Catalogue of Meteorites 
4th Ed. University of Arizona Press 339. 

Gehrels, Tom 1971 Physical Studies of Minor Planets, NASA SP-267, 
Washington, D.C. 

Gehrels, Tom 1982 Asteroids, University of Arizona Press 1982, Tempe, 
Arizona p. 320. 

Guy, Birdie 1987, Personal Communication. 

Guy, Edward 1987, Personal Communication. 


57 


Sylacauga meteorite fall 


Hall, John 1987, Personal Communication. 

Halliday, Ian and Allan T. Blackwell and Arthur A. Griffin 1978, The 

Innisfree Meteorite and the Canadian Camera Network, Journal of the 
Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Vol 72 #1, p. 
15-39. 


Halliday, Ian 1987, Detection of a Meteorite "Stream": Observations of a 
second meteorite fall from the orbit of the Innisfree Chondrite. 
Icarus, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, p. 550-556. 

Hodges, Eugene Hewlett 1987, Personal Communication. 

Hudgens, Walter Thomas 1987, Personal Communication. 

Jacobs, Moody D., MD 1988, Personal Communication. 

Johns, Christopher 1988, Personal Communication. 

Kronk, Gary W. 1987, Personal Communication. 

Levin, B.Y. and Bronshten, V.A. 1986 The Tunguska Event and the Meteors 
with Terminal Flares. Meteoritics 21, 199-215. 

Life Magazine, 1954 Meteorite Injures Alabama Housewife, December 13, 

26. 

Love, Huel 1988, Personal Communication. 

Lovelass, Donald Terry 1988, Personal Communication. 

Lovell, A.B.C. 1954, Meteor Astronomy Claredon Press, Oxford, England p. 
415. 

Madden, Wayne Cornell 1988, Personal Communication. 

Mason, Brian 1963, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 27 p. 1011. 

McCrosky, Richard E. 1970, The Lost City Meteorite Fall. Sky and 
Telescope, Cambridge, MA, March, p. 154-158. 

McCrosky, R. E. 1971, Lost City Meteorite. Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory - Special Report 336, Cambridge, MA. 

McEwen, Stuart 1987, Personal Communication. 

McKay, Charles W. 1987, Personal Communication. 

McKinney, Julius Kempis Jr. 1987, Personal Communication. 

McKinney, Pearson 1987, Personal Communication. 


58 





Povenmire 


McKinney, James William 1988, Personal Communication. 

Mosley, John E. 1988, Personal Communication. 

Newsweek 1954 "Some Stars" December 13, p. 29. 

Odessy Magazine 1987, August 10-11. 

Olivier, Charles P. 1925, Meteors University of Virginia Press Norfolk. 
People Magazine 1979, July 30 p. 28. 

Sims, David 1988, Personal Communication. 

Sullivan, Sean 1987, Personal Communication. 

Swindel, George W. Jr. and Walter B. Jones 1954, The Sylacauga, 

Talladega County, Alabama Aerolite: A Recent Meteoritic Fall that 
Injured a Human Being Meteoritics 1, 125-131. 

Talladega Daily Home, 1981 December 9. 

The American Weekly Magazine 1955 "I Was Hit By a Meteorite" Our 
Wonderful World Champaign, IL February 13, p. 4. 

Time Magazine 1954, December 13 p. 61-63. 

United States Geological Survey 1980, 7.5 Sylacauga West, Alabama 
(Topographic Map). 

Whitaker, H.R. 1967, The Meteor that Blitzed Alabama, Chicago Tribune 
Magazine, August 13, p. 26-66. 

Zeigler, Bloise 1987, Personal Communication. 

Zeigler, James 1987, Personal Communication. 


59 


Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 61, No. 2, April 1990. 


A RANGE EXTENSION OF THE OLIGOCHAETE 
PIQUETIELLA MICHIGANENSIS' 


C. Rex Bingham and Andrew C. Miller 
Environmental Laboratory 
U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station 
Vicksburg, Mississippi 39180-6199 


ABSTRACT 

The oligochaete Piquetiella michiganensis (Annelida: Oligochaeta: 
Naididae) was found in pool/riffle habitat in Luxapalila Creek, a 
tributary of the Tombigbee River near the Mississippi-Alabama border. 
This species, reported from the Great Lakes and upper Mississippi River, 
has previously been collected only as far south as Virginia. 


Piquetiella michiganensis (Annelida: Oligochaeta: Naididae) was 
collected from a gravel riffle and adjacent pool of Luxapalila Creek, a 
tributary of the Tombigbee River near the Mississippi-Alabama border. 
This species has been reported in north-central North America as far south 
as Virginia (Brinkhurst 1986). It has been collected in the Great Lakes 
and upper Mississippi River east to the Susquehanna and Chemung rivers in 
New York (Hiltunen and Klemm 1980, Klemm 1985), and south to the Wabash 
River in southern Indiana (Dr. Michael S. Loden, personal communication). 

In June 1988, 20 specimens were found in four of five samples taken 
with a 10-cm diameter corer (Miller and Bingham 1987) at a gravel riffle 
in the upper reach of the creek at Millport, Alabama. Densities (+SD) 
were estimated at 314.3 + 258.2 individuals/m 2 . In a nearby pool two of 
five core samples yielded one specimen each with an estimated density of 
31.4 + 38.5 individuals/m 2 . Similar sampling at two pools and two riffles 
in the lower river near its confluence with the Tombigbee River yielded no 
P. michiganensis. However, in the fall of 1988, a single P. michiganensis 
was collected in a riffle in the upper section of the lower reach. 

Luxapalila Creek is characterized by moderate to high water ve¬ 
locities, sediment-free gravel, and well-oxygenated water. Physical 
conditions are similar throughout the river; however, pools are more 
extensive in the lower reach. More complete macroinvertebrate surveys in 
the central United States would establish whether the apparent disjunct 
distribution of this species is the result of incomplete data or specific 
habitat requirements that are occasionally met at the periphery of its 
range. 


’Manuscript received 23 December 1989; accepted 13 January 1990 


60 







Bingham and Miller 


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

This study was funded by the US Army Engineer District, Mobile 
(Mobile, Alabama). Permission was granted by the Chief of Engineers to 
publish this information. Dr. Michael S. Loden, Jefferson Parish 
Environmental Department, Jefferson, Louisiana, confirmed our identifi¬ 
cation of P. michiganensis. 


LITERATURE CITED 

Brinkhurst, R. 0. 1986. Guide to the freshwater aquatic microdrile 

oligochaetes of North America. Canadian Special Publication of 
Aquatic Sciences 84, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Ottawa, 

Canada. 

Hiltunen, J. K. , and Klemm, D. J. 1980. A guide to the Naididae 

(Annelida: Cliteilata: Oligochaeta) of North America. Environmental 
Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio. EPA-6000/4- 

80-031. 

Klemm, D. J. 1985. A guide to the freshwater Annelida (Polychaeta, 
Naidid and Tubificid Oligochaeta, and Hirudinea) of North America. 
Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, Iowa. 

Miller, A, C., and Bingham, C. R. 1987. A hand-held benthic core 
sampler. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 4:77-81. 


61 


Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 61, No. 2, April 1990. 


SYMPOSIUM ON THE STATUS OF ENDANGERED SPECIES IN ALABAMA 


Richard F. Modlin, Organizer and Moderator 
Department of Biological Sciences 
The University of Alabama in Huntsville 
Huntsville , AL 35899 


INTRODUCTION 

A goal during my chairmanship (1987-89) of the Biological Sciences 
Section of the Alabama Academy of Science was to organize and present a 
symposium on the endangered and threatened species in Alabama. This goal 
was reached and the symposium materialized at Birmingham-Southern College 
on 24 March 1989 as part of the annual meeting of the AAS. It was pre¬ 
sented to a large concerned audience. This was the fourth such symposium 
to be held in Alabama. The first was held in 1972 at Birmingham-Southern 
College (Keeler 1972), the second in 1974 at the University of Alabama 
(Boschung 1976), and the third at Auburn University (Mount 1984, 1986). 
The objectives in each were to identify and provide information on those 
species on the edge of, and those threatened toward, extinction. The 
objectives of the fourth symposium were to update, add to, and crystalize 
this past body of information in hopes of stimulating an awareness of the 
problems facing our state's wildlife resources and to provide direction 
for future research. 

The symposium treated plants, animals, and habitats. Five speakers 
from the Alabama community of field biologists, all experts in their 
field, were asked to make presentations. Dr. Steven C. Harris from the 
Geological Survey of Alabama presented information on the invertebrates. 
Fishes were treated by Dr. J. Malcolm Pierson of the Alabama Power Compa¬ 
ny. Auburn University provided two eminent scientists to the symposium. 
Dr. Robert H. Mount discussed the status of the state's reptiles and 
amphibians and Dr. George W. Folkerts talked on endangered and sensitive 
habitats in our state. Dr. Dan C. Holliman from Birmingham-Southern 
College informed the audience of the problems facing the birds and mammals 
of Alabama. Each of these presentation stimulated the audience and 
generated numerous questions and considerable discussion. I would like to 
thank each of the presentors for their contributions which lead to the 
success of this symposium. 

Four publications were generated as a result of the symposium and are 
published in this issue. The articles summarize the information on the 
invertebrates, fishes, amphibians and reptiles, and birds and mammals 
presented during the symposium. 

Future symposia on Alabama's threatened and endangered species, and 
species of concern, are presently being planned. In the immediate future, 
it is hoped that, the symposia will direct their discussions toward spe¬ 
cific problems, such as particular animal or plant taxa or habitats that 
may require special attention and/or examination. Alabama is a special 


62 



Modiin 


state with a tremendous diversity of animals, plants, and habitats. Many 
of these are unique or extremely fragile and are constantly threatened by 
extinction. Consequently, there is a definite need to continually moni¬ 
tor, and be aware of problems in, our natural resources and bring this 
information to the scientific community, governmental officials, and the 
public. 

I would like to acknowledge the committee that helped organize the 
fourth Symposium on the Status of the Endangered Species of Alabama. This 
committee consisted of Dr. Dan Holliman of Birmingham-Southern College; 
Dr. Robert Stiles, Samford University; Dr. Ken Marion, UAB; and Dr. Tom 
Jandebeur, Athens State College. Without their help this symposium would 
not have left the launch pad. I would also like to thank Dr. William 
Mason, Editor of the Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, for 
providing an avenue for the dissemination of our information and the 
anonymous reviewers that helped refine the articles that were submitted 
for publication. Support for this symposium was provided by the Alabama 
Academy of Science and Birmingham-Southern College. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Boschung, H. 1976. Endangered and threatened plants and animals of 
Alabama. Bulletin Alabama Museum of Natural History, No. 2, The 
University of Alabama, University, Alabama. 92 p. 

Keeler, J. E. 1972. Rare and endangered vertebrates of Alabama. Alabama 
Department of Conservation, Natural Resources, Division of Game and 
Fish. 92 p. 

Mount, R. H. 1984. Vertebrate Wildlife of Alabama. Alabama Agricultural 
Experiment Station, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama. 44 p. 

Mount, R. H. 1986. Vertebrate Animals of Alabama in need of special 
attention. Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn 

University, Auburn, Alabama, 124 p. 


63 


Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 61, No. 2, April 1990. 


PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS ON RARE AND ENDANGERED 
INVERTEBRATES IN ALABAMA 1 


Steven C. Harris 
Biological Resources Division 
Geological Survey of Alabama 
Tuscaloosa, AL 35A86 


INTRODUCTION 

The first symposium on threatened and endangered species of Alabama 
was organized in 1972. This symposium only considered vertebrates, but in 
1976, at the second symposium, the format was expanded to include plants 
and selected invertebrates, as well as vertebrates. Also at this second 
symposium, the categories of endangered, threatened, and special concern 
species were precisely defined and utilized in a resulting publication 
(Boschung, 1976). However there was no accompanying legislation by the 
state of Alabama to give legal status to those species in need of pro¬ 
tection. Only those few species in Alabama considered to be threatened 
or endangered under the U.S. Department of Interior, Endangered Species 
Act of 1973 are officially protected. 

In 1982, the fauna of Alabama received renewed attention with the 
creation of a Nongame Wildlife Program by the state legislature. The 
first conference on nongame wildlife in Alabama was organized in 1983 with 
two resultant publications, "Vertebrate Wildlife of Alabama" (Mount, 1984) 
and "Vertebrate Animals of Alabama in Need of Special Attention" (Mount, 
1986) . Both these publications were concerned with vertebrates with no 
consideration given to the invertebrate fauna of Alabama. The purpose of 
this paper is to provide a preliminary accounting of selected groups of 
invertebrates in Alabama which might be considered rare, insufficiently 
known, or in need of special attention. 

Invertebrates as a group constitute about 95% of all known animal 
species, the overwhelming majority of which are arthropods (Barnes, 1980). 
They occur in virtually all habitats and are enormously important from 
both an ecological and economical standpoint, yet as a group they have 
been little studied in Alabama. This lack of detailed knowledge of the 
invertebrate fauna of Alabama accounts in part for their exclusion from 
recent compilations of rare or endangered species. Our knowledge of the 
invertebrates, though far from complete, is improving and invertebrates 
are included by several southeastern states in listings of threatened or 
endangered species (Table 1). South Carolina has compiled the most ex¬ 
tensive list, followed by Florida, with both states including terrestrial 
and aquatic taxa. In Alabama, we are beginning to document a portion of 


’This article was presented as an invited paper at a Symposium on the 
Status of Endangered Species in Alabama on 24 March 1989 at the annual 
meeting of the Alabama Academy of Science held at Birmingham-Southern 
College, Birmingham, Alabama. 


64 



Harris 


Table 1. Compilations of rare and endangered invertebrates 
in the southeastern United States 


Invertebrate taxon 

South 

Carolina 1 

Florida 2 

North 

Carolina 3 

Tennessee 4 

Porifera (sponges) 

X 




Echinodermata (sea stars) 

X 




Hemichordata (acorn worms) 

X 




Annelida 





Oligochaeta (worms) 

X 




Hirudinea (leeches) 

X 




Mollusca 





Gastropoda (snails) 

X 

X 

X 

X 

Bivalvia (clams) 

X 

X 

X 

X 

Arthropoda 





Crustacea (crustaceans) 

X 

X 

X 


Arachnida (spiders) 

X 

X 



Diplopoda (millipedes) 

X 




Insecta 





Ephemeroptera (mayflies) 

X 

X 

X 


Odonata (dragonflies) 

X 

X 

X 


Orthoptera (grasshoppers) 

X 

X 



Mallophaga (chewing lice) 


X 



Plecoptera (stoneflies) 

X 


X 


Psocopt'era (psocids) 

X 




Thysanoptera (thrips) 

X 




Hemiptera (true bugs) 

X 




Coleoptera (beetles) 

X 

X 



Mecoptera (scorpionflies) 

X 




Lepidoptera (butterflies) 

X 

X 



Trichoptera (caddisflies) 

X 

X 

X 


Diptera (flies) 


X 

X 



’Forsythe and Ezell, 1976; Morse, personal communication, 1989. 

2 Franz, 1982. 

3 Lenat, personal communication, 1989. 

4 Bogan and Parmalee, 1983. 


the invertebrate fauna, particularly those groups inhabiting aquatic 
environments. Even here much of our knowledge is limited to the larger 
aquatic invertebrates, for example the mollusks and some aquatic insects, 
with terrestrial and microscopic invertebrates remaining poorly known. 

Our meager knowledge of the invertebrate fauna of Alabama also 
presents difficulties when attempting to assign species to the standard 
protected categories of endangered, threatened, or special concern. One 
possible exception is the Mollusca, which have been studied extensively 
enough in Alabama to allow placement of some species in the protective 


65 







Rare and endangered invertebrates in Alabama 


categories. Stein (1976) and Stansbery (1976) assigned protective cate¬ 
gories to gastropods and naiad mollusks, respectively, and 11 mollusks 
from Alabama are listed as threatened or endangered by the U.S. Department 
of the Interior (Table 2). Crayfishes in Alabama, although still incom¬ 
pletely known, are often so limited in distribution that some species may 
be assigned to protective categories. A preliminary list of the cray¬ 
fishes and freshwater shrimps of Alabama, which listed one species as 
threatened, was compiled by Bouchard (1976). In 1988, the freshwater 
shrimp, Palaemonias alabamae was proposed for listing as threatened by the 
U.S. Department of the Interior. 

Most insects in Alabama, are not easily placed in the protective 
categories of endangered, threatened, or special concern. As with the 


Table 2. Mollusks occurring in Alabama which are listed as endangered by 
the U.S. Department of the Interior, 1988. 


STREAM 


COUNTY SPECIES 


Estill Fork 

Jackson 

Jackson 

Larkin Fork 

Jackson 

Tennessee River 

Jackson 

Marshall 

Marshall 

Marshall 

Morgan 

Colbert 

Colbert 

Paint Rock River 

Jackson 

Jackson 

Jackson 

Jackson 

Jackson 

Marshall 

Tombigbee River 

Sumter 

Sumter 

Sumter 

Sumter 

Sumter 

Buttahatchie River 

Lamar 

Sipsey River 

Greene 

Greene 


Lampsilis virescens (Lea, 1858) 
Toxolasma cylindrella (Lea, 1868) 

Lampsilis virescens (Lea, 1858) 

Lampsilis orbiculaCa (Hildreth, 1828) 
Lampsilis orbiculaCa (Hildreth, 1828) 
PleChobasus cooperianus (Lea, 1834) 
Plethobema plenum (Lea, 1840) 
Lampsilis orbiculaCa (Hildreth, 1828) 
Lampsilis orbiculaCa (Hildreth, 1828) 
Pleurobema plenum (Lea, 1840) 

Fusconaia cuneolus (Lea, 1840) 
Fusconaia cor (Conrad, 1834) 

Lampsilis orbiculaCa (Hildreth, 1828) 
Lampsilis virescens (Lea, 1858) 
Toxoplasma cylindrella (Lea, 1868) 
Lampsilis orbiculaCa (Hildreth, 1828) 

Pleurobema curCum (Lea, 1859) 
Pleurobema CaiCianum (Lea, 1834) 
Pleurobema marshalli (Frierson, 1927) 
Epioblasma peniCa (Conrad, 1834) 
Quadrula scapes (Lea, 1831) 

Epioblasma peniCa (Conrad, 1834) 

Pleurobema CaiCianum (Lea, 1834) 
Quadrula stapes (Lea, 1831) 


66 









Harris 


other invertebrates, we have a limited knowledge of the Alabama fauna, but 
as well, insects have several inherent characteristics which make place¬ 
ment in protective categories difficult. 

1. ) Mobility: With the exception of some primitive and parasitic 
groups, all insects have wings. While invertebrates such as mollusks and 
crayfishes may be restricted to a specific drainage or habitat, insects 
have the capability to move easily. 

2. ) Life history complications: With insects, as well as other 
invertebrates, the identification of a species is often dependent on a 
specific life history stage, usually late instar immatures or adult males. 
With most aquatic insects, the immatures are collected from the water, 
while the adults are terrestrial. 

3. ) Size: Insects and most invertebrates are small and are identi¬ 
fied to species on the basis of small morphological characters, often only 
observable by specialists. Generally the specimens must be killed and 
preserved in order to make specific identifications. 

4. ) Public Perception: With most insects and arachnids being per¬ 
ceived by the general public as a nuisance or dangerous, assigning such 
organisms to protected status is difficult. 

With these points in mind, most of the invertebrate specialists con¬ 
tacted and asked to compile lists of species considered rare in Alabama 
were unable in many cases to assign such species to the categories of 
endangered, threatened, or special concern. In most cases those species 
listed are limited or restricted in their occurrence in Alabama. Even 
assigning species to such a broad category as "restricted in occurrence" 
can be misleading as several examples from the caddisflies (Trichoptera), 
a common group of aquatic insects, will illustrate. The leptocerid 
Ceraclea alces occurs in the north central United States and in the Little 
River of northeastern Alabama. Within Alabama the species in certainly 
restricted in distribution, yet whether this represents a disjunct popu¬ 
lation or merely reflects inadequate collecting in eastern and central 
United States is unknown. The same situation applies to the microcad- 
disfly Hydroptila lennoxi which is known only from New Hampshire and 
Chilton County, Alabama. 

This problem of discerning whether a species is truly restricted or 
merely an artifact of inadequate collecting is illustrated by looking in 
more detail at those species of caddisflies with restricted distributions 
in Alabama. Of the approximately 325 species in the state, about one- 
third appear to be restricted in occurrence. However, nearly half of 
these rare species are only known from a single location or collection and 
86% are known from three or fewer locations (Fig. 1). The same situation 
exists in the abundance of these rare species, with 20% known from a 
single specimen and 80% known from less than 10 specimens (Fig. 2). 

The following sections present a preliminary compilation of those 
species of aquatic invertebrates considered rare or restricted by the 


67 


Rare and endangered invertebrates in Alabama 


C/3 

UJ 

O 

HI 

CL 

C/3 

HI 

I— 

a_ 

O 

X 

a 

cr 


ac 

UJ 

m 


2 



NUMBER OF LOCAUTIES 


Figure 1. Occurrence of caddisflies (Trichoptera) in Alabama considered 
rare or restricted in distribution. 



NUMBER OF SPECIMENS 


Figure 2. Abundance of caddisflies (Trichoptera) in Alabama considered 
rare or restricted in distribution. 


68 













































Harris 


specialists for each group. In some cases the fauna is sufficiently known 
to apply the categories of endangered, threatened, or special concern; in 
others, the species are simply restricted in their occurrence in Alabama. 
Also with some groups, their distribution within Alabama is well docu¬ 
mented and allows some reliability in placing a species within a certain 
habitat or drainage; in others, only records of occurrence within a county 
are available at this time. Although this makes for a somewhat loose 
format, it is a reflection of the state of our present knowledge of 
invertebrates in Alabama. 


MGLLUSCA: Prepared by Paul Yokley, Jr. , Department of Biology, University 
of North Alabama, Florence, AL 35632 

MoHusks are among the most conspicuous of invertebrates and include 
the familiar freshwater mussels, clams, and snails, as well as oysters, 
squids, and octopods. In freshwater, mollusks are divided into two 
classes: Bivalvia, the clams and mussels, and Gastropoda, the snails and 
limpets. Both groups are immediately recognized by either a flattened or 
conical shell which covers the body. Mollusks occur in virtually all 
types of aquatic habitats from springs and streams to large rivers, ponds, 
marshes, and lakes. Generally they are found in shallow waters on stable 
substrated. Water quality is of importance to mollusk populations with 
clean, alkaline waters supporting more species than impacted waters, low 
in dissolved oxygen. Since mollusks have limited mobility, many species 
are restricted to specific drainages or habitats. Detrimental changes to 
these habitats often results in the loss of the endemic mollusk popula¬ 
tion. 


Naiad mollusks of Alabama considered endangered (E) , threatened (T) , 
special concern (S), extirpated (X)» or of uncertain status (U) 



Common 

Distribution 


Taxon 

Magaritiferidae 

Magaritiferinae 

Names 

in Alabama 

Status 

Magaritifera hembeli 
(Conrad, 1938) 

Cumberlandinae 

Louisiana 

pearlshell 

Small tributaries of 
Escambia River also 
Limestone Creek of 
Alabama River 

E 

Cumberlandia monodonta 
(Say, 1829) 

Unionidae 

Anodontinae 

Spectacle 

case 

Tennessee River 

E 

Alasmidonta marginata 
(Say, 1818) 

Elktoe 

Tennessee River 

E 

.4. mccordi (Athearn, 1964) 

Coosa Elk- 

toe 

Coosa River 

X 


69 


Rare and endangered invertebrates in Alabama 


A. wrightiana 

Ochlocknee 

Choctawhatchee, Pea 

(Walker, 1901) 

arc-shell 

River 

Lasmigona holstonia 

Tennessee 

Tennessee and Mobili 

(Lea, 1838) 

heel- 

splitter. 

Rivers 

Pegias fabula 

Little 

Tennessee River 

(Lea, 1938) 

wing pearly 
mussel 


Ambleminae 

Elliptio arcus 

Alabama 

Mobile Basin 

(Conrad, 1834) 

spike 


Fusconaia bamesiana 

Tennessee 

Tennessee River 

(Lea, 1838) 

pigtoe 


F. cor (Conrad, 1834) 

Shiny pig- 
toe 

Tennessee River 

F. cuneolus 

Fine-rayed 

Tennessee River 

(Lea, 1840) 

pigtoe 


F. escambia (Clench & 

Narrow 

Escambia River 

Turner, 1956) 

pigtoe 


Hemistena lata 

Cracking 

Tennessee River 

(Rafinesque, 1820) 

pearly 

mussel 


Lexingtonia dolabelloides 

Slabside 

Tennessee River 

(Lea, 1840) 

pearly 

mussel 


Plethobasus cicatricosus 

White 

Tennessee River 

(Say, 1829) 

wartyback 


P. cooperianus 

Orange-foot 

Tennessee River 

(Lea, 1834) 

pimpleback 


P. cyphyus 

Sheepnose 

Tennessee River 

(Rafinesque, 1820) 

Pleurobema altum 

Highnut 

Alabama River 

(Conrad, 1854) 

P. clava (Lamarck, 1819) 

Clubshell 

Tennessee River 

P. curtum (Lea, 1859) 

Black club- 
shell 

Tombigbee River 

P. decisum (Lea, 1831) 

Southern 

clubshell 

Tombigbee River 

P. marshalli 

Flat pigtoe 

Tombigbee River 

(Frierson, 1927) 

P. nucleopsis 

Longnut 

Coosa River 

(Conrad, 1849) 

P. oviforme 

Tennessee 

Tennessee River 

(Conrad, 1834) 

clubshell 


P. perovatum 

Ovate 

Mobile Basin 

(Conrad, 1834) 

clubshell 


P. plenum 

Rough pig¬ 

Tennessee River 

(Lea, 1840) 

toe 


P. pyriforme (Lea, 1857) 

Oval pigtoe 

Apalachicola River 

P. rubellum 

Warrior 

Black Warrior and 

(Conrad, 1834) 

pigtoe 

Alabama Rivers 


S 

E 

E 


E 

E 

E 

E 

S 

E 

E 

E 

E 

E 

E 


70 


PJ H p] PI PJ PJ PI PI PJ PJ 



Harris 


P. taitianum 

Heavy pigtoe 

Tombigbee River 

E 

(Lea, 1834) 

Quadrula apiculata 

Southern 

Rivers tributary to 

S 

(Say, 1929) 

mapleleaf 

Gulf 


Q. cylindrica cylindrica 
(Say, 1817) 

Rabbits 

foot 

Tennessee River 

E 

Q. intermedia 
(Conrad, 1936) 

Cumberland 

monkeyface 

Tennessee River 

E 

Q. nodulata 

Warty back 

Tennessee River 

E 

(Rafinesque, 1820) 

Q. stapes (Lea, 1831) 

Stirrup 

shell 

Tombigbee River 

E 

Lampsilinae 

Actinonaias ligamentina 

Mucket 

Tennessee River 

E 

(Lamarck, 1819) 

A. pectorosa 
(Conrad, 1834) 

Pheasant- 

shell 

Tennessee River 

E 

Cyprogenia stegaria 

Fanshell 

Tennessee River 

E 

(Rafinesque, 1820) 

Dromus dromas 
(Lea, 1834) 

Dromedary 

pearly 

mussel 

Tennessee River 

E 

Epioblasma arcaeformis 

Sugarspoon 

Tennessee River 

X 

(Lea, 1831) 

E. biemarginata 
(Lea, 1857) 

Angled 

riffleshell 

Tennessee River 

X 

E. brevidens 
(Lea, 1831) 

Cumber¬ 
land! an 
combshell 

Tennessee River 

E 

E. flexuosa 

Leafshell 

Tennessee River 

X 

(Rafinespue, 1820) 

E. florentina 
(Lea, 1857) 

Tan riffle- 
shell 

Tennessee River 

X 

E. haysiana 

Acornshell 

Tennessee River 

X 

(Lea, 1834) 

E. lenior 
(Lea, 1843) 

Narrow 

catspaw 

Tennessee River 

X 

E. lewisii 

Forkshell 

Tennessee River 

X 

(Walker, 1910) 

E. metastriata 

Upland 

Alabama And Black 

E 

(Conrad, 1840) 

combshell 

Warrior Rivers 


E. othcaloogensis 
(Lea, 1857) 

Southern 

acornshell 

Coosa River 

E 

E. penita 

Southern 

Alabama and Tombigbee 

E 

(Conrad, 1834) 

combshell 

Rivers 


E. personata (Say, 1829) 

Round 

combshell 

Tennessee River 

X 

E. propinqua (Lea, 1857) 

Tennessee 

riffleshell 

Tennessee River 

X 

E. stewardsoni 
(Lea, 1852) 

Cumberland 
leafshell 

Tennessee River 

X 


71 


Rare and endangered invertebrates in Alabama 


E. torulosa torulosa 

Tubercled 

Tennessee River 

(Rafinesque, 1820) 

blossom 


E. triquetra 

Snuffbox 

Tennessee River 

(Rafinesque, 1820) 

Lampsilis binominata 

Lined poc- 

Chattahoochee River 

(Simpson, 1900) 

ketbook 


L. orbiculaCa 

Pink mucket 

Tennessee River 

(Hildreth, 1828) 

L. ovaCa (Say, 1817) 

Pocketbook 

Tennessee River 

L. perovalis 

Orange - 

Mobile and Tombigbee 

(Conrad, 1834) 

nacre 

Rivers 

L. virescens 

mucket 

Alabama 

Tennessee River 

(Lea, 1858) 

lampshell 


Lemiox rimosus 

Birdwing 

Tennessee River 

(Rafinesque, 1831) 

pearly 


Leptodea lepCodon 

mussel 

Scaleshell 

Tennessee River 

(Rafinesque, 1820) 

Medionidus conradicus 

Cumberland 

Tennessee and Mobile 

(Lea, 1834) 

moccasin- 

Rivers 

M. mcglameriae van der 

shell 

Tombigbee 

Tombigbee River 

Schalie, 1939 

moccasin- 


Obovaria jacksoniana 

shell 

Southern 

Mobile River 

(Frierson, 1912) 

hickorynut 


0. olivaria 

Hickory nut 

Tennessee River 

(Rafinesque, 1820) 

0. reCusa (Lamarck, 1819) 

Ring pink 

Tennessee River 

0. subroCunda 

Round 

Tennessee River 

(Rafinesque, 1820) 

hickorynut 


0. unicolor 

Alabama 

Mobile System 

(Lea, 1845) 

hickorynut 


PoCamilus inflatus 

Inflated 

Mobile River 

(Lea, 1831) 

heel- 


Ptychobranchus fasciolaris 

splitter 
Kidney- 

Tennessee River 

(Rafinesque, 1901) 

shell 


P. greeni (Conrad, 1834) 

Triangular 

Mobile River 

P. subtentum (Say, 1825) 

kidneyshell 

Fluted 

Tennessee and Coosa 


kidneyshell 

Rivers 

Toxolasma cylindrella 

Pale 

Tennessee and Mobile 

(Lea, 1868) 

illiput 

Rivers 

T. lividus 

Purple 

Tennessee and Mobile 

(Rafinesque, 1831) 

illiput 

Rivers 

Truncilla truncata 

Deertoe 

Tennessee River 

(Rafinesque, 1820) 

Villosa fabalis (Lea, 1831) 

Rayed bean 

Tennessee River 

V. taeniata 

Painted 

Tennessee River 

(Conrad, 1834) 

creekshell 



72 


mpjmpiwpi X pin Xn nn 



Harris 


Freshwater snails of Alabama considered endangered (E) or threatened 
(T) (Compiled by Jeffrey T. Garner) 


Taxon 

Viviparidae 

Lioplax pilsbryi (Walker, 1905) 

L. cyclostomaformis (Lea, 1841) 
Tulotoma magnifica (Conrad, 1834) 

Pilidae 

Pomacea paludosa (Say, 1829) 


Hydrobiidae 

Clappia cahabensis Clench, 1965 
C. umbilicata (Walker, 1904) 
Lepyrium showalCeri (Lea, 1861) 
Marstonia olivacea (Pilsbry, 1895) 

M. pachyCa Thompson, 1977 

Somatogyrus aureus Tryon, 1865 

S. biangulaCa Walker, 1906 

S. constrictus Walker, 1904 
S. coosaensis Walker, 1904 


S. crassus Walker, 1904 
S. currierianus (Lea, 1863) 

S. decipens Walker, 1909 
S. excavatus Walker, 1906 

S. hendersoni Walker, 1909 
S. hinkleyi Walker, 1904 

S. humerosus Walker, 1906 

S. nanus Walker, 1904 

S. obtusus Walker, 1904 

S. pilsbryanus Walker, 1904 
S. pygmaeus Walker, 1909 
S. quadratus Walker, 1906 
S. sargenti Pilsbry, 1895 

S. strengi Pilsbry and Walker, 
1906 

S. tennesseensis Walker, 1906 


Distribution in Alabama Status 

Choctawhatchee River 
Coosa-Alabama River Systems 
Coosa River 


Large springs and spring-fed 
creeks in southeastern Alabama 


Cahaba River 
Coosa River 

Coosa and Cahaba Rivers 
Springs and streams, Madison 
County 

Limestone and Piney Creeks 
(Limestone County) 

Coosa River, Yellowleaf Creek 
(Shelby County) 

Tennessee River at Muscle 
Shoals 
Coosa River 

Coosa River, creeks of St, 
Clair, Shelby and Talladega 
Counties 
Coosa River 

Streams of Madison County 
Coosa River 

Shoal Creek (Lauderdale 
County) 

Coosa River 

Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers 
and some tributaries 


Tennessee River at Muscle E 

Shoals 

Coosa River, Weogufka Creek E 

(Coosa County) 

Coosa River, Upper Clear Creek E 

(Talladega County) 

Tallapoosa River E 

Coosa River E 

Coosa River E 

Tributaries of Tennessee E 

River 

Tennessee River, Shoal Creek T 

(Lauderdale County) 

Shoal Creek (Lauderdale E 

County) 


73 


M w n m H m mm m H tn pjpjpipj m n n w 


Rare and endangered invertebrates in Alabama 


Stiobia nana Thompson, 1978 


Pleuroceridae 

Elimia alabamensis (Lea, 1861) 


E. albanyensis (Lea, 1864) 

E. ampla (Anthony, 1854) 

E. annettae (Goodrich, 1941) 
E. bellula (Lea, 1861) 


E. boykiniana (Lea, 1840) 

E. brevis (Reeve, 1860) 

E. cahawbensis (Lea, 1841) 


E. capillaris (Lea, 1861) 


E. crenatella (Lea, 1860) 


E. fascinans (Lea, 1861) 

E. fusiformis (Lea, 1861) 

E. gerhardci (Lea, 1862) 

E. hartmaniana (Lea, 1861) 
E. haysiana (Lea, 1843) 

E. hydei (Conrad, 1834) 

E. impressa (Lea, 1841) 

E. interveniens (Lea, 1862) 


E. jonesi (Goodrich, 1936) 
E. laeta (Jay, 1839) 

E. nassula (Conrad, 1834) 
E. olivula (Conrad, 1834) 


E. pilsbry (Goodrich, 1927) 
E. pupaeformis (Lea, 1864) 
E. pygmaea (Smith, 1936) 


Coldwater Springrun (Calhoun E 

County) 

Middle Coosa River, Yellow- E 

leaf Creek (Shelby County), 
Cahatchee and Choccolocco 
Creeks (Talladega County) 

Uchee Creek (Russell County), E 

Howard Creek (Houston County) 
Cahaba River (Bibb County) 

Cahaba River (Bibb County) 

Middle Coosa River, Yellow- 
leaf Creek (Shelby County), 
Choccolocco Creek (Talladega 
County) 

Chattahoochee River, Uchee 
Creek (Russell County) 

Middle and lower Coosa River, 

Upper Cahaba River, Black 
Warrior River and tribu¬ 
taries, Waxohatchee Creek 
(Coosa River drainage) 

Coosa River, Chattooga River, 
Choccolocco Creek (Talladega 
County) 

Middle Coosa River, creeks in 
Etowah, St. Clair and Talladega 
Counties 

Coosa River tributaries 
Coosa River 
Coosa River 
Coosa River 
Lower Coosa River 
Black Warrior River and 
tributaries 
Coosa River 

Tennessee River at Muscle 
Shoals, Cypress and Shoal 
Creeks (Lauderdale County) 

Coosa River, Spring Creek 
(Shelby County) 

Coosa River, Big Canoe Creek 
(St. Clair County) 

A few springs in Colbert and 
Madison Counties 
Alabama River, lower reaches 
of Cahaba and Tombigbee Rivers, 
middle Coosa River 
Middle Coosa River 
Coosa River 

Coosa River (Talladega County) 


74 


PI PI P3 PI H PJ PJ H PI H P) PI P) PI PI PJ H H PI PJ H PI PI 



Harris 


E. showalteri (Lea, 1860) 
E. vanuxemiana (Lea, 1843) 
E. varLans (Lea, 1861) 

E. variata (Lea, 1861) 


Gyrotoma excisa (Lea, 1843) 

G. lewisi (Lea, 1869) 

G. pagoda (Lea, 1845) 

G. pumila (Lea, 1860) 

G. pyramidata (Shuttleworth, 1845) 
G. walkeri (Smith, 1924) 

Jo fluvialis (Say, 1825) 

Leptoxis ampla (Anthony, 1855) 


L. clipeaCa (Smith, 1922) 

L. compacta (Anthony, 1854) 

L. crassa (Haldeman, 1841) 
L. formani (Lea, 1843) 

L. formosa (Lea, 1860) 


L. ligata (Anthony, 1860) 

L. lirata (Smith, 1922) 

L. melanoidus (Conrad, 1834) 
L. minor (Hinkey, 1912) 

L. occultata (Smith, 1922) 

L. picta (Conrad, 1834) 

L. plicata (Conrad, 1834) 


L. showalteri (Lea, 1860) 

L. taeniata (Conrad, 1834) 

L. virgata (Lea, 1841) 

L. vittata (Lea, 1860) 
Lithasia armigera (Say, 1821) 
L. curta (Lea, 1868) 

L. geniculata (Haldeman, 1840) 
L. lima (Conrad, 1834) 


L. salebrosa (Conrad, 1834) 

L. verrucosa (Rafinesque, 1820) 
Pleurocera alveare (Conrad, 1834) 


Cahaba River (Bibb County) E 

Coosa River, Alabama River E 

Cahaba River (Bibb County) E 

Cahaba River and tributaries E 

in Bibb and Jefferson Counties, 
Little Cahaba River 
Coosa River E 

Coosa River E 

Coosa River E 

Coosa River E 

Coosa River E 

Coosa River E 

Tennessee River E 

Coosa River, Cahaba River and E 


some of its tributaries in¬ 
cluding Little Cahaba River 
Coosa River 

Upper and middle Cahaba River, 
Buck Creek (Shelby County) 
Tennessee River 
Middle Coosa River 
Coosa River, Talladega Creek 
(Talladega County), Yellowleaf 
Creek (Shelby County) 

Lower Coosa River 
Coosa River 
Black Warrior River 
Tennessee River at Muscle 
Shoals 
Coosa River 

Alabama River, lower Coosa 
River, lower Cahaba River 
Upper Black Warrior River, 
Little Warrior River, Tom- 
bigbee river 
Coosa River 

Alabama River, lower Coosa 
River, lower Cahaba River 
Tennessee River 
Coosa River 
Tennessee River 
Tennessee River 
Tennessee River 
Elk River, Tennessee River at 
Muscle Shoals, Cypress and 
Anderson Creeks (Lauderdale 
County), Bear Creek (Colbert 
County) 

Tennessee River 
Tennessee River 
Tenneessee River 


75 


W W WWW WWWW WW W WW WWHWHH HHH 


Rare and endangered invertebrates in Alabama 


P. annul ifera (Conrad, 1834) 

Upper and middle Black Warrior E 

River, Village Creek (Jeffer¬ 
son County) 

P. brumbyi (Lea, 1852) 

Springs and streams of Tennes- T 

see River (Lawrence, Limestone, 
Madison Counties) 

P. corpulenta (Anthony, 1854) 

P. curta (Haldeman, 1841) 

Tennessee River and tributaries T 
Tennessee River, Paint Rock T 
River, Flint River 

P. foremani (Lea, 1842) 

P. postelli (Lea, 1862) 

Coosa River E 
Small streams of north Alabama T 
in vicinity of Muscle Shoals 

P. pyrenellum (Conrad, 1834) 

Tributaries of Tennessee river T 

(Morgan and Limestone Counties) 

P. showalteri (Lea, 1862) 

P. walkeri (Goodrich, 1928) 

Coosa River E 

Tennessee River at Muscle T 

Shoals, Shoal Creek and tri¬ 
butaries (Lauderdale County) 

Ancylidae 

Ferissia mcnelli (Walker, 1925) 

Mandeville Creek (Mobile E 

Rhodacmea elaCior (Anthony, 1855) 

R. filosa (Conrad, 1834) 

R. hinkleyi (Walker, 1908) 

County) 

Cahaba River E 
Coosa and Black Warrior Rivers E 
Coosa and Tennessee River E 
Systems 

Planorbidae 

Amphigyra alabamensis Pilsbry, 1906 
Neoplanorbis carinatus Walker, 1908 
N. smichi Walker, 1908 

N. tantillus Pilsbry, 1906 

N. umbilicaCus Walker, 1908 

Coosa River E 
Coosa River E 
Coosa River E 
Coosa River E 
Coosa River E 


Endangered Land Snails of Alabama 


Taxon 

Common Name County 

Records 

Pupillidae 

Vertigo alabamensis Clapp, 1915 

Alabama vertigo Tuscaloosa 

Valloniidae 

Vallonia perspective Sterki, 1892 

Thin-lip vallonia Jackson 

Zonitidae 

Glyphyalinia pecki Hubricht, 1966 
Vitrinizonites latissimus 
(Lewis, 1875) 

Blind glyph Jefferson 

Glassy grapeskin Madison 

Polygyridae 

Allogons profunda (Say, 1821) 

Broad-banded Jackson 

forest snail 


76 


W H H W H W WWW 





Harris 


Mesodon clausus Say, 1821 
Stenotrema bevipila (Clapp, 1907) 


Yellow globelet Clarke 

Talladega slitmouth Cleburne, 

Cherokee 


DECAPODA: Prepared by J. F. Fitzpatrick, Jr., Department of Biological 
Sciences, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama 36688 

The Decapoda are the largest order within the Crustacea and include as 
members the freshwater crawfishes and shrimps. Crawfishes are familiar to 
most aquatic biologists as they are common inhabitants of shallow waters, 
including lakes, ponds, swamps, sloughs, streams, and rivers, as well as 
wet areas in meadows and roadside ditches. While many species of crawfish 
are found in open waters, others build burrows in the vicinity of water, 
with some rarely venturing out of these burrows. Most species that in¬ 
habit temporary or seasonal waters will burrow into the substrate during 
dry periods, and a few species seem to be completely divorced from any 
open water. The freshwater shrimps, also called prawns or grass shrimp, 
are generally inhabitants of the large rivers and permanently flowing 
creeks, although the genus Palaemonias in Alabama occurs in subterranean 
pools. A checklist of the Decapoda of Alabama was provided by Bouchard 
(1976), but a much more complete and up-to-date reference for the craw¬ 
fishes is Hobbs (1989). Bouchard's list identified 58 species of craw¬ 
fishes and 6 shrimps, of which 14 were considered to be threatened or of 
special concern status in Alabama. He mentioned that his compilation was 
preliminary with a state fauna of approximately 75 species of crawfishes 
likely with a thorough survey; true of his predictions, several taxa have 
been described since then and at this writing, more are "in press." 


Decapoda of Alabama considered threatened (T), of special concern (SC), 
or rare (R) 


Taxon 

Cambaridae 

Cambarellus (Dirigicambarus) 
shufeldtii (Faxon) 


C. (Pandicambarus) diminutus Hobbs 

C. (P.) lesliei Fitzpatrick and 
Laning 

Cambarus (Aviticambarus) hamulatus 
(Cope) 



County 


Habitat 

Records 

Status 


Swamp, 
ditches, 
sloughs, 
lakes, 
ponds, 
sluggish 
streams 

Mobile 

SC 

Sluggish 

streams 

Mobile 

SC 

Sluggish to 

Baldwin, 

SC 

moderate 

Mobile, 


streams 

Washington 


Subter¬ 

Blount, 

SC 

ranean 

Jackson, 


streams 

Marshall 



77 


Rare and endangered invertebrates in Alabama 


C. (A.) jonesi Hobbs and Barr 

Subter¬ 

ranean 

waters 

Colbert, 
Lauderdale, 
Limestone, 
Marshall 

SC 

C. (A.) sp. A 

Subter¬ 

ranean 

waters 

Limestone 

SC 

C. (A.) sp. B 

Subter¬ 

ranean 

waters 

Madison 

R. 

T 

C. (Depressicambarus) englishi 

Hobbs and Hall 

Streams 

Clay, 

Cleburne, 
Tallapoosa 

SC 

C. (D.) halli Hobbs 

Streams 

Lee, 

Tallapoosa 

SC 

C. (D.) obsCipus Hobbs 

Streams 

Greene, 

Hale, 

Jefferson, 
Walker, 
Winston 

SC 

C. (Exilicambarus) cracens 

Shallow 

DeKalb, 

SC 

Bouchard and Hobbs 

rocky 

streams 

Marshall 


C. (Hiaticambarus) girardianus Faxon 

Streams 

?Colbert, 
Lauderdale, 
TLimestone 

sc 

C. (H.) manningi Hobbs 

Streams 

Cherokee 

sc 

C. (Jugicambarus) distans Rhoades 

Streams 

Dekalb 

R 

C. (J.) parvoculus Hobbs and Shoup 

Streams 

Jackson 

R 

C. (J.) unestami Hobbs and Hall 

Streams 

Jackson 

R 

C. (Lacunicambarus) miltus 

Burrows 

Baldwin 

R, 

Fitzpatrick 

along 
creekside 


T 

C. (Puncticambarus) scotti Hobbs 

Streams 

TCalhoun, 
Cherokee 
?St. Clair 

SC 

Fallicambarus (Greaserinus) burrisi 

Burrows in 

Baldwin, 

SC 

Fitzpatrick 

pitcher 

plant 

savannahs 

Washington 


F. (C.) byersi (Hobbs) 

Burrows in 
pitcher 
plant 
savannahs 

Baldwin, 

Mobile 

SC 

F. (C.) danielae Hobbs 

Burrows in 
wet areas 

Mobile 

R 1 

F. (C.) oryktes (Penn and Marlow) 

Burrows in 

wet areas 

Baldwin, 

?Mobile 

R 1 

Orconectes (Crockerinus) 
erichsonianus (Faxon) 

Streams 

Blount, 
?DeKalb, 
Jefferson, 
Shelby 

SC 


78 


Harris 


0. (Gremicambarus) cooperi 

Cooper and Hobbs 

Streams 

Madison 

R 

0. (G.) hold Cooper and Hobbs 

Sluggish to 
moderate 

streams 

Dallas, 

Lowndes, 
Montgomery, 
Perry, Wilcox 

SC 

0. (Hespericambarus) perfectus 

Walls 

Streams 

Choctaw, 

Clarke 

SC 2 

0. (Orconectes) australis australis 
(Rhoades) 

Subter¬ 

ranean 

streams 

Jackson, 

Madison 

SC 

0. (Procericambarus) forceps 
(Faxon) 

Streams 

Lauderdale, 
?Limestone, 
Madison 

SC 

Procambarus (Leconticambarus) 
capillatus Hobbs 

Temporary 
water, 
burrows 

Conecuh, 
Escambia 

SC 

P. (L.) escambiensis Hobbs 

Temporary 
water, 
burrows 

Escambia 

SC 

P. (L.) shermani Hobbs 

Streams, 
sloughs 

?Baldwin, 
Mobile, 
Washington 

SC 

P. (Ortmannicus) bivittatus Hobbs 

Streams, 
sloughs 

Escambia 
Mobile, 

Monroe, 
Washington 

SC 

P. (0.) evermanni (Faxon) 

Sluggish 
streams, 
burrows 

Baldwin, 

Mobile 

SC 

(?R) 

P. (0.) hybus Hobbs and Walton 

Temporary 
waters, 
burrows 

Greene, 

Pickens 

SC 

P. (0.) lecontei (Hagen) 

Streams 

Mobile, 
Washington 

sc 

P. (0.) marthae Hobbs 

Very- 
sluggish 
streams, 
ditches 

Monroe 

R 

P. (0.) verrucosus Hobbs 

Streams 

Lee, Macon 

SC 

P. (Pennides) cleimeri Hobbs 

Streams 

Mobile, 
Washington 

SC 

P. (P.) lagniappe Black 

Small 

streams 

Sumter 

R 

P. (Remoticambairus) pecki Hobbs 

Subter¬ 

ranean 

waters 

Colbert, 
Lauderdale, 
Morgan 

SC 

P. (Scapulicambarus) paeninsulanus 
(Faxon) 

Lentic and 
lotic waters 

Houston 

R 


79 


Rare and endangered invertebrates in Alabama 


Atyidae 

Palaemonias alabamae Smalley 


Standing Madison T 

subterranean 

waters 


Palaemonidae 

Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus) 


Estuarine ?Baldwin, SC 

streams, Mobile 

often 

fresh 


'The relationships and precise identities of F.(C.) byersi, F. (C.) 
danielae, and F; (C.) oryktes are not completely determined at this 
writing. 

2 0. perfectus probably has a much wider, more common distribution in the 
Tombigbee system, but at present, Walls has severely restricted its 
distribution. 


EPHEMEROPTERA: Prepared by Steven C. Harris, Biological Resources 
Division, Geological Survey of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35486 and 
Boris C. Kondratieff, Department of Entomology, Colorado State University, 
Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 

Mayflies, which are commonly known as "willow flies," occur throughout 
Alabama in most types of freshwater, from rivers and streams to lakes and 
ponds. The adults, during periods of emergence or nuptial flights (swarm¬ 
ing), are often present in enormous numbers, particularly along large 
rivers and lakes, forming dense clouds around lights and covering the 
ground. The nymphs are aquatic and while occurring in a wide variety of 
habitats, they all generally require high levels of dissolved oxygen. 
This requirement often allows the group to be utilized by aquatic biol¬ 
ogists as indicators of clean waters. A preliminary checklist of the 
mayflies of Alabama was compiled by Kondratieff and Harris (1986). To 
date 114 species have been reported from the state, 13 of which are rare 
or restricted in distribution. 


Ephemeroptera of Alabama considered rare or restricted in distribution 


Taxop 


Habitat 

County 

Records 

Baetidae 

Heterocloeon curiosum 

(McDunnough) 

Streams 

Randolph 

Metretopodidae 

Siphloplectron basale 

(Walker) 

Sandy streams 
and rivers 

Lamar 


80 



Harris 


Oligoneuriidae 


Homoeoneuria cahabensis Pescador & 
Peters 

Isonychia sayi Burks 

I. similis Traver 

Rivers 

Streams 

Streams 

Perry 

Chilton 

Franklin 

Heptageniidae 

Macdunnoa persimplex (McDunnough) 

M. brurmea Flowers 

Pseudiron centralis McDunnough 
Stenonema meririvulZnum Carle and 
Lewis 

Streams 

Streams 

Sandy rivers 
Spring runs 

Macon 

Lawrence 

Dallas 

Franklin, 

Tuscaloosa 

Leptophlebiidae 

Paraleptophlebia jeanae Berner 

Streams 

Sumter 

Tricorythidae 

Leptohypes dolani Allen 

Streams, rivers 

Etowah 

Caenidae 

Brachycercus nasutus Soldan 

Sandy streams, 
rivers 

Escambia, 
Perry 

Behningiidae 

Dolania americana Edmunds and Traver 

Sandy streams 

Escambia 


ODONATA: Prepared by Kenneth J. Tennessen, 1949 Hickory Avenue, Florence, 
Alabama, 35630 

Odonates are conspicuous insects flying along the waterways of 
Alabama. The adults are familiar to most people and are often called 
"snake doctors" or "darning needles." Their diversity in color, size, and 
behavior make them ideal subjects for observation. The immatures are 
aquatic and live along the margins of water bodies, often amidst vegeta¬ 
tion. The Odonata are divided into two suborders, the Anisoptera or 
dragonflies and the Zygoptera or damselflies. In Alabama, 157 species of 
odonates have been identified, of which 49 are rare or restricted in 
distribution. 

Odonata of Alabama considered rare or restricted In distribution 


Taxon 

Distri¬ 
bution ’ 

Habitat 

County 

Records 

Anisoptera (dragonflies) 




Cordulegastridae 

Cordulegaster erronea Hagen 

N 

Small seepage 
runs 

Marion 

Gomphidae 

Aphylla williamsoni (Gloyd) 

C 

Lakes 

Baldwin, 
Geneva,Lee 


81 


Rare and endangered invertebrates in Alabama 


Arigomphus maxwelli (Ferguson) 

R 

Tupelo, gum- 
swamp 

Baldwin, 
Mobile, 
Tuscaloosa 

A. pallidus (Rambur) 

C 

Ponds 

Geneva 

Dromogomphus armatus Selys 

C 

Small streams 

Baldwin 

Gomphus crassus Hagen 

N 

Streams 

Jackson, 

Lauderdale 

G. modestus Needham 

N 

Rivers 

Tuscaloosa 

G. septima Westfall 

R 

Rivers 

Tuscaloosa 

G. apomyius Donnelly 

C 

Streams 

Marion, 

Tuscaloosa 

G. geminatus Carle 

C 

Streams 

Escambia 

G. viridifrons Hine 

N 

Streams 

Tuscaloosa 

G. hodgesi Needham 

C 

Small streams 

Escambia 

G. consanguis Selys 

A 

Small streams 

Blount 

Ophiogomphus mainensis Packard 

N 

Streams 

Blount, 
Tuscaloosa 

Stylurus amnicola (Walsh) 

N 

Streams 

? (Needham 
&Westfall, 
1955) 2 

S. ivae (Williamson) 

C 

Streams 

Bibb 

S. notatus (Rambur) 

N 

Large rivers 

Colbert 

S. townesi (Gloyd) 

R 

Sandy stream 

Escambia 

Aeshnidae 

Aeshna umbrosa Walker 

N 

Streams 

Lee, 

Tuscaloosa 

Gomphaeschna antilope (Hagen) 

C 

Swamps 

Mobile, 
Tuscaloosa 

G. furcillata (Say) 

C 

Swamps 

Tuscaloosa 

Corduliidae 

Neurocordulia alabamensis 

Hodges 

c 

Small, sandy 
streams 

? (Needham, 
& Westfall 
1955) 2 

N. obsolete (Say) N 

& c 

Lakes, streams 

Tuscaloosa 

Somatochlora georgiana 

c 

Seepage areas 

Tuscaloosa 

Walker 

Tetragoneuria sepia Gloyd 

c 

Ponds, pools, 
slow streams 

Chambers, 
Lee, 

Perry 

T. spinosa (Hagen) 

c 

Cypress swamps 
or lakes 

Tuscaloosa 

Libellulidae 

Celithemis amanda (Hagen) 

c 

Ponds 

Baldwin, 

Covington 

C. omata (Rambur) 

c 

Ponds 

Baldwin, 

Covington 

C. vema Pritchard 

c 

Ponds 

Tuscaloosa 

Erythrodiplax berenice (Drury) 

c 

Coastal pools 

Mobile 

E. limb rata (Linnaeus) 

c 

Coastal pools 

Washington 


82 


Harris 


Libellula needhami Westfall 


Ponds 

Baldwin, 

Mobile 

Nannothemis bella (Uhler) 

N & C 

Sphagnum pools 

Russell 

Sympetrum semincinctum (Say) 

N 

Wetlands 

Blount 

Zygoptera (damselflies) 

Lestidae 

Archilestes grandis (Rambur) 

N,C, & 

West U.S. 

Ponds 

Jackson, 

Marion 

Lestes congener Hagen 

N 

Ponds 

Marion 

L. forcipatus Rambur 

N 

Ponds 

Madison 

L. vidua Hagen 

C 

Ponds 

Westfall 
unpub1. 3 

Coenagrionidae 

Enallagma cardenium Selys 

C 

Stream 

Geneva 

E. concisum Williamson 

c 

Ponds 

Mobile 

E. davisi Westfall 

c 

Sandy lakes 

Mobile 

E. dubium Root 

c 

Slow streams 

Houston, 

Mobile 

E. durum Hagen 

c 

Lakes 

Baldwin, 

Mobile 

E. pallidum Root 

c 

Lakes or ponds 

Baldwin 

E. pollutum (Hagen) 

c 

Slow streams 

Westfall 
unpub1. 3 

E. sulcatum Williamson 

c 

Lakes 

Covington 

E. weewa (Byers) 

c 

Streams 

Westfall 
unpub1. 3 

Ischnura prognatha (Hagen) 

N & C 

Swamps 

Madison 

Telebasis byersi Westfall 

c 

Ponds, slow 
streams 

Houston 


1) A - mainly southern Appalachian in distribution. 

C - coastal plain distribution, probably restricted to southern 
Alabama. 

N - northern in distribution, probably restricted to northern Alabama. 
R - rare in distribution throughout range in U.S. 

2) Alabama record in Needham and Westfall, 1955, but no specific location 
given. 

3) Alabama record from unpublished data of M.J. Westfall, but no specific 
location given. 


PLECOPTERA: Prepared by Steven C. Harris, Biological Resources Division, 
Geological Survey of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35686 and Bill P. 
Stark, Department of Biological Sciences, Mississippi College, Clinton, 
Mississippi 39058 

The Plecoptera, or stoneflies, are usually found in association with 
cool, clean streams. The nymphs are aquatic and live under rocks or 
debris on the stream bottom, while the adults are terrestrial, although 


83 


Rare and endangered invertebrates in Alabama 


they are seldom found far from the stream margin. Since the nymphs 
usually require habitats high in dissolved oxygen and low in silt, the 
group is often utilized by aquatic biologists as indicators of clean, 
unpolluted streams. Checklists of the stonefly fauna of Alabama were 
compiled by James (1972) and updated by Stark and Harris (1986). To date, 
72 species have been reported from the state, of which 18 are rare, or 
limited in distribution. 


Plecoptera of Alabama considered rare or restricted in distribution 

County 

Taxon Habitat Records 


Pteronarcyidae 

Pteronarcys biloba Newman 

Nemouridae 

Prostoia completa (Walker) 
Shipsa rotunda (Claassen) 

Leuctridae 

Leuctra alabama James 
L. alta James 

L. alexanderi Hanson 
L. biloba Claassen 

L. cottaquilla James 
L. moha Ricker 


Capniidae 

Allocapnia tennessa Ross and 
Ricker 

Perlidae 

Beloneuria jamesae Stark 
and Szczytko 

Hansonoperla appalachia Nelson 
Neoperla harrisi Stark and Lentz 


Perlodidae 

Helopicus subvarians (Banks) 
Remenus bilobatus 
(Needham and Claassen) 

Chloroperlidae 

Alloperla furcula Surdick 


Foothill streams 

Cleburne 

Foothill streams 

Tallapoosa 

Small streams 

Tuscaloosa 

Mountain streams 

Jackson 

Calhoun, 

Tuscaloosa 

Mountain streams 

Jackson 

Small streams, 
spring seeps 

Calhoun 

Small streams 

Calhoun 

Small streams 

Clay, 

Lawrence 

Small streams 

Franklin 

Mountain spring 

Clay, 

seeps 

Cleburne 

Foothill streams, 
undercuts 

Cleburne 

Foothill streams 

Colbert, 

Franklin, 

Lauderdale 

Small streams 

Tallapoosa 

Small streams 

Calhoun 

Sandy streams 

Baldwin, Es¬ 
cambia, Monroe 


84 



Harris 


A. hamata Surdick Foothill streams Lawrence, 

Jackson 

A. usa Ricker Foothill streams Calhoun 

Sveltsa mediana (Banks) Mountain streams Calhoun, 

Lawrence 

TRICHOPTERA: Prepared by Steven C. Harris, Biological Resources Division, 
Geological Survey of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35486 

The Trichoptera, or caddisflies, are small moth-like insects as 
adults; as larvae they are aquatic. Caddisfly larvae are notable for the 
feeding nets constructed by some groups and the portable cases of rocks 
and leaves constructed by others. Most freshwater aquatic habitats, 
ranging from streams and rivers to lakes and ponds, have a trichopteran 
fauna. Caddisflies are most abundant and diverse in clean waters high in 
dissolved oxygen and they are often utilized by aquatic biologists as 
water quality indicators. Alabama has a rich caddisfly fauna with over 
325 species (Harris, 1986; Lago and Harris, 1987; Harris and Lago, 1990), 
of which 112 may be considered rare or restricted in occurrence in the 
state. 

Trichoptera of Alabama considered rare or restricted in distribution 


Taxon 

Philopotamidae 

Chimarra augusta Morse 
C. falculata Lago and Harris 

Dolophilodes major (Banks) 
Vonmldia shawnee (Ross) 

Psychomyiidae 

Psychomyia nomada (Ross) 

Polycentropodidae 

Gemotina Cruncona Ross 


Nyctiophylax morsel Lago and 
Harris 

Phylocentropus karrisi 
Schuster and Hamilton 
Polycentropus barri Ross and 
Yamamoto 

P. carlsoni Morse 
P. clinei (Milne) 

P . elarus Ross 



County 

Habitat 

Records 

Streams 

Cleburne 

Sandy streams 

Baldwin, 
Covington, 
Escambia, Mobile 

Streams 

Cleburne 

Streams 

DeKalb 

Streams 

Lauderdale 

Streams and 

Barbour, 

lakes 

Covington, 
Escambia, Mobile 

Sandy streams 

Baldwin, Mobile 

Small streams 

Baldwin, Clarke 

Streams 

Tallapoosa 

Small streams 

Calhoun 

Sandy streams 

Baldwin, Mobile, 
Washington 

Streams 

DeKalb, Jackson 


85 


Rare and endangered invertebrates in Alabama 


P. floridensis Lago and Harris 
P. nascotius Ross 
P. pentus Ross 
P. rickeri Yamamoto 

Hydropsychidae 

Cheumatopsyche bibbensis 
Gordon, Harris and Lago 
C. cahaba Gordon, Harris and Lago 
C. helma Ross 
C. kinlockensis Gordon, 

Harris and Lago 
Homoplectra doringa (Milne) 
Hydropsyche decalda Ross 
H. demora Ross 


H. fattigi Ross 
H. phalerata Hagen 
H. rotosa Ross 


H. scalar is Hagen 
H. simulans Ross 


Rhyacophilidae 

Rhyacophila carolae Harris 
R. fenestra Ross 

R. teddyi Ross 

Glossosomatidae 

Agapetus alabamensis Harris 

A. gelbae Ross 
A. iridis Ross 
A. spinosus Etnier and Way 
Protoptila cahabensis Harris 
P. georgiana Denning 

Hydroptilidae 

Hydroptila chelops Harris 
H. coweetensis Huryn 
H. fuscina Harris 

H. grandiosa Ross 
H. lagoi Harris 


Sandy streams 

Baldwin 

Sandy streams 

Mobile 

Streams 

Tuscaloosa 

Streams 

Marion 

Rivers 

Bibb 

Streams 

Jefferson 

Streams 

Clay, DeKalb 

Streams 

Lawrence 

Spring seeps 

Tuscaloosa 

Sandy streams 

Baldwin 

Streams 

Cleburne, 
Coosa, 
Tallapoosa 

Streams 

Cleburne, 
Tallapoosa 

Streams 

Coosa, Marion 
Randolph 

Streams 

Lauderdale, 
Limestone, 
Madison 

Streams 

Bibb, Calhoun 
Cherokee 

Streams, rivers 

Calhoun, 

Madison 

Small streams 

Lawrence 

Streams 

Lauderdale, 
Limestone 

Streams 

Cleburne 


Small streams, 

Tuscaloosa 

spring seeps 

Small streams 

Lauderdale 

Small streams 

Cleburne 

Small streams 

DeKalb 

Rivers 

St. Clair 

Streams 

Tallapoosa 


Spring seeps 

Choctaw 

Small streams 

Lawrence 

Small streams 

Lawrence, 


Tuscaloosa 

Streams 

Blount, Bibb 

Springs, small 

Tuscaloosa 

streams 





86 




Harris 


H. lennoxi Blickle 
H. micropotamis Harris 
H. parastrepha Kelley and Harris 
H. patriciae Harris 

H. recurvata Harris and Kelley 


H. scheiringi Harris 
H. setigera Harris 
H. spinata Blickle and Morse 


H. Calladega Harris 

H. valhalla Denning 
H. xella Ross 

Leucotrichia plctipes (Banks) 
NeoCrichia mobilensis Harris 
Ochrotrichia arva (Ross) 

0. eliaga (Ross) 

0. elongiralla Harris 
0. graysoni Parker and Voshell 
0. riesi Ross 


0. tuscaloosa Harris 
0. weoka Harris 

Orthotrichia baldufi Kingsolver 
and Ross 

0. instabilis Denning 
Oxyethira anabola Blickle 

0. coercens Morton 
0. dualis Morton 

0. maya Denning 

0. michiganensis Mosely 

0. savaimlensis Kelley and Harris 


0. sininsigne Kelley 
Stactobiella cahaba Harris 


Small streams 

Chilton 

Rivers 

Calhoun 

Sandy streams 

Mobile 

Small streams 

Blount, Bibb, 
Calhoun 

Small streams 

Fayette, Hale, 
Lamar, Marion, 
Tuscaloosa 

Sandy streams 

Baldwin, Mobile 

Small streams 

Calhoun 

Streams 

Cleburne, 
Lauderdale, 
Tuscaloosa 

Small streams 

Calhoun, 

Cleburne 

Streams 

Cleburne 

Streams 

Jackson, 

Madison 

Streams 

Calhoun 

Rivers 

Mobile 

Streams 

Calhoun 

Streams 

Colbert, 
Limestone, 
Morgan 

Small streams 

Madison 

Streams, rivers 

Bibb, Jefferson, 

Streams 

Etowah, 

Jefferson, 

Tuscaloosa 

Streams 

Colbert, 
Tuscaloosa, 

Small streams 

Elmore 

Streams 

Lauderdale, 
Lawrence, 
Tuscaloosa 

Streams, marshes 

Baldwin 

Sandy streams 

Baldwin, Mobile, 
Monroe 

Streams 

Bibb 

Streams 

Marshall, 
Lawrence 

Small streams 

Tuscaloosa 

Small streams 

Cleburne 

Sandy streams 

Baldwin, Mobile, 
Monroe, 
Washington 

Sandy streams 

Baldwin, Mobile, 
Monroe 

Streams 

Bibb 


Phryganeidae 

Agrypnia vestita (Hagen) Rivers, streams Bibb, Fayette, 

Tuscaloosa 


87 


Rare and endangered invertebrates in Alabama 


Banksiola concatenata (Walker) 


Brachycentridae 

BrachycenCrus chelatus Ross 

B. nigrosoma (Banks) 

Micrasema charonis Banks 

Lepidostomatidae 

Lepidostoma weaveri Harris 
Theliopsyche melas Edwards 
T. tallapoosa Harris 

Limnephilidae 

Ironoquia kaskaskia (Ross) 
Platycentropus radiatus (Say) 

Pycnopsyche gentilis (MacLachlan) 

P. virginica (Banks) 

Uenoidae 

Neophylax acutus Vineyard and 
Wiggins 

N. atlanCa Ross 
N. concinnus MacLachlan 

N. oligius Ross 
N. omatus Banks 

N. securis Vineyard and Wiggins 

Sericostomatidae 

Agarodes alabamensis Harris 
A. stannardi (Ross) 

Odontoceridae 

Psilotreta rufa (Hagen) 

Leptoceridae 

Ceraclea alabamae Harris 

C. alces (Ross) 

C. menCiea (Walker) 

C. neffi (Resh) 


OeceCis daytona Ross 


0. morsei Bueno-Soria 


Rivers, streams 

Choctaw, Lee, 
Monroe 

Sandy streams 

Mobile 

Streams 

Macon 

Small streams 

Cleburne 

Spring seeps 

Tuscaloosa 

Small streams 

DeKalb 

Streams 

Tallapoosa 

Rivers 

Fayette 

Streams 

Lawrence, 
Winston 

Streams 

Calhoun, 

Talladega 

Small streams 

Calhoun 

Streams 

Jackson 

Streams 

Lawrence 

Streams 

Lawrence, 
Tuscaloosa 

Streams 

Tuscaloosa 

Streams 

Lawrence, 
Tuscaloosa 

Streams 

Jackson 

Sandy streams 

Clarke 

Streams 

Franklin, 
Marion,Winston 

Small streams 

Cleburne 

Rivers 

DeKalb 

Rivers 

DeKalb 

Rivers 

Pickens 

Streams 

Conecuh, 

DeKalb, 

Jackson 

Sandy streams 

Baldwin, 
Escambia, 
Mobile, 
Washington 

Rivers 

Bibb, Perry 


88 



Harris 


Setodes dixiensis Holzenthal 

Streams 

Bibb, Perry 

S. guttatus (Banks) 

Streams 

Bibb, Conecuh 

S. incertus (Walker) 

Streams 

Coosa 

S. stehri (Ross) 

Streams 

Conecuh 

Triaenodes abus Milne 

Streams 

Choctaw, 

Jefferson 

T. dipsius Ross 

Small streams 

Tuscaloosa 

T. flavescens Banks 

Streams 

Cleburne, 
Lauderdale 

T. florida Ross 

Sandy streams 

Covington 

T. helo Milne 

Sandy streams 

Baldwin 

T. melacus Ross 

Streams 

Choctaw 

T. nox Ross 

Streams 

Bibb, Lee, 
Randolph 

T. taenius Ross 

Streams 

Calhoun, 
Choctaw, 
Cleburne, Lee 

T. tridontus Ross 

Sandy streams 

Clarke 


COLEOPTERA: Prepared by George W. Folkerts, Department of Zoology, Auburn 
University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 and Steven C. Harris, Biological Re¬ 
sources Division, Geological Survey of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35U86 

The beetles constitute the largest group of insects, but only about 2% 
of all species are aquatic or semiaquatic. Beetles occur in a wide array 
of habitats from streams and lakes to brackish estuaries and marshes, but 
rarely are they found in large numbers. Most of the aquatic beetles live 
close to the bottom, but some such as the Dytiscidae are efficient swim¬ 
mers. Other beetles, such as the Gyrinidae have adapted to live on the 
water surface, and some groups are semiaquatic occuring at the water 
margin. While the beetle fauna of Alabama is incompletely known, several 
studies are available, including Loding (1945), Folkerts (1978), and 
Eiland (1979). 

Coleoptera of Alabama considered rare or restricted in distribution 


Taxon 

Gyrinidae 

Gyrinus rockinghamensis LeConte 
Spanglerogyrus albiventris 
Folkerts 


Dytiscidae 

Hoperius planatus Fall 
Hydroporus folkertsi Wolfe and 
Matta 

Hydrovatus sp. 

Matus leechi Young 



County 

Habitat 

Records 

Streams 

Houston 

Streams 

Butler, 
Conecuh, 
Monroe, 
Winston 

Streams 

Elmore 

Streams 

Tuscaloosa 

Streams 

Montgomery 

Sandy streams 

Escambia 


89 


Rare and endangered invertebrates in Alabama 


Noteridae 

RoComicrus nanulus (LeConte) 
Psephenidae 

Alabameubria starki Brown 


Elmidae 

Optioservus sp. 

Promoresia elegans (LeConte) 
Stenelmis beameri Sanderson 
S. humerosa Motschulsky 
S. hungerfordi Sanderson 
S. mirabilis Sanderson 
S . sp. 

Chrysomelidae 

Disonycha fumata Schaeffer 

D. balsbaughi Blake 

D. funerea (Randall) 

DonacLa palmata Olivier 

D. rugosa LeConte 

D. vicina Lacordaire 
Hydrothassa vittata (Olivier) 


Ponds, lakes 

Baldwin 

Streams 

Blount, 


Jackson 


Small streams 

Perry 

Small streams 

Blount 

Streams 

Walker 

Streams 

Walker 

Streams 

Walker 

Streams 

Russell 

Lakes 

Covington 


Saline marshes, 

Mobile 

on vegetation 

On Amaranthacea 

Jackson, 

Winston 

On Amaranthacea 

Mobile 

On vascular 

Colbert 

hydrophytes 

On vascular 

Mobile 

hydrophytes 

Mobile 

On Ranunculus 

Baldwin 


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The Alabama Academy of Science and R.F. Modlin are due our thanks for 
organizing and supporting the symposium on endangered organisms in 
Alabama. A preliminary compilation of rare invertebrates in Alabama by G. 
W. Folkerts was kindly made available as this manuscript was being pre¬ 
pared. Information on rare invertebrates of North and South Carolina was 
graciously provided by D.R. Lenat and J.C. Morse, respectively. P.E. 
O'Neil kindly constructed the text figures. Peggy Marsh is due special 
thanks for her efforts and patience in typing the many manuscript drafts. 


LITERATURE CITED 

Barnes, R.D. 1980. Invertebrate zoology. 4th edition, Saunders 
College/Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Philadelphia, 1089 p. 

Bogan, A.E. and P.W. Parmalee. 1983. Tennessee's rare wildlife. Vol¬ 
ume II: The Mollusks. Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, 123 p. 

Boschung, H. (ed.). 1976. Endangered and threatened plants and animals 

of Alabama. Bull. Alabama Mus. Nat. Hist. 2:1-92. 


90 








Harris 


Bouchard, R.W. 1976. Crayfishes and shrimps. In H. Boschung, (ed.). 
Endangered and threatened plants and animals of Alabama. Bull. 
Alabama Mus. Nat. Hist. 2:1-92. 

Eiland, F.W., II. 1979. The Elmidae of Alabama. Unpubl. M.S. thesis, 
Auburn Univ., 81 p. 

Folkerts, G.W. 1978. A preliminary checklist of the Hydradephaga 
(Coleoptera) of Alabama. Coleopterists Bull. 32:345-347. 

Forsythe, D.H. and W.B. Ezell, Jr. (eds.). Proceedings of the first 

South Carolina endangered species symposium, South Carolina Wildlife 
and Marine Resources Department, 201 p. 

Franz, R. (ed.). 1982. Rare and endangered biota of Florida. Volume 

6. Invertebrates. University Presses of Florida, 131 p. 

Harris, S.C. 1986. Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera) of Alabama with 

descriptions of three new species. J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 59:609- 
619. 

Harris, S.C. and P.K. Lago. 1990. Annotated checklist of the Rhyacoph- 

iloidea and Integripalpia (Trichoptera) of Alabama. Entomol. News, 

In press. 

Hobbs, H.H. 1989. An illustrated checklist of the American crayfishes 
(Decapoda: Astacidae, Cambaridae, and Parastacidae). Smithsonian 
Contrib. Zool. 480: 1-236 

James, A.M. 1972. The stoneflies (Plecoptera) of Alabama. Unpubl. 
Ph.D. Dissertation, Auburn Univ., 161 p. 

Kondratieff, B.C. and S.C. Harris. 1986. Preliminary checklist of the 
mayflies (Ephemeroptera) of Alabama. Entomol. News 97:230—236. 

Lago, P.K. and S.C. Harris. 1987. An annotated list of the Curvipalpia 
(Trichoptera) of Alabama. Entomol. News 98:255-262. 

Loding, H.P. 1945. Catalogue of the beetles of Alabama. Alabama Geol. 
Surv. Monogr. 11:1-172. 

Mount, R.H. (ed.). 1984. Vertebrate wildlife of Alabama. Alabama 

Agric. Exp. Stat., Auburn Univ., 44 p. 

Mount, R.H. (ed.). 1986. Vertebrate animals of Alabama in need of 

special attention. Alabama Agric. Exp. Stat., Auburn Univ., 124 p. 

Needham, J.G. and M.J. Westfall. 1955. A manual of the dragonflies of 
North America (Anisoptera). Univ. California Press, 615 p. 

Stansbery, D.H. 1976. Naiad mollusks. p. 42-52. In H. Boschung (ed.) 
Endangered and threatened plants and animals of Alabama. Bull. 
Alabama Mus. Nat. Hist. 2:1-92. 


91 


Rare and endangered invertebrates in Alabama 


Stark, B.P. and S.C. Harris. 1986. Records of stoneflies (Plecoptera) 
in Alabama. Entomol. News 97:177-182. 

Stein, C.B. 1976. Gastropods, p. 21-41. In H. Boschung, (ed.) 
Endangered and threatened plants and animals of Alabama. Bull. 
Alabama Mus. Nat. Hist. 2:1-92. 

U.S. Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 1988. 

Endangered and threatened species of the southeastern United States. 
Atlanta, Georgia. 


Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 61, No. 2 , April 1990. 


STATUS OF ALABAMA BIRDS AND MAMMALS 1 


Dan C. Holliman 

Division of Science and Mathematics 
Birmingham-Southern College 
Birmingham, AL 35254 

ABSTRACT 

The status of those birds and mammals listed in Vertebrate Animals of 
Alabama in Need of Special Attention (Mount 1986) is reviewed. Status 
changes and data gaps are detailed for other birds and mammals that were 
not included in the proceedings of the 1983 Alabama First Nongame Wildlife 
Conference. Critical habitats and stress sources are described. A 
research and management program along with specific jobs within these 
programs are listed by priority. A basic philosophy relative to the 
implementation of the program encourages rangewide studies, cooperation 
among educational institutions, and the utilization of ongoing state and 
federal activities. 


INTRODUCTION 

The purpose of this paper is to update the status of those birds and 
mammals listed in Vertebrate Animals of Alabama in Need of Special Atten¬ 
tion (Mount 1986). Comments are made only about those species that should 
be reexamined. The objectives are to indicate any status changes, data 
gaps, critical habitats, and stress sources that were not previously 
addressed; and to propose a research and management program along with 
specific jobs, by priority, within these programs. 

The bird and mammal committee of the 1986 symposium recommended the 
following status for each of these species: 

ALABAMA BIRDS NEEDING SPECIAL ATTENTION (Mount, 1986) 

SPECIES CURRENT PROTECTION 


ENDANGERED 

Wood stork 
Bald eagle 
Sandhill crane 
Snowy plover 


Federal (endangered status), State 
Federal (endangered status), State 
Federal (endangered status), State 
Federal, State 


’This article was presented as an invited paper at a Symposium on the 
Status of Endangered Species in Alabama on 24 March 1989 at the annual 
meeting of the Alabama Academy of Science held at Birmingham-Southern 
College, Birmingham, Alabama. 


93 



Holliman 


Red-cockaded woodpecker 

Federal (endangered status), 

State 

Bachman's warbler 

Federal (endangered status), 

THREATENED 

State 

Golden eagle 

Federal, State 


Peregrine falcon 

Federal (endangered status), 

State 

Bewick's wren 

Federal, State 

SPECIAL CONCERN 


American white pelican 

Federal, State 


Reddish egret 

Federal, State 


Mottled duck 

Federal, State 


Osprey 

Federal, State 


Cooper's hawk 

Federal, State 


Merlin 

Federal, State 


Wilson's plover 

Federal, State 


Piping plover 

Federal (Threatened status), 

State 

American oysterchatcher 

Federal, State 


Gull-billed Tern 

Federal, State 


Common ground dover 

Federal, state 

POORLY KNOWN 


Yellow rail 

Federal, State 


Black rail 

Federal, State 


Long-eared owl 

Federal, State 


Northern saw-whet owl 

Federal, State 


Alder flycatcher 

Federal, State 


Willow flycatcher 

Federal, State 


Warbling vireo 

Federal, State 


Henslow's sparrow 

Federal, State 


Le Conte's sparrow 

Federal, State 


ALABAMA MAMMALS IN ] 

NEED OF SPECIAL ATTENTION (Mount, 1986) 

ENDANGERED 


Gray myotis 

Federal (Endangered status) 


Indian myotis 

Federal (Endangered status) 


Alabama beach mouse 

Federal (Endangered status) 


Perdido key beach mouse 

Federal (Endangered status) 


Mountain lion 

Federal (Endangered status 
State 

SPECIAL CONCERN 

) and 

Southeastern myotis 

None 


Rafinesque's big-eared bat 

None 


Brazilian free-tailed bat 

None 


Southeastern pocket gopher 

None 



94 





Alabama birds and mammals 


Meadow jumping mouse 
Black bear 


None 

State 


POORLY KNOWN 


Northern yellow bat 
Marsh rabbit 
New England cottontail 
J aguarundi 
California sea lion 


None 

State (seasonal) 

State (seasonal) 

Federal (endangered status) 
None 


Both committees recommended these determinations realizing that such 
judgements are dependent upon extreme environmental changes and the 
accumulation of knowledge as well as the education of the general public. 
In most determinations these above factors are unknown entities that make 
it necessary to periodically review status designations for the welfare of 
the species. Priority categories were as follow (Mount, 1986): 

Endangered . Forms in danger of extinction or extirpation in all or in 
a majority of their range in Alabama within the foreseeable future. 

Threatened . Forms likely to become endangered in all or in a majority 
of their range in Alabama within the foreseeable future. 

Special Concern. Forms that must be continually monitored because of 
imminent threats to the habitat, limited range in Alabama, or because of 
other physical or biological factors that may cause them to become threat¬ 
ened or endangered within the State in the foreseeable future. 

Poorly Known . Forms for which data on status, distribution, and/or 
life history are insufficient to permit categorization otherwise. These 
should be among the top candidates for expenditures of funds and re¬ 
sources . 

The information and recommendations given in this report were gathered 
from many sources. Committee members from the previous symposium, other 
workers in the field, and my own observations and work with certain spe¬ 
cies have supplied data that is reflected in this paper. It should be 
noted that the status determination for any species of vertebrate is a 
continuing process and that this process should be closely monitored if we 
are to serve as prudent stewards for our fauna and flora. 


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 


The following is a recommendation for a resource plan for selected 
birds and mammals that were listed in Vertebrate Animals of Alabama in 
Need of Special Attention (Mount, 1986). Only those species that were 
judged to require reexamination are discussed. Hopefully at the next 
symposium other species that were not considered in this paper will be the 
object of discussion. Undoubtedly there will be others. The major areas 
or programs for recommend funding are listed in an order of priority. 


95 


Holliman 


Table 1. Recommendations for a resource plan for birds and mammals. 


Major Program 

Specific jobs 

Research or 



or Area for 

within each 

Management 

Job 

Gontiniing 

Funding 

Program 

(R or M) 

Priority 

Job 


A. Habitat 

Acquisition M 1 Yes 


B. Habitat 1. Evaluate and inventory M 1 Yes 

Studies habitat (by remote 

sensing and ground 
truth studies 



2. Improve habitat 

(Landowner subsidy) 

M 

2 


3. Identify habitat 
preference for 
each species 

R 

3 

Public 

Education 

1. Expand educational 
efforts related to 
habitat protection 
and endangered species 

M 

1 

Harvest 

2. Conduct harvest survey 
of game mammals and 
fur bearers 

M 

1 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


3. Study effects of hunt- M 
ing and trapping on 
population dynamics 


E. Population 
Dynamics 


1. Conduct distribution 
studies 


R 


2 Yes 


1 Yes 


2. Identify limiting R 

factors 


2 


3. Study life histories R 


3 


No 


4. Conduct density 
studies 


R 4 


No 


5. Conduct pesticide R 5 No 

studies 

6. Conduct disease R 6 No 

studies 


96 










Alabama birds and mammals 


A. Habitat aquisition. 

Every effort should be made to secure any available habitat that 
remains. This goes without saying. As scientists we sould stand ready to 
identify the habitat needs of our fauna and flora so that habitat aquisi¬ 
tion can be justified. It is not within the purviews of this paper to 
catalogue potential habitat that could be secured through the various 
state, federal, and private organizations. This has been done elsewhere. 

B. Habitat studies. 

Certainly if one takes a holistic view of the broad spectrum of the 
state's environmental problems, an argument could be marshalled for the 
importance of any research or management project concerning the welfare of 
a species. Elsewhere in this symposium Dr. George Folkers will talk about 
the wide variety of habitats in the state and will address problems that 
are indigenous to each. Time and space will not permit me to analyze all 
of the habitat needs for birds and mammals, but I would briefly like to 
point out several habitats that need to be closely watched. 

Spartina marshes, predominantly Spartina altemiflora (smooth 
cordgrass) with limited amounts of Juncus roemerianus (black needlerush), 
have slowly disappeared within the last ten years. Four thousand-four 
hundred and ninety hectares were mapped in 1978 (Holliman, 1978). Hur¬ 
ricane Frederick on the evening of September 12, 1979 (Holliman, 1981) 
washed over- most of this wetland with no apparent long term damage to 
vegetative communities. Bordering these marshes are interdigitations of 
saltbush-saltflat habitat characterized by Baccharis halimifolia (salt 
bush), Iva fruCescens (marsh elder), Salicomia sp. (glasswort) , BaCis 
maricima (saltwort), Distichlis spicata, and mats of bluegreen algae and 
diatoms. Savannah lands with Spartina patens (saltmeadow cord grass), 
Pinus elliotii (slash pine), Pinus palustris (long-leaf pine), Taxodium 
distichum (cypress), various species of sedges and rushes, and Sarracenia 
sp. (pitcher plants) form a fringe along the mainland border of the 
saltbush-saltflat complex. All of this is fairly typical of the existing 
marshlands along the coast of southern Mobile County. In southern Baldwin 
County there are limited amounts of the beach-sand dune habitat. In 1983 
(Holliman, 1983, 1982) there were approximately 134.6 ha of beach mouse 
habitat primarily consisting of primary, secondary, and teritary dunes 
vegetated with Uniola paniculata (sea oats), Spartina patens (saltmeadow 
cordgrass), Hydrocotyl bonariensis (pennywort), and Panicum amaium (bitter 
weed). On the mainland edge of this critical habitat beginning with the 
tertiary sand dunes can be found Quercus virginica var. maritina (live 
oak), Pinus elliottii (slash pine), Pinus clausa (sand pine), Seronoa 
repens (saw palmetto), Ilex vomitoria (yaupon), Ceratiola ericoides 
(seaside rosemary), and Solidago pauciflosculosa (seaside goldenrod). The 
relict dune system, and accompanying swamp land, with Taxodium distichum, 
T. ascendens (cypress), Salix nigra (willow), Magnolia virginiana (white 
bay), Nyssa biflora (black gum), Cliftonia monophylla (titi), and Pinus 
serotina (pond pine), is now mostly preserved in the Bon Secour National 
Wildlife Refuge. These four habitats (saltmarsh, saltbush-saltflat, 
savannah, and beach-sand dune) support a significant number of mammal and 


97 


Holliman 


bird species. The Alabama coast line, although limited, is the focus 
point for migrants in the spring, and is a staging area in the fall for 
birds tracking back and forth from Central and South America. 

The Mobile Delta, essentially resembling the swamp land found in the 
Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge, provides breeding and feeding habitat 
for colonial nesting birds. Dindo (1989) has documented the fierce 
competition among colonial nesters for nesting space on Cat Island in 
Portersville Bay. Holliman (1984) described the growth of Gaillard Island 
in terms of exploitation of available nesting territories by shore birds. 
The State of Alabama, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources is 
presently monitoring bird utilization of this spoil island in Mobile Bay. 

Another habitat that we may be overlooking is the boundary between 
brackish-mixed and fresh-mixed marshes along our coastal rivers. This 
interface is marked by the upstream presence of Typha angustifolia , T. 
laCifolia (cat tails), Sagittaria falcata (duck potato), Zizania aquaCica 
(wild rice), Zizaniopis miliacea (cutgrass), Scirpus americanus (three 
square), Cladium jamaicenere (saw grass), and Vigua repens (cow pea) . 
Here clapper and king rails may interbreed. I have suspected the presence 
of intermediate forms during call count surveys along coastal rivers in 
previous years. Other rail species and gallinules may use this transi¬ 
tional habitat during migration through the southeastern U. S. (Holliman, 
1977). 

Upstate isolated swamps associated with Karst topography are being 
altered by the manipulation of water tables. Such a wetland is located in 
north Shelby County immediately west and contiguous to the Shelby County 
airport. Tree species include Quercus nigra (water oak), Acer rubrum (red 
maple), Nyssa sylvatica (blackgum), N. aquatica (tupelo gum), and N. s. 
var biflora (swamp tupelo). These scattered swamps provide stopover areas 
for migrating and resident waterfowl as well as habitat for other wildlife 
species. 

The evaluation and inventory of existing habitat should be a con¬ 
tinuing process. Flora signatures are yet to be determined for many 
indicator plant species. Without these ground truth surveys interpreta¬ 
tion of remotely sensed imagery is difficult, particularly when one is 
attempting to locate microhabitats. For an example, we know now that 
clapper rail habitat requires proportional amounts of different vegetative 
types; and it is important to be able to measure this moasic pattern. 

The improvement of habitat by landowner subsidy is at the embryonic 
stage in this state and will indeed be a challenge for those state and 
federal agencies who are charged with this responsibility. Educators have 
done a poor job in helping the general public formulate a land ethic. 
There must be a balance struck between lands used for hunter harvest and 
other forms of wildlife. 

Habitat preferences remain to be determined for certain species. 
Migratory bats require roosts and hunting areas. The degree of utili¬ 
zation of caves and other structures needs to be evaluated before we can 


98 




Alabama birds and mammals 


adequately protect these mammals. We need to "fine tune" our knowledge 
concerning habitat preferences for such species as the sea side sparrow, 
reddish egret, piping and snowy plovers, and the long nose shrew. 

The following problem areas related to habitat studies need additional 
research: 

1. Determination of snowy plover and American oyster catcher 
utilization of coastal islands. 

2. Location of nesting birds colonies in the Mobile Delta. 

3. Identification of floral signatures in Spartina marshes for remote 
sensing and ground truth studies. 

4. Habitat requirements for the black rail in Alabama. 

5. Habitat preference for both long nose and least shrew in Alabama. 

C. Public Education. 

We need to expand educational efforts that are directed towards 
habitat protection and endangered species. The Nongame Program of the 
State of Alabama is to be commended for its efforts to attempt this 
monumental task. Their efforts to publicize the plight of the bald eagle, 
osprey, and blue bird are spartan, given their present level of funding 
and other forms of support. As educators and scientists we need to 
galvanize support for this program by providing technical knowledge. On 
our coast the Marine Sciences Consortium serves as a model of what re¬ 
source education should be. With their educational and research programs 
the Dauphin Island Sea Lab is providing a center for learners and re¬ 
searchers alike. The Birmingham Audubon Society has been sponsoring the 
Mountain Ecology Workshop at Mentone since May 1977 and should be com¬ 
mended for efforts in conservation education (Holliman, 1984). 

The following problem area related to public education needs 
additional attention: 

Scientists and educators of the colleges and universities of Alabama 
should insist that courses be offered in their curricula that emphasize a 
holistic view of environmental education. The Alabama Academy of Science 
could well serve as a forum where there can be an interchange of ideas and 
philosophies. 

D. Harvest. 

We would do well to come to the realization that game and non-game 
research and management practices are compatible. They should go hand in 
hand. For an example, one can have both Canada geese and Carolina wrens 
by leaving brush piles along the edge of land that has been cleared for 
winter oats. The wildlife dollar can benefit both game and non game 
programs at the same time. We've yet to learn whether the marsh rabbit, 


99 


Holliman 


bayou gray squirrel, the woodland and western cottontails, and rails turn 
up in the hunter's bag. 

The following problem areas related to harvest need additional 
attention: 

Gather hunter harvest data to determine presence of rail species, New 
England cottontail, and marsh rabbits and bayou gray squirrels in hunter's 
bag. 

E. Population dynamics. 

The federally administered Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) begun in 1966 
has provided significant data relative to our breeding bird population. 
The BBS now consists of approximately 2,000 randomly selected routes 
throughout the United States and Canada that are surveyed each breeding 
season from the last proper week in May to the end of the second week in 
June. These roadside surveys (starting 1/2 hour before sunrise) use a 
standardized technique consisting of recording all birds heard or seen in 
3 minutes at 50 stops, each 1/2 mile apart. A "route regression" method 
is used to estimate the trend in percent of change per year. Individual 
route estimates are weighted by the number of birds on the route, the area 
of the state or other geographic region, and the sample size of routes 
within that region. Those weighted estimates are then converted to 
percent change per year. The survey procedure is more fully described by 
Robbins, Bystrak, and Geissler (1986). 

Based on 22 years of data from 1966 to 1987 Reid and Droege (1989) 
determined some significant decreases in population of Alabama birds 
(Table 2). Trends are expressed in percent of change per year. Sig¬ 
nificance of trends is indicated by asterisks: * - significant at P less 
than 0.05 level; ** - highly significant at P less than 0.01 level. 

It will be noted that, of the 13 species presented, eight are tropical 
or subtropical migrants. Three (the wood pewee and yellow and cerulean 
warblers - the latter now not being found with any regularity in Alabama 
outside the Bankhead Forest) winter in South America, two (the blue- 
winged warbler and orchard oriole) in Central America and Northwest South 
America, and the other three (the wood thrush, prairie warbler, and chat) 
in Central America and the West Indies. Five might be classed as edge of 
scrub species and three as birds of the forest. The major causes of their 
decline appear to be forest fragmentation on the breeding range and de¬ 
forestation in the wintering range. The latter is considered the primary 
cause since during the last 10 years of the Breeding Bird Survey (1978- 
87) , which coincides with the greatest increase in tropical deforestation, 
neotropical migrants have decreased more than species that winter north of 
Central America, and forest-wintering tropical migrants have decreased at 
a greater rate than migrants that winter in open habitats (see Robbins, 
C. S., J. R. Sauer, R. S. Greenberg and S. Droege, "Population Declines in 
North American Birds that Migrate to the Neotropics," USF&WS Bulletin, 
1988). The increases of blue-winged warblers and yellow-breasted chats 
in the Piedmont and, in the case of the latter, a significant increase in 


100 




Table 2. Significant decreases in selected populations of Alabama birds (1966-87) 


Alabama birds and mammals 


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101 


(SS = Too small a sample to be statistically signiticant; the decrease in Grasshopper Sparrow in Alabama, 
although large, is not classed highly significant because of the low number (11) of routes, but the 
decreases in broader areas are highly significant. In addition, the decrease in Orchard Oriole in 
Alabama is significant at the P less than 0.10 level.) 














Holliman 


the Coastal Plain, plus the smaller decreases of the Prairie Warbler in 
those regions, is probably due to the increase in even-age forest manage¬ 
ment (clear cutting); and it has been said that the Grasshopper Sparrow 
benefits from strip-mine reclamation, which may account for its increase 
in the Piedmont, although that cause would leave the decreases in other 
mountainous regions unexplained. Decrease in the flicker is attributed 
largely to competition for existing nest holes from the starling and 
perhaps due to a reduction in number of dead trees left standing in edge 
and woodlot areas. The shrike appears to be suffering from a multiplicity 
of changes in land-use practices, including surburban sprawl, roadside 
spraying, and loss of pastureland and hedgerows. The towhee is thought to 
be suffering seriously from cowbird parasitism as might also be the case 
with the field sparrow. In addition this species and the grasshopper 
sparrow doubtless are being impacted by the loss of pastureland as are all 
grassland species. Highly significant annual percentage declines have 
also been shown by the BBS over a 20-year period (1966-1985) for the 
following species that winter in Alabama or migrate through it: yellow- 
bellied sapsucker (-3.886), olive-sided flycatcher (-3.754), golden- 
crowned kinglet (-3.782), golden-winged warbler (-3.208), white-throated 
sparrow (-2.032), and white-crowned sparrow (-2.690). Reid has con¬ 
tributed significantly to the knowledge of our breeding bird populations 
by compiling and analyzing the accumulated BBS data. 

Some unanswered problems are yet to be solved. Declines in the 
northern harrier, American Kestrel, ground dove, and loggerhead shrike 
have been noticed. 

Little is known about the. marine mammals that frequent Alabama waters 
(Holliman, 1979). Southward, beyond the three mile limit and within the 
territorial waters, there are scattered records of both whales and dol¬ 
phins (Table 3). 

Inside the three mile limit the bottle-nosed dolphin is clearly the 
most common species. It is encountered in about equal numbers throughout 
the year. Occasional individuals move well into the mouth of Weeks Bay 
and even into Fish, Magnolia, and Bon Secour rivers. Little is known 
about their seasonal movements, and the location of their calving and 
feeding grounds. The possible effects of poaching, malicious killing, and 
harrassment are not known. It is highly probable that the manatee is a 
frequent visitor to Alabama waters. Various unconfirmed reports of this 
mammal have come from several boat captains operating out of Bayou la 
Batre in recent times. In Mississippi a single manatee was sighted in 
Wolf River on January 1, 1979 (telephone call March 20, 1979 to J. 
Corcoran, Gulf Coast Research Laboratory, Ocean Springs, MS 39564)). A 
second sighting of this same individual was made on January 3, 1979 in a 
small craft harbor at Gulfport. Finally on January 6, 1979, the manatee 
was captured and transported to Sea World in Florida where it was treated 
for pneumonia. There is no information available to the author as to 
whether subspecific identification was determined for this specimen. It 
appears that the manatees from the eastern Gulf of Mexico represent the 
subspecies Trichechus manatus latirostris , while those from Louisiana, 
Texas, and Mexico represent the subspecies Trichechus manatus manatus. 


102 


Alabama birds and mammals 


Table 3. Marine Mammals Observed in Territorial Waters Off Alabama 
Coastal Zone (after Caldwell and Caldwell, 1973). 


Marine Mammals 

Number of Records 

Fin Whale 

Balaenoptera physalus 

2 

Rough-tooth Dolphin 

Steno bredanensis 

1 

Common or Saddleback Dolphin 

Delphinus delphis 

3 

Bottlenosed Dolphin 

Tursiops truncatus 

11 

Spotted Dolphin 

Stenella plagiodon 

22 

False Killer Whale 

Pseudorca crassidens 

1 a. 

Sperm Whale 

Physeter catodon 

3 

Manatee or Sea Cow 

Trichechus manatus laCirostris 

1 

California Sea Lion 

Zalophus califomianus 

1 



a. sighting along eastern boundary of territorial sea 


Bob Shipp, University of South Alabama, (personal communication, 1989) 
reported that in June, 1989 several killer whales where observed at the 
head of DeSoto Canyon, 95 miles south of Orange Beach. Some two weeks 
later pods of hump backs and sperm whales were seen in approximately the 
same location. Veron Menton, (State of Alabama Conservation Department, 
personal communication, 1989) recorded manatees in Perdido Pass in 1988, 
and again at Gulf Shores in 1989. Bob Shipp (personal communication, 
1989) observed a single manatee in the early 1980's in Fowl River, Mobile 
County. The status of all marine mammals should be updated. Hopefully 
this subject will be treated at our next symposium. 

The Non Game Program has mounted a successful eagle hacking project 
with promising results for this bird. The Department of Conservation and 
Natural Resources is to be commended for their support of the Non Game 
Division. 


103 











Holliman 


For a long time Bob Mount and myself and others have been speculating 
as to the decline in striped and spotted skunk populations. These mammals 
along with such ground nesting birds as the eastern meadow lark are simply 
not as conspicuous as they were 40 years ago. Perhaps it was a combina¬ 
tion of factors such as the indiscriminate use of pesticides and habitat 
alterations. This may also be tied with the high incidence of rabies in 
raccoons and bats in the southeast because of a decline in normal reser¬ 
voir species, the skunks. 

Mammals that are on the increase include the nine-banded armadillo, 
coyote, and black bear. Armadillos are now so common in east Tuscaloosa 
County that they can be seen during the day in certain areas. There is 
a population of coyotes that may be seen at the Wheeler Wildlife Refuge, 
Reports of black bears are numerous, particularly in the Mobile Delta and 
Yellow Leaf Creek drainage in Shelby County. Studies in the Black Belt 
(Holliman, 1978) suggest that the common snipe may be a resource that is 
being overlooked. 

The following problem areas related to population dynamics need 
additional research: 

1. Conduct distributional studies on the bewick wren, mottled duck, 
black rail, kestrel, and all bat species. 

2. Reevaluate the status of the New England cottontail and 
j aguarundi. 

3. Continue density studies on all known colonial nesters, 
particularly in the coastal zone. 

4. Conduct heavy metal and pesticide studies on breeding shore birds. 

5. Conduct rabies studies in bat and raccoon populations. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Dindo, J. J. 1989. Population dynamics of a mixed species coastal 

heronry in Alabama. (In preparation). 

Holliman, D. C. 1977. Rails and gallinules in: G. C. Sanderson (ed.) 

Management of migratory shore and upland game birds in North 

America. International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, 

Wash., D. C. 


_ 1978. Clapper rail (Rallus longirostris) studies in 

Alabama. Northeast Gulf Sci. Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 24-34. 

_ 1978. Preliminary survey studies on the common snipe in 

Alabama. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Accelerated Research 
Program. 


104 




Alabama birds and mammals 


_ 1979. The status of mammals in the Alabama coastal zone 

and a proposed resource plan for their management. Symposium on the 
natural resources of the Mobile estuary, Alabama. Alabama Coastal 
Area Board, Miss-Ala. Sea Grant Consortium, USFW Service, pp. 263- 
176. 

_ 1981. A survey of the September 1979 hurricane damage 

to Alabama clapper rail habitat. Northeast Gulf Sci. Vol. 5, No. 1, 
pp. 95-98. 


_ 1982. Phase II; Present levels of birds and mammals in 

the Alabama coastal zone. Coastal Area Board of Al. 

_ 1983. Status and habitat of Alabama gulf coast beach 

mice Peromyscus polionotus ammobates and P. p. trissyllepsis. 
Northeast Gulf Sci. Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 121-129. 

_ 1984. Preliminary survey studies on post storm (Sept. 

13, 1979) shore bird breeding habitat in Alabama. U. S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, Accelerated Research Program. 

_ 1984. Alabama's Mtn. Ecology Workshop: A model 

conservation education. Jour. Al. Acad. Scil, Vol. 55, No. 2. 

Mount, R. H.(ed), 1986. Vertebrate animals of Alabama in need of 

special attention. Al. Agr. Exp. St. Auburn University, Auburn, Al. 

Reid, R. R. Jr. and S. Droege. 1989. Breeding bird survey reveals 

significant declines in some populations of Alabama birds. Alabama 
Birdlife Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 6-9. 

Robbins, C. S., D. Bystrak and P. H. Geissler. 1986. The breeding bird 
survey: its first fifteen years, 1965-1979. USF&W Resource Publ. 
157. 


105 








Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 61, No. 2, April 1990. 


STATUS OF ENDANGERED, THREATENED, AND SPECIAL 
CONCERN FRESHWATER FISHES IN ALABAMA 1 


J. Malcolm Pierson 
Department of Environmental Affairs 
Alabama Power Company 
P. 0. Box 26A1 
Birmingham, AL 35291 

ABSTRACT 

Approximately 300 species of freshwater fishes have been documented 
from the State of Alabama. Ten of these fishes are found only in Alabama, 
while Alabama waters represent over 60 percent of the total range of an 
additional 37 species. In a recent publication (Mount 1986), 18 species 
of freshwater fishes were assigned some level of conservation status. The 
Cahaba shiner, Alabama cavefish, spring pygmy sunfish, and watercress 
darter were given endangered status and the paleband shiner, slackwater 
darter, goldline darter, snail darter, and pygmy sculpin were assigned 
threatened status. An additional nine species were designated as either 
special concern or poorly known. This report updates the status of these 
18 species and in some cases suggests studies to assess the current status 
of these and other sensitive fishes in Alabama waters. 

INTRODUCTION 

The first Nongame Wildlife Conference in Alabama was held at Auburn 
University in July 1983 and was jointly sponsored by the Alabama Depart¬ 
ment of Conservation and Natural Resources and the Alabama Agricultural 
Experiment Station. Prior to the state's Nongame Wildlife Program created 
in 1982, nongame vertebrates received little attention unless they were 
federally listed as either threatened or endangered. The results of this 
nongame conference were two publications: "Vertebrate Wildlife of Ala¬ 
bama" published in 1984 and "Vertebrate Wildlife of Alabama in Need of 
Special Attention" published in 1986. The purpose of this report is to 
note any changes in the conservation status of fishes which were listed in 
Mount (1986) or to mention other species which may need further study or 
which may deserve some type of conservation effort. 

Alabama ranks second only to Tennessee in number of strictly fresh¬ 
water fish species with approximately 300 known from Alabama waters. This 
is due primarily to the diversity of aquatic habitats, the number of major 
river systems which drain our state, and the absence of early glacial 
scouring. 


x This article was presented as an invited paper at a Symposium on the 
Status of Endangered Species in Alabama on 24 March 1989 at the annual 
meeting of the Alabama Academy of Science held at Birmingham-Southern 
College, Birmingham, Alabama. 


106 



Pierson 


While most species of Alabama fishes are represented by large, stable, 
reproducing populations, this report concerns species which are considered 
either very rare or species which have a restricted range and could be 
vulnerable to environmental stress or other alterations to their preferred 
habitat. The conservation status of the 21 species covered in this status 
review is an indicator of their environmental sensitivity. Most are 
highly fastidious "specialists" that are competitively excluded from other 
habitats (Ramsey 1986). 

The first five species to be discussed are listed as endangered by the 
State of Alabama. The next five species are considered threatened, six 
are listed as special concern, and seven are designated poorly known. 

ENDANGERED 

NoCropis cahabae Mayden and Kuhajda Cahaba shiner 

RANGE - Historically, the Cahaba shiner was known only from the main 
channel Cahaba River from about 11 kilometers below Centreville upstream 
to Helena, a distance of about 95 river kilometers. In recent years, the 
Cahaba shiner has been collected at several localities from near Heiberger 
(Perry County) upstream to Hancock Creek in Shelby County. 

STATUS - Several workers have recently collected the Cahaba shiner in the 
main channel at the Highway 27 locality above Centreville, however, none 
have been recently collected upstream of Piper Bridge. Thorough distribu¬ 
tion studies by Howell et al. (1982); Ramsey (1982), and Pierson et al. 
(1989) revealed the Cahaba shiner to be quite rare even in its preferred 
habitat. A formal description of this species has been recently published 
by R, L. Mayden and B. R. Kuhajda. The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
(USFWS) Office of Endangered Species plans to propose threatened status 
for this shiner. 

COMMENTS - Based on these recent developments, it appears that the Cahaba 
shiner should retain its present endangered status at the state level. 
Known populations should be monitored and newly reported records below the 
Fall Line should be investigated to determine if these represent perma¬ 
nent, reproducing populations. 

Speoplatyrhinus poulsoni Cooper and Kuehne Alabama cavefish 

RANGE - The Alabama cavefish is known only from Key Cave in Lauderdale 
County, Alabama. This species is threatened by low population levels, low 
reproductive rate, and a very restricted range (Ramsey 1986). 

STATUS - Continued existence at the type locality was confirmed in late 
1983, when sightings were made in several pools of Key Cave (Ramsey 1986). 
The status of the Alabama cavefish was changed from threatened to en¬ 
dangered by the USFWS Endangered Species Office in October 1988. The 
USFWS has contracted Underground Labs, Inc. to study the hydrology of Key 
Cave and the surrounding area. 


107 


Status of Alabama fishes 


COMMENTS: This is one of the rarest of North American vertebrates, and 
for this reason it should retain its endangered status in Alabama. 

Elassoma sp. spring pygmy sunfish 

RANGE - This undescribed Alabama endemic historically was confined to 
several well-vegetated springs or spring runs in the Tennessee River 
drainage (Mettee 1986). After the impounding of a portion of the Tennes¬ 
see River by Pickwick Dam, this species was believed to be extinct until 
1973 when Dave Etnier and others collected specimens from Beaverdam Spring 
in Limestone County. Subsequent sampling found other populations within 
the Beaverdam Creek watershed. 

STATUS - In 1984-1985 M. F. Mettee and others reintroduced pygmy sunfish 
into Pryor Spring. Successful reproduction has been recorded for three 
consecutive years. A second introduction was attempted in a headwater 
spring in 1988. At the present time the result of this introduction is 
not known. A renewable conservation agreement with two landowners has 
been obtained, and overall the population appears to be doing well (M. F. 
Mettee, personal communication). 

Etheostoma nuchale Howell and Caldwell watercress darter 

RANGE - This federally endangered Alabama endemic is restricted to a small 
area in the upper Black Warrior River system in Jefferson County. For¬ 
merly known only from Glenn, Thomas, and Roebuck springs it has recently 
(January 1988) been introduced into Avondale Spring and Tapawingo Plunge 
Springs at Pinson. A man-made pond below Thomas Spring now contains an 
abundance of watercress darters. 

STATUS - The Glenn Spring population is apparently stable but the Roebuck 
Spring population has been slowly declining. There is run-off from nearby 
streets and a service station and some herbicide run-off from a golf 
course (Mike Howell, personal communication). The Tapawingo Plunge Spring 
population has had a successful spawn in 1988 and 1989. Mike Howell 
reported observing adults, subadults, and fry in the Summer of 1989. 

Etheostoma wapiti Etnier and Williams boulder darter 

RANGE - This recently described darter is presently restricted to a 60 
mile section of the Elk River in the Tennessee River system of Alabama and 
Tennessee. No specimens have been reported from Shoal Creek since the 
late 1800's. Less than 60 specimens of this elusive species have been 
collected. 

STATUS - The USFWS Endangered Species Office issued a final rule for 
endangered status on October 3, 1988. Attempts to collect additional 
specimens from the Shoal Creek system in 1983 and 1986 were unsuccessful, 
however, suitable habitat in the Shoal Creek system could result in a new 
successful population if the boulder darter is reintroduced (Jim Williams, 
personal communication). 


108 


Pierson 


COMMENTS — Since the USFWS has considered this species deserving of en¬ 
dangered status at the federal level, and the State of Tennessee lists 
this species as endangered, it would seem appropriate to assign the 
boulder darter endangered status in Alabama. This species has recently 
been described by James D. Williams and David A. Etnier. 

THREATENED 

Notropis sp. cf. procne paleband shiner 

RANGE - The paleband shiner is restricted to a three mile stretch of the 
Paint Rock River in Madison and Jackson counties, Alabama. This popula¬ 
tion was discovered while searching for additional populations of snail 
darters. 

STATUS - Rechannelization is being considered for the Paint Rock River and 
constitutes a potential threat (Tom Jandebeur, personal communication). 

COMMENTS - The present threatened status in Alabama is probably still 
applicable to this species. Surveys should be undertaken to determine the 
present range of the paleband shiner in the Tennessee River system of 
Alabama. 

Etheostoma boschungi Wall and Williams slackwater darter 

RANGE - The slackwater darter is restricted to tributaries of the Southern 
Bend of the Tennessee River, in northern Alabama and Tennessee, and to one 
area of the Duck-Tennessee basin in western Tennessee (Ramsey and Boschung 
1986). In Alabama, most of its range is in the Cypress and Swan Creek 
watersheds and the Flint River system in Lauderdale, Limestone, and 
Madison counties. 

STATUS - The range of the slackwater darter and its known habitat within 
this range are limited. As recent as the mid 1980's the Cypress Creek 
population was generally widespread and successful; however, suitable 
spawning habitat is decreasing due to farm pond and beaverdam construction 
(Ramsey and Boschung 1986). 

COMMENTS - The present threatened status in Alabama should probably be 
retained. 

Percina aurolineata Suttkus and Ramsey goldline darter 

RANGE - Historically, in Alabama the goldline darter has been collected 
from the main channel of the Cahaba River from Centreville upstream to 
Helena and in the lower Little Cahaba River. In recent years no specimens 
have been collected in the main channel above Piper. Goldline darters 
have also recently been reported from lower Sixmile and Schultz creeks in 
Bibb County (Pierson et al. 1989). 

STATUS - Apparently, siltation from upstream developments, organic 
enrichment, and/or mining operations have reduced or eliminated goldline 


109 


Status of Alabama fishes 


darter populations from the upper main channel. Recent run-offs from a 
wood treatment plant have resulted in fish kills in the Little Cahaba and 
an apparent decrease in goldline darter numbers. 

COMMENTS - The threatened status of the goldline darter should be retained 
unless further degradation of the main channel or Little Cahaba occurs; in 
which case endangered status may be more appropriate. Known populations 
should be carefully monitored for sudden changes in status. 

Percina tanasi Etnier snail darter 

RANGE - In Alabama the historic range is unknown since almost no col¬ 
lections were made in the Tennessee River and its major tributaries before 
impoundment. The sole existing Alabama population was discovered in the 
Paint Rock River between river mile 16 and 19 in 1981 near the Jackson- 
Marshall County boundary (Jandebeur 1986). 

STATUS - The preferred habitat of the snail darter in Alabama has been 
relatively stable since its discovery. It is unknown how the Paint Rock 
population discovered in 1981 is doing presently. The Paint Rock was 
channelized in 1966 and some consideration has been given to proposals for 
rechannelization (Tom Jandebeur, personal communication). Percina tanasi 
is currently recognized as threatened at both the state and federal level. 

COMMENTS - The Paint Rock River population should be monitored regularly 
and adjacent watersheds should be searched for additional populations. 

Cottus pygmaeus Williams pygmy sculpin 

RANGE - The pygmy sculpin is known only from Coldwater Spring, the spring 
run, and a small section of Coldwater Creek, a tributary to Choccolocco 
Creek in the Coosa River system in Calhoun County, Alabama (Boschung 
1986). 

STATUS - Coldwater Spring is the major water supply for the City of 
Anniston which works to the advantage of the pygmy sculpin. In the past 
the City of Anniston has had a cooperative agreement with the USFWS 
providing that "no action be taken which would endanger the pygmy scul¬ 
pin" . In February of this year (1989), the USFWS proposed threatened 
status for the pygmy sculpin because of proposed highway construction from 
Interstate 20 and possible chemical contamination of the groundwater from 
the near-by Anniston Army Depot. Hexavalent chromium and Trichloroethy¬ 
lene occur in strong concentrations in test wells at the army depot. 

SPECIAL CONCERN 

Notropis caeruleus Jordan blue shiner 

RANGE - Historically in Alabama, the blue shiner is known from the Cahaba 
River proper and several tributaries to the Coosa River including Big 
Wills Creek and its tributaries, Little River, Weogufka, Choccolocco, and 
Shoal creeks. The blue shiner has not been taken in the Big Wills Creek 


110 



Pierson 


watershed since 1958 and was last collected in the Cahaba system in 1971 
(Ramsey and Pierson 1986). 

STATUS - The Alabama Nongame Wildlife Program recently funded a study on 
the distribution and relative abundance of the blue shiner in Alabama 
(Pierson and Krotzer 1987). No new populations were found, but fair to 
good populations were documented in Little River (Cherokee County), 
Choccolocco Creek (Calhoun County), and Weogufka Creek (Coosa County). A 
range extension was documented in Choccolocco Creek about four miles 
downstream from the known lower distribution limit. 

COMMENTS - These three known Alabama populations should be carefully 
monitored and additional life history information would probably help us 
better understand the needs of this sensitive species. 

NoCurus munitus Suttkus and Taylor frecklebelly madtom 

RANGE - Alabama populations are known historically from the main channels 
of the Tombigbee, Alabama, and Cahaba rivers and two major tributaries to 
the upper Tombigbee. 

STATUS — The frecklebelly madtom has probably been eliminated from the 
main channels of the Tombigbee and Alabama Rivers in Alabama. Small 
populations may remain in the Sipsey and Buttahatchee Rivers (major 
tributaries to the upper Tombigbee system). Recently, we have collected 
this small catfish in lower numbers in the Cahaba River main channel 
between Centreville and Radford (Pierson et al. 1989). 

COMMENTS - Due to increases in habitat loss, a change in conservation 
status from special concern to threatened is probably appropriate at the 
state level. If the Tombigbee system population is lost, endangered 
status would be recommended. Major Tombigbee River tributaries in Alabama 
should be searched for populations of this sensitive species. 

Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard southern cavefish 

RANGE - In Alabama the cavefish is known from at least 25 caves in the 
Tennessee River drainage and in two caves in the Big Wills Creek watershed 
which is part of the Coosa River system (Ramsey 1986) . 

STATUS - While fairly widespread over north Alabama, most populations are 
very small and fecundity is extemely low (Ramsey 1986) . 

COMMENTS - No new information is available on the status of the southern 
cavefish. 

Ammocrypta asprella Jordan crystal darter 

RANGE - Historically, Alabama populations are known from large-river 
habitats in the Mobile Bay basin and the Conecuh River proper. Ramsey 
(1986) indicated that populations of this obligate riverine species have 
apparently been eliminated from the Coosa River system. Recent col- 


111 


Status of Alabama fishes 


lections in the Black Warrior River system by Mettee et al. (1989) did not 
document the crystal darter. R. D. Suttkus (personal communication) 
reports that he has not collected the crystal darter in the Alabama River 
system in recent years. 

STATUS - Since 1983 Ammocrypta asprella has been collected in the Cahaba 
River proper at nine stations below the Fall Line (Pierson et al. 1989). 
In the Winter and Spring of 1989 Alabama Power Company biologists have 
collected both larval and adult crystal darters from the lower Tallapoosa 
River main channel. 

COMMENTS - Due to these apparent stable populations in the Cahaba and 
Tallapoosa systems, special concern status as designated in Mount (1986) 
seems appropriate. 

Etheostoma ditrema Ramsey and Suttkus coldwater darter 

RANGE - The spring-dwelling form has good populations only in Coldwater 
Spring (Calhoun County) and Glencoe Spring (Etowah County). A possibly 
derived stream-dwelling form is found in tributaries to Waxahatchee Creek 
(Shelby County) and two Coosa tributaries in Coosa County (Ramsey 1986). 

STATUS - The coldwater darter benefits from the cooperative agreement 
designed to protect the pygmy sculpin and the recent proposed threatened 
status for the pygmy sculpin. 

COMMENTS - A study should be undertaken to determine the relationships 
between the spring form and the possibly derived stream—dwelling form. 

Etheostoma tuscumbia Gilbert and Swain Tuscumbia darter 

RANGE - In Alabama this darter is limited to spring and spring run habitat 
in the Southern Bend of the Tennessee River drainage. The only Tennessee 
population has apparently been extirpated and a total of eight populations 
have been lost in Alabama (Ramsey 1986). 

STATUS - Recently, an excellent new population was found in a spring pond 
below the water supply for New Hope in the Mountain Fork Creek system of 
Madison County (Dave Etnier, personal communication). 

COMMENTS — Known populations should be watched closely because of the 
vulnerability of spring organisms, and the Tennessee River system should 
be searched for additional populations. 

POORLY KNOWN 

Scaphirhynchus sp. cf. platorynchus Alabama shovelnose sturgeon 

RANGE - This undescribed Mobile basin endemic is known only from main 
channel habitat in the Tombigbee, Alabama, lower Coosa, and lower Cahaba 
rivers. Prior to a recent survey by Burke and Ramsey, no specimens had 
been documented since 1977. 


112 




Pierson 


STATUS - Burke and Ramsey (1985) recently conducted a status survey of 
this sturgeon. They stated that only about 15 percent of the total 
historical range of the shovelnose sturgeon appears to be adequate for its 
existence. The Alabama shovelnose sturgeon has been documented as re¬ 
cently as 1985-1986 in the Cahaba and Alabama rivers. 

COMMENTS - Based on data from the recent status survey, this sturgeon 
should probably be given threatened status. The USFWS Endangered Species 
Office is planning to propose threatened status in the near future. 

Hybopsis monacha Cope spotfin chub 

RANGE - This species was probably once found throughout the Tennessee 
River and its major tributaries, but it has only been collected from two 
Alabama localities: Shoal Creek, Lauderdale County, 1884 and Little Bear 
Creek, Colbert County, 1937. 

STATUS - Since this species has not been documented from Alabama in 52 
years, chances are good that the spotfin chub has been extirpated from the 

state. 

COMMENTS - A thorough search of the two historical sites in Alabama should 
be undertaken to determine this chub's status. 

Etheostoma trlsella Bailey and Richards trispot darter 

RANGE - Historically, the trispot darter probably occurred in small- 
medium streams of the upper Coosa system in Alabama. 

STATUS - The last collections of this species were at the type locality in 
1948 (Cherokee County) and from the Coosa River below Gadsden (1958). 

COMMENTS - This species may no longer occur in Alabama. A status survey 
of this species in Alabama should be undertaken, concentrating on streams 
of the upper Coosa system near the type locality. 

Polyodon spathula Walbaum paddlefish 

RANGE - The paddlefish is known to occur in large-stream habitat of the 
Mobile and Tennessee river systems in Alabama. 

STATUS - In the last few years large, sexually mature females have been 
heavily harvested for their roe which brings a good price as a substitute 
for sturgeon roe. This development, coupled with a declining fishery 
prompted the Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources to 
pass a law in 1988 to prevent the harvest of paddlefish in all public 
waters of Alabama (Bill Reeves, personal communication). 

COMMENTS - Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resoruces 
personnel indicate that a healthy year class (probably 1983 spawn) is 
coming along in the Alabama River system and should be reproductively 
capable in two or three more years. Additionally, higher than normal 


113 


Status of Alabama fishes 


spring and early summer rainfall should have produced a good 1989 year 
class. 

Cycleptus elongaCus LeSueur blue sucker 

RANGE - In Alabama the and blue sucker has historically occurred in the 
large streams of the Mobile and Tennessee drainages. In recent years 
suitable riverine habitat has declined, mainly because of impoundments. 
It is difficult to assess the status of this species because it usually 
inhabits the deepest water and most torrential current available. 

STATUS - Recently we have documented specimens from the Coosa and Talla¬ 
poosa main channels during early spring spawning movements. 

COMMENTS - A thorough field survey is needed to determine the status and 
range of the blue sucker in Alabama. 

Percina lenticula Richards and Knapp freckled darter 

RANGE — In Alabama the freckled darter is found in large—stream habitat in 
the Mobile basin. It frequents deep, fast waters around heavy instream 
cover, therefore, it is easily missed in conventional fish collections. 

STATUS - Recent records have been established from tributaries to the Tom- 
bigbee River, Cahaba River and its tributaries, the Tallapoosa River 
proper, and a single adult from the Coosa River proper below Jordan Dam. 

COMMENTS - A thorough distribution and life history study is needed to 
accurately assess the status of this elusive darter. 

Morone saxatilis Walbaum striped bass (Gulf Coast strain) 

RANGE — The striped bass historically made spawning runs into freshwaters 
of the Mobile bay system and other large coastal streams such as the 
Conecuh and Choctawhatchee rivers. 

STATUS - Impoundments on the Alabama and lower Tombigbee Rivers have 
blocked or hindered spring upstream spawning movements in the Mobile Bay 
drainage. Additionally, the State of Alabama Department of Conservation 
and Natural Resources have been stocking the Atlantic strain striped bass 
for years and more recently the hybrid striped bass x white bass on a put 
and take basis. There have been no positive records of natural reproduc¬ 
tion by the striped bass in many years. 

COMMENTS — According to the Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural 
Resources personnel, there may be no Mobile Bay strain of striped bass 
left. There is a cooperative effort to do some genetic work to compare 
the striped bass in the Appalachicola system with preserved specimens at 
various fish collections in the southeast. 


114 


Pierson 


LITERATURE CITED 

Boschung, Herbert, 1986. Pygmy sculpin CoCtus pygmaeus Williams. Pages 
11-12 in Mount, R. H. (ed.), Vertebrate Animals of Alabama in Need 
of Special Attention. Ala. Agr. Expt. Sta., Auburn Univ. 124 pp. 

Burke, J. S. and J. S. Ramsey, 1985. Status survey on the Alabama 
shovelnose sturgeon ( Scaphirhynchus sp. cf. platorynchus) in the 
Mobile drainage: Project Completion Report to the U. S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Field Office, Jackson, 
Mississippi, contract No. 14-16-009-1530, 61 pp. 

Howell, W. M., R. A. Stiles and J. S. Brown. Status survey of the 
Cahaba shiner ( Notropis sp.) and the goldline darter ( Percina 
aurolineata ) in the Cahaba River from Trussville to Booth Ford, 
Alabama. Report to U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Jackson, MS. 

Jandebeur, T. J. 1986. Snail darter. Percina tanasi Etnier. Pages 

10-11 in Mount R. H. (ed.), Vertebrate Animals of Alabama in Need of 
Special Attention. Ala. Agr. Exp. Sta., Auburn Univ. 124 pp. 

Mettee, M. F. 1986. Spring pygmy sunfish Elassoma sp. Pages 4-5 in 

Mount, R. H. (ed.), Vertebrate Animals of Alabama in Need of Special 
Attention. Ala. Agr. Exp. Sta., Auburn Univ. 124 pp. 

Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, J. M. Pierson, and R. D. Suttkus, 1989. 
Fishes of the Black Warrior River system in Alabama: Alabama 
Geological Survey Bulletin 133, 201 pp. 

Mount, R. H. (ed.) 1986. Vertebrate Animals of Alabama in Need of 
Special Attention. Ala. Agr. Exp. Sta., Auburn Univ. 124 pp. 

Pierson, J. M. and R. S. Krotzer, 1987. The distribution, relative 
abundance and life history of the blue shiner, Notropis caeruleus 
(Jordan): Montgomery, Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural 
Resources, Alabama Nongame Wildlife Coordinator, Project Completion 
Report, 105 pp. 

Pierson, J. M., W. M. Howell, R. A. Stiles, M. F. Mettee, P. E. O'Neil, 
R. D. Suttkus, and J. S. Ramsey, 1989. Fishes of the Cahaba River 
system in Alabama: Alabama Geological Survey Bulletin 134, 185 pp. 

Ramsey, J. S. 1982. Habitat and distribution of the Cahaba shiner and 
appraisal of methods for its capture. Report to U. S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service. Division of Federal Assistance, Atlanta, GA 75 
pp. 


Ramsey, J. S. 1986. Freshwater fishes in Mount, R. H. (ed.), Vertebrate 
Animals of Alabama in Need of Special Attention. Ala. Agr. Expt. 
Sta., Auburn Univ. 124 pp. 


115 


Status of Alabama fishes 


Ramsey, J. S. and H. Boschung. 1986. Slackwater darter, Etheostoma 
boschungi Wall and Williams, Pages 7-8 in Mount, R. H. (ed.), 
Vertebrate Animals of Alabama in Need of Special Attention. Ala. 
Agr. Expt. Sta., Auburn Univ. 124 pp. 

Ramsey, J. S. and J. M. Pierson, 1986. Blue shiner, NoCropis caerulus 
(Jordan). Pages 12-13 in Mount. R. H. (ed.), Vertebrate Animals of 
Alabama in Need of Special Attention. Ala. Agr. Expt. Sta., Auburn 
Univ. 124 pp. 

United States Federal Register. 1988. Endangered and threatened 

wildlife and plants; determination of endangered species status for 
the boulder darter. Vol. 53, No. 170 pp. 33996-33998. 


116 



Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, Vol. 61, No. 2, April 1990. 


THE STATUS OF ALABAMA AMPHIBIANS 
AND REPTILES--AN UPDATE 1 


Robert H. Mount 
Professor Emeritus 

Department of Zoology and Wildlife Science 
Auburn University, AL 368A9-5A1U 

INTRODUCTION 

The most recent attempt at a comprehensive assessment of the status of 
the amphibians and reptiles of Alabama was in 1983. Thirteen scientists 
participated in the effort, and their conclusions were published in 1986 
(Mount, ed.). Of a total of 149 native, breeding distinctive species and 
subspecies, 39 were categorized as endangered, threatened, poorly known, 
or otherwise considered deserving of special concern. Of this collective 
assemblage, only 7 species subsequently received significant specific at¬ 
tention by researchers and/or governmental agencies. These are mentioned 
in the following discussion, along with other information pertaining to 
the status and welfare of the state's herpetofauna. 

RESEARCH EFFORTS 

Dusky gopher frog ( Rana areolata sevosa ). Mark Bailey continues his 
investigations of this rare species. Although the dusky gopher frog, one 
of the many animals that live in gopher tortoise burrows, has been report¬ 
ed from 10 localities in Alabama, only four ponds, two each in Covington 
and Escambia counties, are now known to support breeding. Two of these 
are being adversely impacted by runoff from nearby dirt roads and another 
by cattle (Bailey 1989, 1990). Bailey's research has been funded in part 
by the Alabama Nongame Wildlife Program. 

Red Hills salamander ( Phaeognathus hubrichti). This federally listed 
threatened species is known only from a small area of southern central 
Alabama. Dr. C. K. Dodd (1988) studied the species and concurred in 
earlier workers' reports that clear-cutting of its hardwood cove and 
ravine habitats reduces or eliminates populations of the salamander. He 
recommended purchase of some tracts of suitable habitat to enhance its 
chances of survival. 

Black Warrior waterdog ( Necturus sp.). This undescribed, "poorly 
known" aquatic salamander, known only from Alabama, has received research 
attention from R